跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.120.150) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/31 13:52
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:田祐霖
研究生(外文):You-Lin Tain
論文名稱:可溶型與細胞表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器表現在兒童腎病症候群之角色研究
論文名稱(外文):Implications of blood soluble and cell surface tumor necrosis factor receptor in childhood nephrotic syndrome
指導教授:楊崑德楊崑德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuender D. Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:臨床醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:細胞表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器兒童期腎病症候群可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器類固醇抗藥型α型腫瘤壞死因子β型腫瘤壞死因子
外文關鍵詞:cell surface tumor necrosis factor receptorchildhoodnephrotic syndromesoluble tumor necrosis factor receptorsteroid-resistanttumor necrosis factor-αtumor necrosis factor-β
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:369
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
腎病症候群是兒童最常見的腎絲球疾病,其致病原理仍不完全明瞭。腎病症候群依照對類固醇的反應分成類固醇反應型與類固醇抗藥型兩種;其中類固醇抗藥型的預後較差。因此找出早期預測類固醇抗藥型腎病症候群的指標,將對臨床醫師與病人都有莫大的幫助。
α型腫瘤壞死因子會增加白蛋白對腎絲球的通透性,是我們認為最有可能造成影響腎絲球通透性改變的因子。不過血中α型腫瘤壞死因子的濃度會受到它的接受器影響,因此我們同時測量血中α與β型腫瘤壞死因子、可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器、與白血球上細胞表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在治療前後的表現,並計算可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與α型腫瘤壞死因子的比值,探討何者可當腎病症候群活性與預後的指標。
結果發現血中可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器濃度在腎病症候群病人治療前比控制組高,治療後會下降。顆粒球上細胞表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在腎病症候群病人治療前表現比控制組低,治療後會回升。病人在治療前表現較高的血中可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器濃度與較高的顆粒球上細胞表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器代表容易發展成類固醇抗藥型,有較差的預後。另外,可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與α型腫瘤壞死因子的比值,比單用可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器或α型腫瘤壞死因子的血中濃度更能預測預後,治療前較低的比值代表較容易發展成類固醇抗藥型。同時我們也發現治療後β型腫瘤壞死因子仍持續升高者,是類固醇抗藥型腎病症候群。
本研究除了找到可以早期預測類固醇抗藥型病人的指標外,更是首先發現顆粒球腫瘤壞死因子接受器表現與兒童腎病症候群是有相關的。此外我們也首度報告了β型腫瘤壞死因子在腎病症候群的表現。未來的研究將進一步分析腫瘤壞死因子與其接受器的基因多型性在兒童腎病症候群的病理機轉中扮演的角色,開拓早期個別醫療的最高境界。

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disease in children. Pathogenesis of NS remains uncertain. Differentiation between steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) from steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) as early as possible is an important issue in the treatment and prognosis of the disease.
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NS. Since the biological functions of TNF-α are influenced by two TNF receptors, we recruited nephrotic children for studies regarding correlating of TNF-α, TNF-β, plasma soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR), and leukocyte cell surface TNF receptors (cTNFR) with disease activity and therapeutic response.
Results showed that patients with childhood NS had higher pre-treatment plasma sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels than normal controls. In contrast, cTNFR1 and cTNFR2 expression on granulocytes but not lymphocytes was lower in patients than controls. Patients with SRNS, similar to SSNS, had higher sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels pre-treatment. However, patients with SRNS revealed higher expression of pre-treatment cTNFR1 and cTNFR2 than those with SSNS. After 4 weeks of steroid treatment, plasma sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels returned to normal in both patients with SRNS and SSNS. Post-treatment, the decreased cTNFR1 and cTNFR2 expression on granulocytes in patients with SSNS returned to normal, while patients with SRNS revealed no change before and after treatment. It was also found that pre-treatment sTNFR/TNF-α ratios and TNF-β levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. Patients with SRNS presented lower sTNFR/TNF-α ratios than those with SSNS. Patients with SRNS had higher post-treatment TNF-β levels than those with SSNS.
