跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.174.99) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 20:13
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:郭耀仁
研究生(外文):Yur-Ren Kuo
論文名稱:血小板活化對皮瓣組織再灌注後存活之作用研究
論文名稱(外文):The effect of platelet activation on skin flap survival after reperfusion
指導教授:楊崑德楊崑德引用關係鄭勝峰鄭勝峰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuender D. YangSeng-Feng Jeng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:臨床醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:血小板活化組織缺氧再灌注損傷
外文關鍵詞:platelet activationischemia/reperfusion injury
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:166
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:17
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
中文摘要:
顯微手術技術已廣泛運用在移植組織重建手術上,而血管栓塞與組織缺氧損傷為影響移植組織存活主因。血小板活化凝集在血管吻合血栓形成與組織缺氧壞死扮演重要角色。然而對於血小板增多與血栓形成相關性仍有爭議。基於臨床觀察,我們利用一老鼠血小板增多模型(脾臟切除引發次發性血小板增多症)及一血管內皮細胞受損模型(股動脈截斷面部分動脈外膜反向縫合造成血管腔內形成血栓性外膜)來探討血小板數量與活化和內皮細胞受損對顯微血管血栓形成間扮演相關角色為何。我們進一步嘗試研究血小板活化與組織缺氧再灌注後自由基釋放對顯微皮瓣組織手術成功失敗相關性為何;更評估是否血小板活化進而沉積在內皮細胞上導致移植皮瓣組織失敗。我們利用一老鼠下腹壁動脈血管莖皮瓣模型,評估嘗試利用血小板膜糖蛋白GP IIb/IIIa接受體拮抗劑 (如abciximab),可否降低血小板活化,以增高移植皮瓣成功率。除了膜糖蛋白分子可能與組織存活有關外,我們也研究一氧化氮(nitric oxide, NO)是否可降低血小板活化並保護內皮細胞及皮瓣組織的存活。我們評估給予一氧化氮供應者,nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)可否有效抑制血小板活化,並調控血小板NO synthase (NOS) 活性,以提高皮瓣組織再灌注成功率。研究也針對NO其本身對調節血管張力及內皮細胞受損導致不同NOS亞型種類變化和皮瓣組織存活的角色進行研究。我們評估給予NO供應者是否亦經由調控氧化壓力的基因轉譯核因子NF-kB活化及iNOS的作用而促進皮瓣再灌注的成功率。研究結果發現單純血小板增多不會影響血管吻合皮瓣存活率。但如果合併血管內皮細胞受損,易引發血小板活化及血管血栓形成導致吻合成功率降低。血小板活化有參與皮瓣組織經缺氧再灌注損傷導致組織壞死;使用血小板活化抑制劑abciximab可明顯抑制血小板活化/凝集,進而促進皮瓣再灌注後成功率。給予適量NO供應者GSNO可明顯抑制組織再灌注造成之血小板活化;調控血小板及血管莖內皮細胞NOS表現(eNOS增多,iNOS減少),而提高皮瓣血流速度進而提高皮瓣組織成功率。追蹤其原因發現GSNO與抗氧化劑N-acetylcysteine (NAC)似有類同之處,先是抑制血管內皮細胞superoxide產生和核因子NF-kB活化,進而減少iNOS及3-nitro-tyrosine表現;並促進血液流通,導致較佳皮瓣存活率。這些研究結果顯示,顯微血管皮瓣組織移植重建後產生的血液再灌注損傷和皮瓣死亡可以因不同血小板拮抗劑的使用獲得顯著改善。

英文摘要
Despite advances in microsurgical technique and experience gained in clinical vascular surgery, vascular thrombosis and ischemic necrosis remained the most significant threat to flap survival. Evidence has shown that platelets play an important role in the pathogenesis of flap failure. There is still controversial about the correlation of thrombocytosis and thrombosis complication. Employing a rodent splenectomy-induced thrombocytosis model and a thrombogenic endothelial damage model, we investigated whether thrombocytosis or platelet activation with or without endothelial damage contributes to microvascular thrombosis. We further investigated whether platelet activation and deposition on flap vessels was involved in skin flap failure by using an inferior epigastric artery skin flap as a flap tissue ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. Additionally, platelet receptor antagonist, abciximab (chimeric 7E3 Fab), was used to explore the roles of platelet activation on the flap survival. Administration of nitric oxide (NO) donor, nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor was also used to investigate the roles of NO and NOS expression in platelets and pedicle endothelium for promoting flap tissue survival after I/R injury. Results showed that microvascular anastomosis could be performed safely under reactive thrombocytosis alone without platelet activation. Platelet activation was more critical than increase of platelet counts in microvascular anastomosis. The activation of platelets as demonstrated by CD62P progressively increased after flap tissue reperfusion. Blockade of platelet activation/aggregation by abciximab had a positive effect on flap survival and decrease of activated-platelet deposition on vascular endothelium. NO donor, GSNO, suppressed platelet activation and iNOS induction of platelet and flap vessels, resulting in less platelet activation, better blood perfusion and flap survival after I/R injury. GSNO also significantly inhibited superoxide production, suppressed NF-kB activation, iNOS induction and 3-nitro-tyrosine expression, and up-regulated eNOS expression in the flap vessels. These results suggest that pharmacological suppression of platelet activation may be beneficial for flap survival in case of reperfusion after a prolonged period of flap ischemia.

