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研究生:吳亘承
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Chen Wu
論文名稱:食物組成對人面蜘蛛曳絲胺基酸成份影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):Will giant wood spider Nephila pilipes respond to diet variation by altering silk protein? Evidence from field surveys and manipulative studies.
指導教授:卓逸民卓逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Min Tso
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:31
中文關鍵詞:人面蜘蛛曳絲胺基酸
外文關鍵詞:Nephila pilipesdraglines silkamino acid
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結網性蜘蛛會隨所補食之獵物組成或數量的改變而調整結網行為、網結構及蜘蛛絲之輸出,最近相關研究指出結圓網蜘蛛可因捕食狀態變異而調整網上色素、黏液及絲蛋白。本研究探討食物組成對人面蜘蛛曳絲胺基酸組成之影響。
蜘蛛曳絲之大壺狀腺 (major ampullate gland) 胺基酸組成含量最多的胺基酸是丙胺酸 (analine)、甘胺酸 (glycine)及脯胺酸 (proline)。因此餵食實驗中以上述三個胺基酸分別作為調控因子,分別改變蜘蛛攝食之胺基酸組成,來探討蜘蛛曳絲是否因而改變。另外在宜蘭礁溪進行野外觀察,紀錄連續十天人面蜘蛛的捕食狀況,隨後並蒐集其蜘蛛曳絲進行胺基酸組成分析,而探討蜘蛛攝食獵物組成對蜘蛛絲胺基酸組成之影響。除此之外,整理其他三個地點先前所做的人面蜘蛛捕食紀錄,並蒐集這些地點蜘蛛曳絲進行分析比較。此外分析所有台灣各地蒐集到的八個人面蜘蛛族群蜘蛛曳絲胺基酸組成來探討是否有地理上之變異。餵食實驗結果顯示每隻蜘蛛個體之曳絲胺基酸組成並不受胺基酸調控實驗影響。野外族群內比較中發現蜘蛛攝食不同種類獵物但其曳絲並無明顯差異,分析四個地點的獵物組成,發現每個地點獵物組成皆有顯著差異,但曳絲胺基酸組成並無不同。然而在八個族群分析結果發現在穀胺酸(glutamate)及甘胺酸(glycine)有顯著差異(1%~2%)。經由餵食實驗並不影響人面蜘蛛曳絲的結果推測,野外族群間曳絲胺基酸比例上些微差異並不是食物組成造成影響,而是來自於蜘蛛絲基因本身的快速演化結果造成族群間之變異。人面蜘蛛具有隨覓食情況而調整網結構及蜘蛛絲輸出的能力,但是其曳絲蛋白則具有固定胺基酸的最佳化比例。

Orb-weaving spiders were well-known to alter orb-building behaviour, web structure or silk output to qualitative or quantitative prey variations. Recent studies demonstrated that orb-weaving spiders may also adjust pigments, sticky substances and even silk protein to foraging variation. In this study we examined whether food composition affects dragline silk gene expression of the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes thus changes the amino acid composition of dragline silk. The most abundant amino acid residues of major ampullate silk are analine, glycine and proline. In a feeding experiment spiders’ intake of these amino acids was manipulated then the changes in amino acid composition of silks were observed. In addition, the foraging history of a N. pilipes population was recorded for ten days. After the recording the dragline silk from the spiders were collected and the correlation between prey intake and dragline silk amino acid composition was assessed. Moreover, dragline silks were collected from eight N. pilipes populations in Taiwan to see whether a spatial variation in amino acid composition of dragline silks also existed. The prey compositions of four of the populations were also compared. The results of food-manipulation experiments showed that amino acid compositions of these dragline silks were consistent among individuals receiving different treatments. Although individual N. pilipes in the field ingested different prey, their dragline silk composition did not exhibit significant variation. Amino acid composition of dragline silks collected from four populations whose prey composition were available also showed no significant difference. However, a significant variation was found when dragline silks collected from eight populations were compared. Among the amino acids compared, only glutamate and glycine exhibited significant difference but the variations only ranged from 1% to 2%. Since results from food manipulative studies showed that diet seemed to exert no effect on dragline silk composition of N. pilipes, the observed variation might resulted from rapid evolution of spidroin genes. While Nephila can alter web structure and silk output in responding to foraging variation, their dragline silk protein seemed to be optimized to a fixed composition.

Acknowledgements Ⅰ
Chinese abstract Ⅱ
Abstract Ⅲ
Contents Ⅴ
Introduction 1
Materials and methods 4
Collection of dragline silks 4
Manipulation of diet composition 5
Feeding Experiments 6
Prey composition and silk protein of Nephila pilipes in the field 8
A survey of dragline silk composition of different Nephila pilipes populations 9
Results 11
Feeding experiment 11
Prey composition and silk protein of Nephila pilipes in the field 12
Comparison of prey composition and silk protein of Nephila pilipes in different
Localities 12
Discussions 14
References 20
Tables 23
Figures 29

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