This study demonstrated that a higher plasma sTNFR level associated with lower cTNFR expression reflects NS disease activity; whereas a higher initial granulocyte cTNFR expression tends to predict steroid resistance. In addition, an initial lower sTNFR/TNF-α ratio could predict patients with SRNS. Further studies to clarify the genomic basis of the TNF ligand-receptor interaction may provide better clues for individualized medicine for children with NS in the future.

目 錄
指導教授推薦書………………………………………………………i
口試委員會審定書……………………………………………………ii
授權書……………………………………………………………….iii
內容目錄………………………………………………………………vi
表目錄……………………………………………………………… viii
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………ix
中文摘要………………………………………………………………xi
英文摘要………………………………………………………………xiii
誌謝……………………………………………………………………xv
第一章、序論…………………………………………………………1
1.1腎病症候群……………………………………………………….1
1.2 T淋巴球異常…………………………………………………….2
1.3影響腎絲球通透性的因子……………………….……………..3
1.4腎絲球過濾障壁構造的異常…………………………………….4
1.5腫瘤壞死因子與接受器………………………………………….6
第二章、論文研究目的………………………………………………12
第三章、實驗方法……………………………………………………13
3.1病人收案標準與疾病病程定義………………………………….13
3.2用流式細胞儀測量白血球表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器
之表現……………………………………………………………14
3.3用ELISA測量血中α型腫瘤壞死因子、β型腫瘤壞死因子
與可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器…………………………………15
3.4統計方法…………………………………………………………15
第四章、結果…………………………………………………………17
4.1α型腫瘤壞死因子與腎病症候群病情及預後的相關性……….17
4.2β型腫瘤壞死因子與腎病症候群病情及預後的相關性…………17
4.3可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與腎病症候群病情及
預後的相關性……………………………………………………...18
4.4表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與腎病症候群病情及
預後的相關性……………………………………………………...18
4.5可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與α型腫瘤壞死因子的比值與
腎病症候群病情及預後的相關性………………………………...19
4.6腫瘤壞死因子與可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器間的相關性….....20
第五章、討論……………………………………………………………22
5.1β型腫瘤壞死因子,但非α型與類固醇抗藥型腎病症候群有關…22
5.2腫瘤壞死因子接受器的變動與類固醇抗藥型腎病症候群有關….23
5.3腫瘤壞死因子與其接受器的基因多形性可能與類固醇
抗藥性有關…………………………………………………………27
第六章、結論、建議與未來研究………………………………………30
6.1結論………………………………………………………30
6.2建議………………………………………………………………….31
6.3未來研究…………………………………………………………….32
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………58
附錄………………………………………………………………………70
表目錄
表2-1 預期腫瘤壞死因子受體與接受器在治療前後的類固醇反應型
與抗藥型病人之表現…………………………………………….34
表4-1 治療前腎病症候群病童血中可溶型腫瘤壞死因子
接受器濃度……………………………………………………… 35
表4-2 治療前後腎病症候群病童血中可溶型腫瘤壞死因子
接受器濃度的變化……………………………………………… 36
表4-3 治療前可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器與α型腫瘤壞死因子的比值
在類固醇抗藥型與類固醇反應型腎病症候群病人的差異…… 37
表6-1 腫瘤壞死因子與腫瘤壞死因子接受器與兒童腎病症候群
活性和預後的關係……………………………………………… 38
圖目錄
圖1-1 兒童腎病症候群傳統治療原則與潛在早期預測性治療………….39
圖1-2 足細胞重要的蛋白結構…………………………………………….40
圖1-3 腫瘤壞死因子與腫瘤壞死因子接受器間的交互作用…………….41
圖1-4 腎病症候群的致病機轉…………………………………………….42
圖3-1 檢體收集流程……………………………………………………….43
圖3-2 流式細胞儀上白血球的分佈……………………………………..44
圖3-3 流式細胞儀分析白血球上的表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器……….45
圖3-4 測量第二型可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器的standard curve………46
圖4-1 腎病症候群病人血中α型腫瘤壞死因子與控制組的比較………47
圖4-2 腎病症候群病人血中β型腫瘤壞死因子與控制組的比較…………48
圖4-3 類固醇反應型與類固醇抗藥型腎病症候群病人血中
β型腫瘤壞死因子治療前後的差異…………………………………49
圖 4-4顆粒球上第一型表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在腎病
症候群病人治療前的表現…………………………………………..50
圖 4-5顆粒球上第二型表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在腎病
症候群病人治療前的表現…………………………………………..51
圖 4-6顆粒球上第一型表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在類固醇
抗藥型與類固醇反應型腎病症候群病人治療前後的表現………..52
圖 4-7顆粒球上第二型表面型腫瘤壞死因子接受器在類固醇
抗藥型與類固醇反應型腎病症候群病人治療前後的表現………..53
圖 4-8 α型腫瘤壞死因子與第一型可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器
濃度間有正相關性…………………………………………………..54
圖 4-9 α型腫瘤壞死因子與第二型可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器
濃度間有正相關性…………………………………………………..55
圖4-10第一型與第二型可溶型腫瘤壞死因子接受器濃度間有
正相關性………………………………………………………….…56
圖4-11 sTNFR1/TNFα比值與sTNFR2/TNFα比值間有正相關性……57

Aderka D, Engelmann H, Maor Y, Brakebusch C, Wallach D (1992) Stabilization of the bioactivity of tumor necrosis factor by its soluble receptors. J Exp Med 175:323-329