目 錄
指導教授推薦書………………………………………………….…i
口試委員會審定書…………………………………………………ii
授權書………………………………………………………………iii
簽署人須知…………………………………………………………iv
中文摘要……………………………………………………………vii
英文摘要……………………………………………………………ix
誌謝…………………………………………………………………xi
第一章 綜論…………………………………………………………… 1
1-1論文研究目的及背景相關研究……………………………… 2
1-2 研究假說及計劃目標………………………………………… 9
第二章 材料及方法…………………………………………………… 11
2-1血小板增多有無合併內皮細胞受損對顯微血管吻合成功率的
影響…….……………………………………………………... 12
2-1.1動物模型-次發性血小板增多模型……..……………12
2-1.2血栓性內皮細胞受損模型…………….……………….13
2-1.3實驗設計…………….………………………………….13
2-2調控血小板活化對皮瓣組織缺氧再灌注影響……………….14
2-2.1下腹壁動脈皮瓣組織缺氧再灌注模型………………..15
2-2.2 實驗設計…………….…………………………………15
2-3評估給予一氧化氮(NO)供給者可否調控血小板活化和血
管內皮細胞損傷以提高皮瓣組織經缺氧再灌注存活率……17
2-3.1 實驗設計………….………………………………..….17
2-4評估給予一氧化氮(NO)供給者供應者可否有抗氧化作用並
抑制iNOS誘導機制而提高游離皮瓣成功率………………18
2-4.1 實驗設計…………….…………………………………19
2-5 研究方法…………….……………………………………….20
2-5.1 雷射都卜勒偵測儀……….…………….………………20
2-5.2 流式細胞儀分析血小板活化…………………………..21
2-5.3 流式細胞儀分析新生未成熟血小板…………………..22
2-5.4 血小板凝集試驗 ……….………………….……….… 22
2-5.5 組織染色 …………….……………………….………..23
2-5.6 偵測血漿中NO濃度 …………….…………………...25
2-5.7 西方墨點法(Western blot)分析 …………………...26
2-5.8 偵測氧游離根(O2-)產物 …………….………………...27
2-5.9 準備細胞核萃取物…………….……………………….28
2-5.10 EMSA分析NF-κB活性 ………….…………………29
2-6實驗結果分析及統計…………………………………………30
第三章 結果 …………………………………………………………31
3-1血小板增多合併內皮細胞受損不會影響顯微血管吻合
成功率…………………………………………………………32
3-2給予血小板膜糖蛋白接受體拮抗劑可調控血小板活化並
促進皮瓣組織缺氧再灌注損傷存活率……….……………...34
3-3給予一氧化氮(NO)供給者調控血小板和血管內皮細胞損
傷以提高皮瓣組織缺氧再灌注存活率………………………38
3-4給予一氧化氮 (NO) 供應者可抑制過氧化物引發iNOS
誘導機制而提高游離皮瓣成功率……………………………43
第四章 討論 …………………………………………………………..47
第五章 結論與展望……………………………………………………64
圖表目錄………………………………………………………..………66
參考文獻………………………………………………………………114
附錄……………………………………………………………………133

參考文獻
Abraham E. (2000) NF-kB activation. Crit Care Med. 28: N100-104.
Anderson HV, Jordan RE, and Weisman HF. (1997) Concept and clinical application of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with abciximab (c7E3 Fab; ReoPro) for the prevention of acute ischemic syndrome. Clin Appl Thromb/ Hemostasis. 3:256-266.
