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研究生:姚正得
研究生(外文):Yao Cheng-te
論文名稱:台灣中部地區黑冠麻鷺(Gorsachiusmelanophus)之生殖生態
論文名稱(外文):The Breeding Ecology of the Malayan Night Heron(Gorsachius melanophus)in Central Taiwan
指導教授:林良恭林良恭引用關係尤少彬
指導教授(外文):Lin Liang-kongYo Shao-pin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:黑冠麻鷺生殖生態學生殖成功率Mayfield 估算法天敵掠食巢位選擇Gorsachius melanophus
外文關鍵詞:Malayan night heronbreeding ecologybreeding successMayfield methoddepredationnest-site selectionGorsachius melanophus
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黑冠麻鷺(Gorsachius melanolophus)分佈於台灣低海拔山區闊葉林、竹林和農墾地的林棲性鳥類,屬於台灣的不普遍留鳥。本報告探討棲息於都市及鄰近區域黑冠麻鷺之生殖成功率。本研究自2000年1月至2001年9月在台中、南投、雲林、嘉義地區共蒐集67個巢的繁殖記錄,分別屬於天然林地、農墾地、人工管理的綠地及郊區等4類土地利用型。2000年繁殖期自3月14日於所發現的巢中產下第一顆蛋開始,至10月9日最後一巢的幼鳥離巢,總共210天。2001年自2月28日至9月24日,繁殖期為220天。窩卵數為2-6個,平均3.4±0.8個(n=67)。2000年繁殖成功率為64.44%,2001年為61.72%,年間差異並不顯著(Z=-0.21,P>0.05)。黑冠麻鷺平均每巢育成1.9±1.5隻成功離巢的幼鳥(n=67)。孵卵期為28-32天,平均30.4±1.2天(n=16);育雛期為36.0±2.1天(n=22)。以每窩至少有一隻幼鳥成功離巢定義為繁殖成功,共有46巢為生殖成功,佔所觀察67巢的68.7%。以Mayfield method估算黑冠麻鷺的逐日存活率及繁殖成功率,依繁殖季中之生殖順序將巢分為第一巢及第二巢,第一巢的繁殖成功率為60.52%;第二巢的繁殖成功率為69.07%,兩者差異並不顯著(Z=0.57,P>0.05)。在孵卵期間一年齡親鳥築巢繁殖的存活率(62.97%)與成年親鳥繁殖的存活率(78.11%)的差異並不顯著(Z=1.09,P>0.05)。在育雛期間,成熟親鳥繁殖的存活率95.08%顯著高於一年齡鳥繁殖的存活率33.53%(Z=7.94,P<0.05)。一年齡鳥繁殖的總存活率僅有21.11%,較成熟親鳥繁殖的總存率74.27%顯著為低(Z=6.02,P<0.05)。成熟親鳥平均每窩可育成2.2±1.5隻離巢幼鳥(N=37),而一年齡親鳥參與生殖每窩只有0.9±1.3隻幼鳥成功離巢(N=15)。舊巢位的重複使用率約佔總觀察巢數的50%,使用舊巢繁殖的生殖成功率顯著比只使用一次的生殖成功率高(Z=-2.82,P<0.05)。將黑冠麻鷺的巢位依其土地利用型分成5種類型(天然林地、農墾地、人工管理的綠地、郊區及都市等),黑冠麻鷺繁殖的生殖成功率因各土地利用型而異。其中以郊區型聚落中綠地內繁殖的生殖成功率85.23%最高。將繁殖失敗分為卵及幼雛二個階段分別探討,其主要原因包括惡劣天候、掠食者、饑餓。而影響黑冠麻鷺生殖成功與否的主要因素包括:親鳥年齡、天敵掠食、惡劣天氣、土地利用型以及舊巢位的再使用。
The Malayan night heron (Gorsachius melanophus) lives in the lowland wooded areas in Taiwan. I studied the reproductive success of the Malayan night heron in the urbanized areas of Tai-chung, Nan-tao, Yun-lin, and Chia-I Counties, in Central Taiwan. A total of 67 nests of Malayan night heron were monitored in the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001. Breeding season lasted for 210 days in 2000, and 220 days in 2001. Clutch size ranged 2-6 eggs (3.4±0.8,n=67); brood size ranged 0-4 nestlings (2.5±1.5,n=67). Forty-six of 67 nests successfully fledged at least one young. The mean number of young fledged per nest was 1.9±1.5. Incubation period was 30.4±1.2 days, and nestling stage was 36.0±2.1 days. The nesting success measured by the Mayfield method was 64.44% in 2000, and 61.72% in 2001. There is no differences between pooled interval success rate of the 1st nests in the breeding season(60.52%) and that of the 2nd broods(69.07%)(Z=0.57,P>0.05). The pooled interval success rate of the nests of yearlings was 21.11%(n=17), whereas it was 74.27%(n=50) for the nests of older birds (Z=6.02,P<0.05). The mean number of young fledged per nest was 2.2±1.5(n=37) by parents of older birds, while it was only 0.9±1.3(n=15) by parents with at least one yearling. Reuses of old nests were common in Malayan night heron(50%). The breeding success of nests of reused was 80.29%, while it was 47.18% of nests of only used once (Z=-2.82,P<0.05) Among pooled interval success rates of those nests in the four categories of land-use types, the nests in rural landscape with success rates 85.23% were significantly higher than that of nests in managed landscape(48.56%, Z=2.79,P<0.05), and that of nests in the agricultural land(48.65%, Z=2.01,P<0.01). Comparing the estimated daily survival probabilities of nests categorized as two groups of structural stability index (SS-1, and SS-2), no significant difference was found(Z=-0.89,P>0.05). Predation, starvation, infertile or addled eggs, and inclement weather caused death were identified to be the major causes of the mortality during incubation and nestling stages. The main factors that affect the reproductive success of the Malayan night heron are: the age of the breeding pairs, nest predation, inclement weather, landuse type, and reused of old nests.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………1
英文摘要………………………………………………………………3
前言……………………………………………………………………5
材料與方法……………………………………………………………9
一、 研究地點………………………………………………….9
二、 野外工作及方法…………………………………………13
三、 資料分析……………………………………………… 17
結果………………………………………………………………… 19
一、 繁殖季.………………………………………………… 19
二、 窩卵數、巢中幼雛數及離巢幼鳥數……………………20
三、 孵卵期及育雛期…………………………………………20
四、 生殖及育雛行為描述……………………………………21
五、 每巢及每對親鳥育成離巢幼鳥數及巢中雛鳥減少(brood reduction)的效應………………………………………………22
六、 Mayfield方法之生殖成功率年間差異比較…………………23
七、 生殖季第一巢與第二巢(second brood)之生殖成功率比較…24
八、 成年親鳥(older)與未成年鳥(yearling)之生殖成功率較…24
九、 利用舊巢位的效應……………………………………………25
十、 造成卵及幼雛死亡的原因……………………………………26
十一、 巢位棲地因子與生殖表現…………………………………27
討論……………………………………………………………………..30
一、 黑冠麻鷺的生殖策略………………………………………...30
二、 巢位棲地因子與生殖表現 ……………………………….. 43
參考文獻…………………………………………………………….....47
圖………………………………………………………………………61
表……………………………………………………………………....62
附錄一………………………………………………………………....74
個人資料…………………………………………………………….....75
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