Aderka D, Wysenbeek A, Engelmann H, Cope AP, Brennan F, Molad Y, Hornik V, Levo Y, Maini RN, Feldmann M (1993) Correlation between serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 36: 1111-1120
Aggarwal BB, Natarajan K (1996) Tumor necrosis factor: Developments during the last decade. Eur Cytokine Netw 7: 93-124
Antignac C (2002) Genetic models: clues for understanding the pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest 109:447-449
Bargman JM (1999) Management of minimal lesion glomerulonephritis: evidence-based recommendations. Kidney Int 70:S3-S16
Bazzoni F, Beutler B (1996) The tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor families. N Engl J Med 334:1717-1725
Berens KL, Verani RR, Luke DR (1998) Role of neutrophils and macrophages in experimental nephrosis of the rat. Renal Failure 20: 53-63
Boute N, Gribouval O, Roselli S, Benessy F, Lee H, Fuchshuber A, Dahan K, Gubler MC, Niaudet P, Antignac C (2000) NPHS2, encoding the glomerular protein podocin, is mutated in autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Nature Genetics 24:349-354
Braun CM, Huang SK, Bashian GG, Kagey-Sobotka A, Lichtenstein LM, Essayan DM (1997) Corticosteroid modulation of human, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100: 400-407
Bustos C, Gonzalez E, Muley R, Alonso JL, Egido J (1994) Increase of tumour necrosis factor alpha synthesis and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest 24:799-805
Caridi G, Bertelli R, Carrea A, Di Duca M, Catarsi P, Artero M, Carraro M, Zennaro C, Candiano G, Musante L, Seri M, Ginevri F, Perfumo F, Ghiggeri GM (2001) Prevalence, genetics, and clinical features of patients carrying podocin mutations in steroid-resistant nonfamilial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. J Am Soc Nephrol 12:2742-2746
Chambaut-Guerin AM, Thomopoulos P (1991) Regulation by dexamethasone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the 75 kd-type A tumor necrosis factor receptor surface expression and mRNA level in human U937 cells. Eur Cytokine Netw 2:355-360
Chapman S, Taube D, Brown Z, Williams DG (1982) Impaired lymphocyte transformation in minimal change nephropathy in remission. Clin Nephrol 18:34-38
Cheong HI, Lee JH, Hahn H, Park HW, Ha IS, Choi Y (2001) Circulating VEGF and TGF-beta1 in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Nephrol 14:263-269
Constantinescu AR, Shah HB, Foote EF, Weiss LS (2000) Predicting first-year relapses in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics 105:492- 495
Cotran RS, Pober JS (1989) Effects of cytokines on vascular endothelium: their role in vascular and immune injury. Kidney Int 1989 35:969-975
Daniel V, Trautmann Y, Konrad M, Nayir A, Scharer K (1997) T-lymphocyte populations, cytokines and other growth factors in serum and urine of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Clin Nephrol 47:289-297
Deschenes G, Martinat L (2000) Molecular mechanisms of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Arch Pediatr 7:1318-1329
Dohi K, Morita H, Ogawa S, Hirayama T, Yamada H, Ishikawa H (1991) Production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and responsiveness to IL-2 of peripheral blood lymphocytes in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Jpn J Med 30:396-401
Dorge SE, Roux-Lombard P, Dayer JM, Koch KM, Frei U, Lonnemann G (1994) Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and soluble TNF receptors in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 58:1000-1008
Drewe E, McDermott EM, Powell RJ (2000) Treatment of the nephrotic syndrome with etanercept in patients with the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. New Eng J Med 343:1044-1045