Araki H, Muramoto J, Nishi K, Jougasaki M, and Inoue M. (1992) Heparin adheres to the damaged arterial wall and inhibits its thrombogenicity. Circ Res. 71: 577-584.
Arnljots B, Dougan P, Wieslander JB, Salemark L, and Bergqvist D. (1994) Platelet accumulation and thrombus formation after microarterial injury- an experimental study in rabbits. Scand J Plast Reconstr Hand Surg. 28:167-175.
Barker JH, Anderson GL, Gu JM, Wyllie F, and Acland RD. (1993) Experimental study of the relationship between alterations in tissue perfusion and anastomotic patency. Microsurgery. 14:409-415.
Basile AP, Fiala TG, Yaremchuk MJ, and May JW Jr. (1995) The antithrombotic effects of ticlopidine and aspirin in a microvascular thrombogenic model. Plast Reconstr Surg. 95:1258-1264.
Barry OP, Pratico D, Lawson TA, and FitzGerald GA. (1997) Transcellular activation of platelets and endothelial cells by bioactive lipids in platelet microparticles. J Clin Invest. 99:2118-2127.
Benett JS, and Shattil SJ. (1990) Platelet function. In: Hematology. William WJ (Ed). New York, McGraw Hill. PP 1233-1241.
Berkels R, Stockklauser K, Rosen P, and Rosen R. (1997). Current status of platelet NO synthases. Thromb Res. 87: 51-55.
Bonan JL, Rinder HM, and Smith BR. (1993) Determination of the percentage of thiazole orange (TO)-positive “reticulated” platelets using autologous erythrocyte TO fluorescence as an internal standard. Cytometry. 14: 690-694.
Boxer MA, Brown J, and Ellman L. (1978) Thromboembolic risk of post splenectomy thrombocytosis. Arch Surg. 113: 808-809.
Bubel S, Wilhelm D, Entelmann M, Kirchner H, Kluter H. (1996) Chemokines in stored platelet concentrates. Transfusion. 36:445-449.
Buss DH, Cashell AW, O’Connor ML, Richard F 2nd, and Case LD. (1994) Occurrence, etiology and clinical significance of extreme thrombocytosis: A study 280 cases. Am J Med. 96: 247-253.
Carden DL, and Granger DN. (2000) Pathphysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Pathol. 190: 255-266.
Carroll WR, and Esclamado RM. (2000) Ischemia/reperfusion injury in microvascular surgery. Head Neck. 22:700-13.
Chatelain P, Latour JG, Tran D, de-Lorgeril M, Dupras G, Bourassa M. (1987) Neutrophil accumulation in experimental myocardial infarcts: relation with extent of injury and effect of reperfusion. Circulation. 75: 1083-1090.
Chen LY, Nichols WW, Hendricks JB, Yang BC, and Mehta JL. (1994) Monoclonal antibody to P-selectin (PB1.3) protects against myocardial reperfusion injury in the dog. Cardiovasc Res. 28: 1414-1422.
Chen LY, and Mehta JL. (1996) Further evidence of the presence of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human platelets. J Cardiovas Pharmacol. 27: 154-158.
Chen LY, and Mehta JL. (1997) Downregulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in human platelets by nitroglycerin and authentic nitric oxide. J Invest Med. 45: 69-74.
Chintala MS, Bernardino V, and Chiu PJ. (1994) Cyclic GMP but not cyclic AMP prevents renal platelet accumulation after ischemia-reperfusion in anesthetized rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 271: 1203-1208.
Choe EI, Kasahian AK, Kolker AR, Karp NS, Zhang L, Bas LS, and Nardi M. (1996) Thrombocytosis after major lower extremity trauma; mechanism and possible role in free flap failure. Ann Plast Surg. 36:489-494.
Collard CD, and Gelman S. (2001) Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology. 94:1133-1138.
Conrad MH, and Adams WP Jr. (2001) Pharmacologic optimization of microsurgery in the new millennium. Plast Reconstr Surg. 108: 2088-2096.
Cooke CL, and Davidge ST. Peroxynitrite increases iNOS through NF-kB and decreases prostacyclin synthase in endothelial cells. (2002) Am J Physiol - Cell Physiol. 282:C395-402.
