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研究生:陳炫璋
研究生(外文):Shun-Chang Chen
論文名稱:轉換成本與合作意圖─社會交換理論與交易成本理論的觀點
論文名稱(外文):Switching Costs Cooperation Intention: The Viewpoints of Sociological Exchange Theory and Transaction Cost Theory
指導教授:張國雄張國雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Hsiung Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:轉換成本社會交換理論交易成本理論合作意圖
外文關鍵詞:switching costssociological theorytransaction cost theorycooperation intention
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轉換成本在顧客與供應商的合作關係中扮演著一個退出障礙的角色。轉換供應商不但會降低既有特殊性投資的價值,更隱含著放棄未來的報酬,同時,買方可能還必須付出直接搜尋與評估的成本。此外,隨著市場競爭的日趨激烈,顧客希望能夠提高議價能力並且降低營運風險。相對地,供應商則希望與顧客保持一段良好且穩定的關係,進而降低產業中削價競爭的衝擊。因此,轉換成本在顧客與供應商的合作關係中,確實是一項值得深入探討的議題。
過去有關買方與賣方的行銷文獻中,對於轉換成本的研究大部分皆應用交易成本理論的論點,而著重在事實與數據等認知性評價的研究之上,例如,機器、設備等實體資產上的轉換成本。然而,本研究認為應該還要包含心理上、情緒上、以及情感性評價的轉換成本例如,人情、信賴、偏好……等。因此,本研究應用社會交換理論中「關係」、「承諾」、「權力」、與「聲譽」等因素,以及交易成本理論中「資產特殊性」、「彈性」、與「適應性」等因素,進而更深入地對於轉換成本做一實証上的研究。
就理論上的貢獻而言,轉換成本確實涵蓋了心理上與情緒上等情感性評價的「情感性轉換成本」,以及著重在事實與數據等認知性評價的「認知性轉換成本」。其中,前者對於買、賣雙方的合作意圖上呈現正向顯著的影響。然而,值得注意的是後者卻與合作意圖呈現負向關係,推論其原因可能是顧客為了分散營運風險,與提高採購的議價能力之故。此外,經由實証後亦發現以社會交換理論,以及以交易成本理論為基礎的因素,對於轉換成本皆具有顯著性的影響。最後,就實務上的建議而言,本研究認為顧客可以藉由降低轉換成本,以減少營運上的風險。反之,供應商則可藉由提高顧客的轉換成本,以建立企業的競爭優勢。
關鍵字:轉換成本、社會交換理論、交易成本理論、合作意圖
Abstract
Switching costs play an important role of exit barrier in buyer-supplier relationships. Switching suppliers not only reduces the value of the asset-specific investments but also implies giving up future returns. In the mean time, the customer may incur direct searching and evaluating costs. Besides, in an increasingly competitive market, customers hope to raise bargaining power and reduce the risk of management. On the other hand, suppliers hope to keep long-term and stable relationships with customers to avoid the shock of price war in the industry. Therefore, the cost of switching is worth studying when we analyze the buyer-supplier relationships.
The viewpoint of the transaction cost which is applied to study switching costs in most of the past marketing literature about buyer-supplier relationships emphasizes the cognitive assessment such as prior partner-specific investments in physical assets, organizational procedures, and employee training. However, the research here suggests that the switching costs should include the psychological, emotional and affective costs such as human touch, trustworthiness, preference and so forth. To discuss switching costs empirically, the author cites four variables - guanxi, commitment, power, and reputation - in sociological exchange theory , and three variables- asset specificity, flexibility, and adaptation - in transaction cost theory.
In theoretical implications, the results show that switching costs do involve the “affective switching costs” which emphasize psychological, emotional and affective evaluation, and “cognitive switching costs” which focus on cognitive evaluation such as facts and data. The former has significantly positive effect on cooperation intention. However, it should be to notice that the latter has negative effect on cooperation intention. This may be because customers want to reduce the risk of management and raise their bargaining power. Besides, the results indicate that the variables based on sociological exchange theory and transaction cost theory have significant effects on switching costs. In practical implications, the results suggest that customers can reduce the risk of management by lowering switching costs. On the other hand, suppliers can build competitive advantages by raising customers’ switching costs.
Key Word: switching costs, sociological exchange theory,
transaction cost theory, and cooperation intention.
目 錄
中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
第一章 序論………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景 ………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機 ………………………………………………………2
第三節 研究目的 ………………………………………………………3
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………4
第一節 轉換成本與態度 …………………………………………4
第二節 社會交換理論…………………………………………………14
第三節 交易成本理論…………………………………………………21
第四節 顧客的行為與態度 …………………………………………30
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………34
第一節 研究架構 ………………………………………………………34
第二節 研究假設 ………………………………………………………35
第三節 變數衡量與問卷設計…………………………………………43
第四章 資料分析與研究結果……………………………………………47
第一節 資料收集與問卷回收結果……………………………………47
第二節 因素分析 ………………………………………………………50
第三節 信度分析 ………………………………………………………55
第四節 相關分析 ………………………………………………………56
第五節 多元迴歸分析…………………………………………………58
第六節 資料分析結果…………………………………………………61
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………65
第一節 研究結論與討論………………………………………………65
第二節 研究的貢獻與實務上的建議…………………………………70
第三節 研究限制與未來研究方向……………………………………72
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………74
附錄:原始問卷……………………………………………………………79
表 目 錄
表2-1轉換成本彙整表…………………………………………………………5
表2-2各學者對於態度定義之整理…………………………………………9
表2-3態度的三種主要成份…………………………………………………11
表2-4資產特殊性彙整表……………………………………………………22
表2-5交易成本的來源以及類型 ……………………………………………25
表2-6交易成本理論在顧客與供應商之間相關的研究……………………26
表2-7從關係行銷與交易行銷觀點來比較顧客類型………………………32
表3-1研究假說彙整表………………………………………………………42
表3-2變數衡量與參考文獻…………………………………………………43
表3-3衡量項目………………………………………………………………44
表4-1樣本回收統計表……………………………………………………47
表4-2樣本產業別統計表……………………………………………………47
表4-3樣本員工人數統計表…………………………………………………48
表4-4樣本企業成立年數……………………………………………………48
表4-5樣本企業90年度營業額 ……………………………………………49
表4-6樣本企業採購部門人數統計表………………………………………49
表4-7樣本企業同一種原料或是零組件的供應商家數統計表……………50
表4-8社會交換理論構面因素分析表………………………………………51
表4-9交易成本理論構面因素分析表………………………………………52
表4-10轉換成本構面因素分析表…………………………………………53
表4-11合作意圖構面因素分析表…………………………………………54
表4-12 學者對於Cronbach’s α係數的觀點……………………………55
表4-13 本研究各項因素之Cronbach’s α值……………………………56
表4-14各項變數之平均數、標準差以及相關係數…………………………57
表4-15多元迴歸分析表………………………………………………………59
表4-16允差與條件指標彙整表 ……………………………………………60
表4-17實証結果彙整表………………………………………………………64
圖 目 錄
圖2-1情感性與認知性轉換成本 ……………………………………………13
圖2-2四種類型的合夥關係與十種類型的關係行銷………………………19
圖3-1:觀念性架構…………………………………………………………34
圖4-1 允差判定標準圖………………………………………………………58
圖4-2 條件指標判定標準圖…………………………………………………58
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