Egido J, Gomez-Chiarri M, Ortiz A, Bustos C, Alonso J, Gomez-Guerrero C, Gomez-Garre D, Lopez-Armada MJ, Plaza J, Gonzalez E (1993) Role of tumor necrosis factor-αin the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Kidney Int 43:S59-S64
Endlich K, Kriz W, Witzgall R (2001) Update in podocyte biology. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 10:331-340
Fiser RT, Arnold WC, Charlton RK, Steele RW, Childress SH, Shirkey B (1991) T-lymphocyte subsets in nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int 40:913-916
Fogo A (2000) Nephrotic syndrome: molecular and genetic basis. Nephron 85:8-13
Frishberg Y, Rinat C, Megged O, Shapira E, Feinstein S, Raas-Rothschild A (2002) Mutations in NPHS2 encoding podocin are a prevalent cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome among Israeli-Arab children. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:400-405
Gardiner KR, Halliday MI, Barclay GR, Milne L, Brown D, Stephens S, Maxwell RJ, Rowlands BJ (1995) Significance of systemic endotoxaemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 36:897-901
Gattorno M, Picco P, Barbano G, Stalla F, Sormani MP, Buoncompagni A, Gusmano R, Borrone C, Pistoia V (1998) Differences in tumor necrosis factor-αsoluble receptor serum concentrations between patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura and pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: pathogenetic implications. J Rheumatol 25:361-365
Girardin E, Roux-Lombard P, Grau GE, Suter P, Gallati H, Dayer JM (1992) Imbalance between tumour necrosis factor-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations in severe meningococcaemia. The J5 Study Group. Immunol 76:20-23
Grom AA, Murray KJ, Luyrink L, Emery H, Passo MH, Glass DN, Bowlin T, Edwards C 3rd (1996) Patterns of expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, tumor necrosis factor beta, and their receptors in synovia of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 39:1703-1710
Hale KK, Smith CG, Baker SL, Vanderslice RW, Squires CH, Gleason TM, Tucker KK, Kohno T, Russell DA (1995) Multifunctional regulation of the biological effects of TNF-alpha by the soluble type I and type II TNF receptors. Cytokine 7:26-38
Han J, Thomson P, Beutler B (1990) Dexamethasone and pentoxifylline inhibit endotoxin-induced cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis at separate points in the signaling pathway. J Exp Med 172:391-394
Heslan JM, Branellec A, Laurent J, Lagrue G (1986) The vascular permeability factor is a T lymphocyte product. Nephron 42:187-188
Hohmann HP, Remy R, Brockhaus M, van Loon AP (1989) Two different cell types have different major receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha). J Biol Chem 264:14927-14934
Horii Y, Iwano M, Hirata E, Shiiki M, Fujii Y, Dohi K, Ishikawa H (1993) Role of interleukin-6 in the progression of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 39:S71-S75
Hubl W, Wolfbauer G, Streicher J, Andert S, Stanek G, Fitzal S, Bayer PM (1999) Differential expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor subtypes on leukocytes in systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Critical Care Med 27:319-324
Hulton SA, Shah V, Byrne MR, Morgan G, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ (1994) Lymphocyte subpopulations, interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 8:135-139
Hymes LC (1995) Steroid-resistant, cyclosporine-responsive, relapsing nephritic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 9:137-139
Ishibashi K, Ishitsuka K, Chuman Y, Otsuka M, Kuwazuru Y, Iwahashi M, Utsunomiya A, Hanada S, Sakurami T, Arima T (1991) Tumor necrosis factor-beta in the serum of adult T-cell leukemia with hypercalcemia. Blood 77:2451-2455
Jablonska E, Jablonski J, Holownia A (1999) Role of neutrophils in release of some cytokines and their soluble receptors. Immunol Letters 70:191-197