Cordeiro PG, Mastorakos DP, Hu QY, and Kirscher RE. (1997). The protective effect of L-arginine on ischemia —reperfusion injury in rat skin flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 100: 1227-1233.
Cuzzocrea S, Mazzon E, Costantino G, Serraino I, Sarro AD, and Caputi AP. (2000) Effects of n-acetylcysteine in a rat model of ischemia and reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 47:537-548.
Cuzzocrea S, Riley DP, Caputi AP, and Salvemini D. (2001) Antioxidant therapy: a new pharmacological approach in shock, inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pharmacol Rev. 53:135-159.
Dhalla NS, Elmoselhi AB, Hata T, and Makino N. (2000) Status of myocardial antioxidants in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 47:446-456.
de Belder AJ, MacAllister R, and Radomski MW. (1994) Effects of S-nitrosoglutathione in human forearm circulation: evidence for selective inhibition of platelet activation. Cardiovasc Res. 28:691-694.
Dashwood MK, Jeremy JY, Mehta D, Izzat MB, Timm M, Bryan AJ, and Angelini GD. (1998) Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors in porcine saphenous vein-carotic artery graft. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 31: S328-330.
Davies DM. (1982) A world survey of anticoagulation practice in clinical microvascular surgery. Br J Plast Surg. 5:96-99.
Deuel TF, Senior RM, Chang D, Griffin GL, Heinrikson RL, and Kaiser ET. (1981) Platelet factor 4 is chemotactic for neurtrophils and monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78:4584-4587.
Diacovo TG, Roth SJ, Buccola JM, Bainton DF, and Spring TA. (1996). Neutrophil rolling, arrest, and transmigration across activated, surface-adherent platelets via sequential action of P-selectin and the beta 2-integrin CD11b/CD18. Blood. 88: 146-157.
Eppihimer MJ, and Granger DN. (1997) Ischemia/reperfusion induced leukocyte-endothelial interactions in postcapillary venules. Shock. 8:16-25.
Faint RW. (1992) Platelet-neutrophil interactions: their significance. Blood Rev. 6:83-91.
Ferrer-Lopez P, Renesto P, Schattner M, Bassot S, Laurent P, and Chignard M. (1990) Activation of human platelets by C5a-stimulated neutrophils: a role for cathepsin G. Am J Physiol. 258: C1100-1107.
Forde RC, and Fitzgerald DJ. (1997) Reactive oxygen species and platelet activation in reperfusion injury. Circulation 95:787-789.
Freedman JE, Sauter R, Battinelli EM, Ault K, Knowles C, Huang PL, and Loscalzo J. (1999). Deficient platelet-derived nitric oxide and enhanced hemostasis in mice lacking the NOSIII gene. Cir Res. 84: 1416-1421.
Fuglsang J, Ravn HB, Toft GE, Thorwest M, Husted SE, and Hjortdal VE. (1999) Intravenous acetylsalicylic acid, magnesium and their combination in experimental arterial thrombosis in rats. Blood Coagul Fibrin. 10:351-357.
Furchgott RF, and Zawadzki JV. (1980) The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acethylcholine. Nature. 288: 373-376.
Furchgott RF, and Vanhoutee PM. (1989) Endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. FASEB J. 3: 2007-2018.
Gordge MP, Hothersall JS, and Noronha-Dutra AA. (1998) Evidence for a cyclic GMP-independent mechanism in the anti-platelet action of s-nitrosoglutathione. Br J Pharmacol. 124: 141-148.
Gribbe O, Lundeberg T, Samuelson UE, and Wiklund NP. (1997) Nitric oxide synthase activity and endothelial ultrastructure in ischaemic skin-flaps. Br J Plast Surg. 50:483-490.
Griesshammer M, Bangerter M, Sauer T, Wengauer R, Bergmann L, and Heimpel H. (1999) Aetiology and clinical significance of thrombocytosis: analysis of 732 patients with an elevated platelet count. J Intern Med. 245:295-300.
Hansen RJ, and Balthasar JP. (2001) Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and platelet binding of an anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa monoclonal antibody (7E3) in the rat: a quantitative rat model of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 298:165-171.
Hawiger J. (1995) Mechanism involved in platelet vessel wall interaction. Thromb Haemost. 74:369-372.
Hayashi Y, Sawa Y, Ohtake S, Fukuyama N, Nakazawa H, and Matsuda H. (2001) Peroxynitrite formation from human myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion during open heart operation. Ann Thorac Surg. 72:571-576.
