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研究生:陳豐斌
論文名稱:聚丙烯與有機黏土奈米複材之混煉加工研究
指導教授:王曄
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:奈米複材聚丙烯黏土蒙脫土
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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本研究以融熔層插法之混煉程序製備聚丙烯摻合黏土之奈米複材,由於基材與黏土間的極性差異極大因此分散性質將決定奈米複材改質之主要因素。本研究主要探討混煉加工設備的設計、相容劑的種類及使用濃度的控制對黏土改質的影響,並探討其複材之分散性、相容性、流變性質、熱機械性質以及熱安定性,以決定出一最適化之處理濃度及加工參數。
由塑譜儀及雙螺桿之混煉機制下得知,融熔層插法中影響黏土分散因素除了高相容劑含量對黏土的分散有正面改質效應,同時高剪切應力及黏度的存在下也是決定黏土分散好壞的主因之一。隨著相容劑含量的增加雖有助於黏土的分散,但含量比例增加時,由於彼此間分子量差異使得融熔指數差異過大繼而影響到複材之機械性質,因此當兩基材之融熔指數差異愈大時其相容劑對黏土及基材之熱機械性質最適改質濃度愈低。另外;在相容劑的使用上以合膠方式混摻相容劑(PB3150/PB3000)並以著重量比值為1之改質下對黏土的分散有明顯的改質效果。
提高相容劑與黏土的作用機率,對黏土的分散有正面的影響。由熱動態機械性質分析(DMA)中以稀釋法製備PP/PB3150/I30 (80/15/5)複材具有相對最高之儲存模數,約60℃附近較基材PP高出1.64倍,且能有效提升基材之熱安定性達80℃以上。
Polypropylene(PP)/clay nanocmposities were prepared by melt compounding in this study. Maleic anhydride modified
polypropylene oligomers(PPgMA) was added to enhance the dispersion of the organoclay into PP matrix. The aims of this search are to study the effects of compounding processes and the degree of grafting of PPgMA on the dispersion of organoclay in PP matrix. The proper configuration and operating conditions on the twin screw compounding machines were also determined.
It was found that the fraction of PPgMA, the MA content and the shear viscosity strongly affect the nanostructure and the properties of PP nanocomposities. High shear viscosity and high fraction of PPgMA can lead to good clay dispersion in PP matrix. However, too high fraction of PPgMA caused the deterioration in the mechanical properties of PP/PPgMA/clay nanocomposites. The blending of PB3000 and PB3150 can further expand the basal spacing of organoclay compared to PB3150.
Enhanced interaction between PPgMA and organoclay strongly affect the nanostructure and the properties of PP nanocomposities. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites(PP/PB3150/I30(80/15/5)) prepared by letdown on a twin screw extruder was significantly higher than that of virgin PP and the decomposition temperature under nitrogen was increased about 80℃.
目錄
頁 次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
目錄…………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
表目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅵ
第一章、緒論……………………………………………………………1
1-1研究背景與動機……………………………………………………1
1-2研究方法與目的……………………………………………………2
第二章、文獻回顧………………………………………………………4
2-1奈米觀念的形成…………………………………………………4
2-2奈米級複材之特性………………………………………………4
2-3高分子奈米級複合材料的製備…………………………………5
2-4高分子混摻黏土之複合材料分散型態…………………………5
2-5改質反應機構……………………………………………………7
2-5-1黏土的膨潤改質………………………………………….7
2-5-2相容劑改質原理…………………………………………10
第三章、混煉機制與分散度分析原理………………………14
3-1混煉機構與原理…………………………………………………14
3-1-1 分配式混煉機構………………………………………………...15
3-1-2 分散式混煉機構………………………………………...15
3-2雙螺桿元件組合與操作設計……………………………………17
3-3 X-ray繞射的測試原理………………………………………….18
3-4傅立葉紅外線光譜………………………………………………19
3-4-1紅外光吸收光譜………………………………………….19
3-4-2散射式傅立葉紅外線光譜………………………………20
3-4-3 Kubelka-Munk紅外光譜分析…………………………...20
3-5熱動態機械性質…………………………………………………22
3-5-1動態機械性質測試及分析……………………………….24
3-6 流變性質之原理與量測………………………………………...26
3-6-1流變性質………………………………………………….26
3-6-2黏度的測量……………………………………………….29
第四章、實驗方法…………………………………………….31
4-1 實驗材料………………………………………………………...31
4-2 實驗方法………………………………………………………...34
4-2-1基材之物性分析………………………………………….34
4-2-1-1融熔指數…………………………………………….34
4-2-1-2熱性質分析………………………………………….34
4-2-1-3酸值滴定分析……………………………………….34
4-2-2相容劑對有機黏土改質影響…………………………….35
4-2-2-1溶液法處理………………………………………….35
4-2-2-2融熔法處理………………………………………….36
4-2-3混煉實驗………………………………………………….37
4-3 射出成型………………………………………………………...41
4-4 熱重分析儀檢測………………………………………………...41
4-5 相容性質檢測………………………………………………...…42
4-6 X-ray繞射測試………………………………………….……..42
4-7 影像分析處理……………………………………………...……42
4-8 傅立葉紅外光譜分析…………………………………………...43
4-9 動態機械性質分析……………………………………………..43
4-10動態流變性質分析…………………………………………….44
伍、實驗結果…………………………………………………45
5-1溶液法處理………………………………………………………45
5-1-1 處理時間及超音波震盪對黏土改質效應……………...46
5-1-2 改質濃度及酸酐接枝率對黏土改質效應……………...48
5-1-3 相容劑與黏土之紅外線光譜儀分析……………...……50
5-2 融熔法處理………………………………………………..…….52
5-2-1 塑譜儀混煉機制……………………………………...…55
5-2-1-1 改質濃度效應………………………………………58
5-2-1-2 酸酐接枝率效應……………………………………65
5-2-1-3 剪切黏度效應………………………………………73
5-2-1-4 進料機制改質效應…………………………………77
5-2-2 雙螺桿混煉機制…………………………...……………82
5-2-2-1 改質濃度效應………………………………………83
5-2-2-2 分子量效應…………………………………………90
5-2-2-3 進料方式之效應……………………………………98
5-2-2-4 動態流變性質分析………………………………..101
5-2-2-5 熱動態機械性質分析……………………………..110
5-2-2-6 玻璃轉移溫度分析……………………………..…116
5-2-2-7 相容性性質分析…………………………………..119
5-2-2-8 熱安定性質分析…………………………………..121
第六章、結論………………………………………………...125
第七章、未來研究方向……………………………………..130
第八章、參考文獻…………………………………………..132
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