Jirapongsananuruk O, Donahue HL, Trumble AE, Leung DY (2000) The modulation of cytokine and IgE production by tumor necrosis factor-beta in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 114:200-203
Jutley RS, Youngson GG, Eremin O, Ninan GK (2000) Serum cytokine profile in reflux nephropathy. Pediatr Surg Int 16:64-68
Kaplan JM, Kim SH, North KN, Rennke H, Correia LA, Tong HQ, Mathis BJ, Rodriguez-Perez JC, Allen PG, Beggs AH, Pollak MR (2000) Mutations in ACTN4, encoding alpha-actinin-4, cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Genet 24:251-256
Karle SM, Uetz B, Ronner V, Glaeser L, Hildebrandt F, Fuchshuber A (2002) Novel Mutations in NPHS2 Detected in Both Familial and Sporadic Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:388-393
Kimata H, Fujimoto M, Furusho K (1995) Involvement of interleukin (IL)-13, but not IL-4, in spontaneous IgE and IgG4 production in nephrotic syndrome. Eur J Immunol 25:1497-1501
Koukouritakin SB, Vardaki EA, Papakonstanti EA, Lianos E, Stournaras C, Emmanouel DS (1999) TNF-alpha induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in glomerular epithelial cells involving tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase. Mol Med 5:382-392
Koziell A, Grech V, Hussain S, Lee G, Lenkkeri U, Tryggvason K, Scambler P (2002) Genotype/phenotype correlations of NPHS1 and NPHS2 mutations in nephrotic syndrome advocate a functional inter-relationship in glomerular filtration. Hum Mol Genet 11:379-388
Kulmburg P, Radke M, Digel W (1998) Lymphotoxin-alpha is an autocrine growth factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Leukemia 12:493-498
Lagrue G, Xheneumont S, Branellec A, Hirbec G, Weil B (1975) A vascular permeability factor elaborated from lymphocytes. I. Demonstration in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Biomedicine 23:37-40
Lama G, Luongo I, Tirino G, Borriello A, Carangio C, Salsano ME (2002) T-lymphocyte populations and cytokines in childhood nephrotic syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis 39:958-965
Laurent J, Philippon C, Lagrue G, Laurent G, Weil B, Rostoker G (1993) Proteinuria selectivity index--prognostic value in lipoid nephrosis and related diseases. Nephron 65:185-189
Lin CY, Lee BH, Lin CC, Chen WP (1990) A study of the relationship between childhood nephrotic syndrome and allergic diseases. Chest 97:1408-1411
Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001) The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology. Cell 104:487-501
Markham A, Lamb HM (2000) Infliximab: a review of its use in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs 59:1341-1359
Matsumoto K, Kanmatsuse K (2001) Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the urine of patients with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. Clin Nephrol 55:269-274
Matsumoto K. Kanmatsuse K. (1999) Interleukin-15 and interleukin-12 have an additive effect on the release of vascular permeability factor by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in normals and in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Clin Nephrol 52:10-18
Matsumoto K (1995) Decreased release of IL-10 by monocytes from patients with lipoid nephrosis. Clin Exp Immunol 102:603-607
Matsumoto K (1989) Decreased production of interleukin-1 by monocytes from patients with lipoid nephrosis. Clin Nephrol 31:292-296
McCarthy ET, Sharma R, Sharma M, Li JZ, Ge XL, Dileezpan KN, Savin VJ (1998) TNF-αincreases albumin permeability of isolated rat glomeruli through the generation of superoxide. J Am Soc Nephrol 9:433-438
Neuhaus TJ, Wadhwa M, Callard R, Barratt TM (1995) Increased IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 100:475-479