Hjortdal VE, Sinclair T, Kerrigan CL, and Solymoss S. (1994) Arterial ischemia in skin flap: microcirculatory intravascular thrombosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 93: 375-385.
Horie K, Miyazaki H, Hagiwara T, Tahara E, Matsumoto A, Kadoya T, Ogami K, and Kato T. (1997) Action of thrombopoietin at the megakaryocyte progenitor level is critical for the subsequent proplatelet production. Exp Hematol. 25:169-176.
Hsiao HT, and Ou SY. (1997) Successful microsurgical tissue transfer in a patient with postsplenectomy thrombocytosis treated with platelet-phoresis. J. Reconstr. Microsurg. 13: 555-558.
Hvaal K, Oie E, and Attramadal H. (1998) Endothelin-1 is upregated during skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion. J Orthop Res. 16: 128-135.
Huk I, Nanobashvili J, Neumayer C, Punz A, Mueller M, Afkhampour K, Mittlboeck M, Losert U, Polterauer P, Roth E, Patton S, and Malinski T. (1997) L-arginine treatment alters the kinetics of nitric oxide and superoxide release and reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Circulation. 96:667-675.
Johnson PC. (1990) Platelet-mediated thrombosis in microvascular surgery: new knowledge and strategies. Plast Reconstr Surg. 86: 359-367.
Johnson PC, and Barker JH. (1992). Thrombosis and antithrombotic therapy in microvascular surgery. Clin Plast Surg. 19: 799-807.
Khachigian LM, Collins T, and Fries JW. (1997) N-acetyl cysteine blocks mesangial VCAM-1 and NF-kB expression in vivo. Am J Pathol. 151:1225-1229.
Kirschner RE, and Fantini GA. (1994). Role of iron and oxygen-derived free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Am Coll Surg. 179:103-117.
Kirschner RE, Fyfe BS, and Hoffman LA (1997). Ischemia-reperfusion injury in myocutaneous flap: Role of leukocytes and leukotrienes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 99: 1485-1493.
Knight KR, MacPhadyen K, Lepore DA, Kuwata N, Eadie PA, and O'Brien BM. (1991) Enhancement of ischaemic rabbit skin flap survival with the antioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Clin Sci. 81:31-36.
Knox LK, Angel MF, Gamper T, Amiss LR, and Morgan RF. (1996) Secondary ischemic tolerance improved by administration of L-NAME in rat flaps. Microsurgery. 17:425-427.
Khouri RK, and Shaw WW. (1989) Reconstruction of the lower extremity with microvascular free flap: A 10-year experience with 304 consecutive cases. J Trauma. 29:1086-1094.
Khouri RK, Cooley BC, Kunselman AR, Landis JR, Yeramian P, Ingram D, Natarajan N, Benes CO, and Wallemark C. (1998) A prospective study of microvascular free-flap surgery and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 102:711-721.
Krapohl BD, Siemionow M, Piza P, Pieramici SF, and Zins JE (1999) Thrombogenic stimulus causes long-term decrease of muscle flap perfusion. Ann Plast Surg 42:299-305.
Krizsa F, Buzas E, and Rak K. (1974) Study of post-splenectomy thrombocytopoiesis with 75Se-methionine in mice. Acta. Haematol. 52: 77-82.
Kubes P, Suzuki M, and Granger DN. (1991) Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 88:4651-4655.
Kubli S, Waeber B, Dalle-Ave A, and Feihl F. (2000). Reproducibility of laser Doppler imaging of skin blood flow as a tool to assess endothelial function. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 36: 640-648.
Kutti J. The management of thrombocytosis. (1990) Eur J Haematol. 44: 81-88.
Kuo YR, Jeng SF, Wang FS, Huang HC, Wei FC, and Yang KD. (2002a) Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (abciximab) inhibited platelet activation and promoted skin flap survival after ischemia/reperfusion injury J Surg Res. 107:50-55.
Kuo YR, Yang KD, Yang MY, Huang Lo MN, Lin CW, Wei FC, and Jeng SF. (2002b) Reactive thrombocytosis alone does not affect the patency of microvascular anastomosis: An animal experiment using splenectomy rat. Plast Reconstr Surg. 110: 812-817.
Lee C, and Kerrigan CL. (1992) Neurtophil localization following reperfusion of ischemic skin flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 89: 910-915.
Lee C, Kerrigan CL, and Tellado JM. (1992) Altered neutrophil function following reperfusion of an ischemic myocutaneous flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 89: 916-923.
Lee YH, Wei FC, Lee J, Su MS, and Chang YC. (1995) Effect of postischemic reperfusion on microcirculation and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Microsurgery. 16:522-527.
Lefer AM, Weyrich AS, and Buerke M. (1994) Role of selectins, a new family of adhesion molecules, in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 28:289-294.
Leonard JP, Neben TY, Kozitza MK, Quinto CM, Goldman SJ. (1996) Constant subcutaneous infusion or rhIL-11 in mice: efficient delivery enhances biological activity. Exp Hematol. 24:270-276.
Ley K, Bullard DC, Arbones ML, Bosse R, Vestweber D, Tedder TF, and Beaudet AL. (1995) Sequential contribution of L- and P-selectin to leukocyte rolling in vivo. J Exp Med. 181: 669-675.
Lille ST, Lefler SR, Mowlavi A, Suchy H, Boyle EM Jr, Farr AL, Su CY, Frank N, and Mulligan DC. (2001) Inhibition of the initial wave of NF-kB activity in rat muscle reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury. Muscle Nerve. 24:534-541.
Lineaweaver WC, and Buncke HJ. (1986) Complication of free flap transfer. Hand Clin. 2:347-351.
Lorant DE, Patel KD, McIntyre TM, McEver RP, Prescott SM, and Zimmerman GA. (1991) Coexpression of GMP-140 and PAF by endothelium stimulated by histamine or thrombin: a juxtacrine system for adhesion and activation of neutrophils. J Cell Biol. 115: 223-234.
Lucchesi BR. (1990) Modulation of leukocyte-mediated myocardial reperfusion injury. Ann Rev Physiol. 52: 561-576.
Ma XL, Weyrich AS, Lefer DJ, and Lefer AM. (1993) Diminished basal nitric oxide release after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion promote neutrophil adherence to coronary endothelium. Circ Res. 72: 403-412.
Marcus AJ. (1979) Pathways of oxygen utilization by stimulated platelets and leukocytes. Semin Hematol. 16:188-195.
Manson PN, Anthenelli RM, Im MJ, Bulkley GB, and Hoopes JE. (1983) The role of oxygen free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flap. Ann Surg. 198: 87-90.
Massberg S, Enders G, Leiderer R, Eisenmenger S, Vestweber D, Krombach F, and Messmer K. (1998) Platelet-endothelial cell interactions during ischemia/reperfusion: the role of P-selectin. Blood. 92: 507-515.
Molloy J, Martin JF, Baskerville PA, Fraser SC, and Markus HS. (1998) S-nitrosoglutathione reduces the rate of embolization in humans. Circulation. 98: 1372-1375.
Moncada S, Palmer RMT, and Higgs EA. (1991) Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 43: 109-142.
Nunokawa Y, Oikawa S, and Tanaka S. (1996) Human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene is transcriptionally regulated by nuclear factor-kB dependent mechanism. Biochem Biophy Res Co. 223: 347-352.
Oshima H, Inoue H, Aihara M, Tomioka M, and Ishida H. (1997) Physiological roles of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the epigastric island flaps of rabbits. Ann Plast Surg. 39: 608-614.
Ott I, Neumann F-J, Gawaz M, Schmitt M, and Schomig A. (1996) Increased neutrophil-platelet adhesion in patients with unstable angina. Circulation. 94: 1239-1246.
Parker RI, and Gralnick HR. (1986) Identification of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa as the major binding site for released platelet von Willebrand factor. Blood. 68:732-736.
Peter FW, Franken RJ, Wang WZ, Anderson GL, Schuschke DA, O'Shaughnessy MM, Banis JC, Steinau HU, and Barker JH. (1997) Effect of low dose aspirin on thrombus formation at arterial and venous microanastomoses and on the tissue microcirculation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 99: 1112-1121.
Petry JJ, and Wortham KA. (1984) The anatomy of the epigastric flap in the experimental rat. Plast Reconstr Surg. 74: 410-413.
Picard-Ami LA Jr, Mckay A, and Kerrigan CL. (1992) Effect of allopurinol on the survival of experimental pig flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 89: 1098-1103.