Ohshima Y, Yang LP, Avice MN, Kurimoto M, Nakajima T, Sergerie M, Demeure CE, Sarfati M, Delespesse G (1999) Naive human CD4+ T cells are a major source of lymphotoxin alpha. J Immunol 162:3790-3794
Ortiz A, Bustos C, Alonso J, Alcazar R, Lopez-Armada MJ, Plaza JJ, Gonzalez E, Egido J (1995) Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of experimental and human glomerulonephritis. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp 24:53-77
Ozen S, Saatci U, Tinaztepe K, Bakkaloglu A, Barut A (1994) Urinary tumor necrosis factor levels in primary glomerulonephritis. Nephron 66:291-294
Ramierz F, Fowell DJ, Puklavec M, Simmonds S, Mason D (1996) Glucocorticoids promote a TH2 cytokine response by CD4+ T cells in vitro. J Immunol 156:2406-2412
Ramjee G, Coovadia HM, Adhikari M (1994) Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of urinary proteins in steroid-responsive and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. Pediatr Nephrol 8:653-656
Rostoker G, Rymer JC, Bagnard G, Petit-Phar M, Griuncelli M, Pilatte Y (1998) Imbalances in serum proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors: a putative role in the progression of idiopathic IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis, and a potential target of immunoglobulin therapy? Clin Exp Immunol 114:468-476
Sacca R, Cuff CA, Lesslauer W, Ruddle NH (1998) Differential activities of secreted lymphotoxin-alpha3 and membrane lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2 in lymphotoxin-induced inflammation: critical role of TNF receptor 1 signaling. J Immunol 160:485-491
Savin VJ (1993) Mechanisms of proteinuria in noninflammatory glomerular diseases. Am J Kidney Dis 21:347-362
Saxena S, Mittal A, Andal A (1993) Pattern of interleukins in minimal-change nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Nephron 65:56-61
Schleiffenbaum B, Fehr J (1990) The tumor necrosis factor receptor and human neutrophil function. Deactivation and cross-deactivation of tumor necrosis factor-induced neutrophil responses by receptor down-regulation. J Clin Invest 86:184-195
Schnaper HW, Pierce CW, Aune TM (1984) Identification and initial characterization of concanavalin A- and interferon-induced human suppressor factors: evidence for a human equivalent of murine soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS). J Immunol 132:2429-2435
Schroder J, Stuber F, Gallati H, Schade FU, Kremer B (1995) Pattern of soluble TNF receptors I and II in sepsis. Infection 23:143-148
Selmaj K, Raine CS, Cannella B, Brosnan CF (1991) Identification of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Clin Invest 87:949-954
Shalaby MR, Aggarwal BB, Rinderknecht E, Svedersky LP, Finkle BS, Palladino MA Jr. (1985) Activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factors. J Immunol 135:2069-2073
Shalhoub RJ (1974) Pathogenesis of lipid nephrosis: A disorder of T-cell function. Lancet ii:556-559
Shih NY, Li J, Karpitskii V, Nguyen A, Dustin ML, Kanagawa O, Miner JH, Shaw AS (1999) Congenital nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking CD2-associated protein. Science 286:312-315
Suranyi MG, Guasch A, Hall BM, Myers BD (1993) Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-αin the nephrotic syndrome in humans. Am J Kidney Dis 21: 251-259
Takemura T, Yoshioka K, Murakami K, Akano N, Okada M, Aya N, Maki S (1994) Cellular localization of inflammatory cytokines in human glomerulonephritis. Virchows Arch 424: 459-464
Tani Y, Kida H, Abe T, Tomosugi N, Saito Y, Asamoto T, Hattori N (1982) B lymphocyte subset patterns and their significance in idiopathic glomerulonephritis. Clin Exp Immunol 48: 201-204
Tarshish P, Tobin JN, Bernstein J, Edelmann CM Jr. (1997) Prognostic significance of the early course of minimal change nephrotic syndrome: report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children. J Am Soc Nephrol 8:769-776