Pinsky DJ, Naka Y, Liao H, Oz MC, Wagner DD, Mayadas T, Johnson RC, Hynes RO, Heath M, Lawson CA, and Stern DM. (1996) Hypoxia-induced exocytosis of endothelial cell Weibel-Palade bodies. J Clin Invest. 97: 493-500.
Power CA, Clemetson JM, Clenetson KJ, and Wells TN. (1995) Chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in human platelet. Cytokine 7:479-482.
Radomski MW, Palmer RM, and Moncada S. (1987) Endogenous nitric oxide inhibits human platelet adhesion to vascular endothelium. Lancet. 2: 1057-1058.
Radomski MW, Palmer RMJ, and Moncada S. (1990) An L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway present in human platelets regulates aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 87:5193-5197.
Radomski MW, Rees DD, and Dutra A. (1992) S-nitrosoglutathione inhibits platelet activation in vitro and in vivo. Br J Pharmacol 107:745-749.
Reverter J, Beguin S, Kessels R, Hemker H, and Coller B. (1996) Inhibition of platelet-mediated tissue factor-induced thrombin generation by the mouse/human chimeric 7E3 antibody. J Clin Invest. 98:863-874.
Rinder HM, Schuster JE, Rinder CS, Wang C, Schweidler HJ, and Smith BR. (1998) Correlation of thrombosis with increased platelet turnover in thrombocytosis. Blood. 91:1288-1294.
Rodeberg DA, Chaet MS, Bass RC, Arkoritz MS, and Garcia VF. (1995) Nitric oxide: an overview. Am J Surg. 170: 292-303.
Rothkopf DM, Chu B, Bern S, and May JW Jr. (1993). The effect of dextran on microvascular thrombosis in an experimental rabbit model. Plast Reconstr Surg. 92: 511-515.
Ruf A, and Patscheke H. (1995) Platelet induced neutrophil activation: platelet-expressed fibrinogen induces the oxidative burst in enutrophil by an interaction with CD11b/CD18. Br J Haematol. 90:791-796.
Sagi A, Ferder M, Levens D, and Strauch B. (1986) Improved survival of island flaps after prolonged ischemia by perfusion with superoxide dismutase. Plast Reconstr Surg. 77:639-644.
Salas E, Langtord EJ, Marrinan MT, Martin JF, Moncada S, and de Belder AJ. (1998) S-nitrosoglutathione inhibits platelet activation and deposition in coronary artery saphenous vein grafts in vitro and in vivo. Heart. 80: 146-150.
Salter JW, Krieglstein CF, Issekutz AC, and Granger DN. (2001) Platelets modulate ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte recuitment in the mesenteric circulation. Am J Physiol. 2001:G1432-1439.
Sasaki GH, and Pang CY. (1980). Hemodynamic and viability of acute neurovascular island skin flaps in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg. 65: 152-158.
Scarborough RM, Kleiman NS, and Philips DR. (1999) Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists: What are the relevant issues concerning their pharmacology and clinical use? Circulation. 100:437-444.
Schini-Kerth VB, Boese M, Busse R, Fisslthaler B, and Mulsch A. (1997) N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone prevents expression of iNOS in vascular smooth muscle by blocking activation of NF-kappa B. Arterioscler Thromb Biol. 17: 672-679.
Singh RJ, Hogg N, Joseph J, and Klyanaraman B. (1996) Mechanism of nitric oxide release from S-ntrosothiol. J Biol Chem. 271:18596-18603.
Spink J, Cohen J, and Evans TJ. (1995) The cytokine responsive vascular smooth muscle cell enhancer of inducible nitric oxide synthase: activation by nuclear factor-kB. J Biol Chem. 270:29541-29547.
Stagliano NE, Zhao W, Prado R, Dewanjee MK, Ginsberg MD, and Dietrich WD. (1997) The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on acute platelet accumulation and hemodynamic depression in a rat model of thromboembolic stroke. J Cerebr Blood F Met. 17: 1182-1190.
Stancovski I, and Baltimore D. (1997) NF kappa B activation: The I kappa B kinase revealed? Cell. 91: 299-302.
Sudo Y, Kilgore KS, and Lucchesi BR. (1995) Monoclonal antibody [7E3(Fab)2] prevent arterial but not venous rethrombosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 26:241-250.
Suzuki M, Asako H, Kubes P, Jennings S, Grisham MB, and Granger DN. (1991) Neutrophil-derived oxidants promote leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venules. Microvasc Res. 42: 125-138.
Sutor AH. (1995) Thrombocytosis in childhood. Semin Thromb Hemost. 21: 330-339.
Tange T, and Miyazaki H. (1996) Synergistic effect of erythropoietin and interleukin-6 on the in vitro proplatelet process formation of rat megakaryocytes. Pathol Intl. 46:968-976.
Tanum G, Sonstevold A, and Jakobsen E. (1983) The effect of splenectomy on platelet formation and megakaryocyte DNA content in rats. Blood 63: 593-397.
Tebbetts JB. (1985) Microsurgery: free tissue transfer & replantation. Sel Read Plast Surg. 31-36.
Taft EG, Babcock RB, Scharfman WB, and Tartaglia AP. (1977) Platelet-pheresis in the management of thrombocytosis. Blood. 50: 927-933.
Topol EJ. (1998) Toward a new frontier in myocardial reperfusion therapy: emerging platelet preeminence. Circulation. 97: 211-218.
Um SC, Suzuki S, Toyokuni S, Kim BM, Tanaka T, Hiai H, and Nishimura Y. (1998) Involvement of nitric oxide in survival of random pattern skin flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 101: 785-792.
Um SC, Suzuki S, Toyokuni S, Uchida K, Hiai H, and Nishimura Y. (1999) Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 3-nitro-L-tyrosine in rat island skin flaps during and after ischemia. Ann Plast Surg. 42:293-298.
Valen G, Yan ZQ, and Hansson GK. (2001) Nuclear factor kappa-B and the heart. J Am Coll Cardiol. 38:307-314.
von Andrian UH, Chambers JD, McEvoy LM, Bargatze RF, Arfors KE, and Butcher EC. (1991) Two-step model of leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in inflammation: distinct roles for LECAM-1 and the leukocyte beta 2 integrins in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 88:7538-7542.
Wagner CL, Macelli MA, Neblock DS, Weisman HF, Coller BS, and Jordan RE. (1996) Analysis of GP IIb/IIIa receptor number by quantification of 7E3 binding to human platelets. Blood. 88: 907-914.
Walker PM, Lindsay TF, Labbe R, Mickle DA, and Romaschin AD. (1987) Salvage of skeletal muscle with free radical scavengers. J Vasc Surg. 5:68-75.
Walsh PN, Murphy S, and Barry WE. (1977) The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytosis. Thromb Haemost. 38: 1085-1096.
Wang FS, Wang CJ, Sheen-Chen SM, Kuo YR, Chen RF, and Yang KD. (2002) Superoxide mediates shock wave induction of ERK-dependent osteogenic transcription factor (CBFA1) and mesenchymal cell differentiation toward osteoprogenitors. J Biol Chem. 277:10931-10937.
Wang WZ, Anderson G, Fleming JT, Peter FW, Franken RJ, Acland RD, and Barker J. (1997) Lack of nitric oxide contributes to vasospasm during ischemia/reperfusion injury. Plast Reconstr Surg. 99: 1099-1108.
Wei FC, Jain V, Celik N, Chen HC, Chang DCC, and Lin CH. (2002) Have we found an ideal soft —tissue flap? An experience with 672 anterolateral thigh flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 109: 2219-2230.
Weiss SJ. (1989) Tissue destruction by neutrophils. N Engl J Med 320:365-376.
Wencel-Drake JD, Plow EF, Kunicki TJ, Woods VL, Keller DM, and Ginsberg MH. (1986) Localization of internal pools of membrane glycoproteins involved in platelet adhesive response. Am J Pathol. 124:324-334.
Weyrich AS, Elstad MR, McEver RP, McIntyre TM, Moore KL, Morrissey JH, Prescott SM, and Zimmerman GA. (1996) Activated platelets signal chemokine synthesis by human monocytes. J Clin Invest. 97:1525-1534.
Williams MJ, Du X, Loftas J, and Ginsberg MH. (1995) Platelet adhesion receptors. Semin Cell Biol. 6:305-314.
Xie QW, Kashiwabara Y, and Nathan C. (1994) Role of transcription factor NF-kB/Rel in induction of nitric oxide synthase. J Biol Chem. 269:4705-4708.
Zampolli A, Basta G, Lazzerini G, Feelisch M, and De Caterina R. (2000) Inhibition of endothelial cell activation by nitric oxide donors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 295: 818-823.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文