Tartaglia LA, Weber RF, Figari IS, Reynolds C, Palladino MA Jr., Goeddel DV (1991) The two different receptors for tumor necrosis factor mediate distinct cellular responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 9292-9296
Tartaglia LA, Pennica D, Goeddel DV (1993) Ligand passing: The 75-kDa tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor recruits TNF for signaling by the 55-kDa TNF receptor. J Biol Chem 268: 18542-18548
Van der Poll T, Coyle SM, Kumar A, Barbosa K, Agosti JM, Lowry SF (1997) Down-regulation of surface receptors for TNF and IL-1 on circulating monocytes and granulocytes during human endotoxemia: effect of neutralization of endotoxin-induced TNF activity by infusion of a recombinant dimeric TNF receptor. J Immunol 158: 1490-1497
Van Zee KJ, Kohno T, Fischer E, Rock CS, Moldawer LL, Lowry SF (1992) Tumor necrosis factor soluble receptors circulate during experimental and clinical inflammation and can protect against excessive tumor necrosis factor alpha in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89: 4845-4849
Wada T, Yokoyama H, Tomosugi N, Hisada Y, Ohta S, Naito T, Kobayashi K, Mukaida N, Matsushima K (1994) Detection of urinary interleukin-8 in glomerular diseases. Kidney Int 46:455-460
Wardle EN (1996) Minimal change nephrosis and allergy. Nephron 74:422-423
Warzocha K, Salles G, Bienvenu J, Bastion Y, Dumontet C, Renard N, Neidhardt-Berard E M, Coiffier B (1997) Tumor necrosis factor ligand-receptor system can predict treatment outcome in lymphoma patients. J Clin Oncol 15:499-508
Webb NJ, Lewis MA, Iqbal J, Smart PJ, Lendon M, Postlethwaite RJ (1996) Childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: does the histology matter? Am J Kidney Dis 27:484-488
Webb NJ, Watson CJ, Roberts IS, Bottomley MJ, Jones CA, Lewis MA, Postlethwaite RJ, Brenchley PE (1999) Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor is not increased during relapses of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int 55:1063-1071
Webster JC, Oakley RH, Jewell CM, Cidlowski JA (2001) Proinflammatory cytokines regulate human glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and lead to the accumulation of the dominant negative beta isoform: a mechanism for the generation of glucocorticoid resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6865-6870
Winn MP (2002) Not All in the Family: Mutations of podocin in sporadic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:577-579
Yang KD, Liou WY, Lee CS, Chu ML, Shaio MF (1992) Effects of phenobarbital on leukocyte activation: membrane potential, actin polymerization, chemotaxis, respiratory burst, cytokine production, and lymphocyte proliferation. J Leukoc Biol 52:151-156
Yap HK, Cheung W, Murugasu B, Sim SK, Seah CC, Jordan SC (1999) Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA profiles in childhood nephrotic syndrome: evidence for increased IL-13 mRNA expression in relapse. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:529-537

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
1. 陳仟萬,〈論監聽與錄音〉,《法令月刊》,49卷3期,1998年3月。
2. 陳仟萬,〈論司法警察以隱匿身分從事偵查犯罪〉,《警專學報》2卷2期,1996年。
3. 郭君勳,〈英美自白排除法則之沿革及其發展〉,《刑事法雜誌》第十四卷五期、六期,1970年10、12月。
4. 曹昌棋,〈證據排除法則與毒樹果實理論之研究─兼論不依法定程序搜索所得證據之證據能力〉,《警專學報》2卷7期,2000年1月。
5. 嚴震生,〈美國憲法對免於自證其罪的保障:米蘭達權利的爭議〉,《美歐月刊》11卷6期,1996年6月。
6. 嚴震生,〈免於無理的拘捕、搜索與扣押─美國憲法第四修正案之探討〉,《美歐月刊》11卷10期1996年10月。
7. 曹昌棋,〈監聽法制化之研究〉,《警專學報》1卷6期,1993年6月。
8. 張瑜鳳,〈刑事訴訟程序中有關監聽之研究〉,《法律評論》,63卷1期,1997年3月。
9. 鄧湘全,〈通訊監察之合憲性探討〉,《月旦法學》40期,1998年9月。
10. 林競蕪,〈電話監聽、祕密錄音與日記─論刑事法中隱私權之侵害與保障〉,《當代》7卷125期,1998年1月。
11. 蔡墩銘,〈監聽與強制處分〉,《法令月刊》42卷6期,1991年9月。
12. 林建中,〈隱私權概念初探─從美國法之觀點切入〉,《憲政時代》23卷1期,1997年1月。
13. 李學燈,〈因避免自證其罪之拒絕證言〉,《律師通訊》170期,1993年11月。
14. 蔡墩銘,〈通訊監聽與證據排除〉,《刑事法雜誌》39卷1期,1995年2月。
15. 李茂生,〈刑法秘密罪章新修條文評釋〉,《月旦法學》第51期,1999年8月。