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研究生:曾彥祥
研究生(外文):Yan-Xiang Zeng
論文名稱:快速投影技術應用於波束合成之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Projection Acceleration Effects on Beamforming
指導教授:張赫烜張赫烜引用關係柏小松
指導教授(外文):H. H. ChangS. S. Bor
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:電機工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:LCMN智慧型天線系統向量空間投影技術LCMV
外文關鍵詞:vector space projectionLCMVLCMNsmart antenna system
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摘 要
面對無線通信環境中信號及干擾並存問題,我們可引用線性限制最小變異演算法則(LCMV)來獲致多波束合成及干擾抑制之雙重功效。但當基地台在同時服務多用戶時,行動用戶處於移動狀態,以及瞬間不斷有新用戶加入或退出通信服務網,對於此種複雜之時變環境中,要即時求得LCMV法則之陣列權值深具挑戰性或者難以實現。
本論文提出以向量空間投影法(Vector Space Projection)來作LCMV權位向量之即時處理研究。相較於LCMV之權位向量需經由求大維度矩陣之反矩陣來獲得,向量空間投影乃利用串接或並行式遞迴原理來求近似解,它既可避免求反矩陣之大運算量,亦可對時變環境作快速投影反映,故較易實現於智慧型天線系統。無論是串接或並行式遞迴,向量空間投影法之效能取決於遞迴處理之收斂速度,而收斂速度則取決於相關度。文中我們探討「限制矩陣相關度」及「限制式之組合方式」對串接及並行式遞迴收歛速度之影響,並進一步引用放寬投影(Relaxed Projection)、去相關處理(Decorrelation Processing)及Gram-Schmidt正交化(Gram-Schmidt Orthogonal Processing)三種技術來獲致快速收歛之功效,我們並證明若限制矩陣之間具正交性,則只需一次遞迴即可求得和LCMV相同之解。模擬結果印証向量空間投影技術之可行性。
Abstract
The LCMV, which may achieve the SDMA scheme via directional constraints to set both high gain and null constraints to preserve desired signals as well as to suppress interference simultaneously, can be applied to form a digital beamformer for developing the smart antenna systems. However, the mobility and varying number of users, as well as the time-varying characteristics of channel, will make the implementation of the LCMV-based beamforming especially challenging or even impossible.
We apply vector space projection technique to update in real-time manner the array weighting function based on the LCMV algorithm. In this approach we can avoid the heavy computing load of matrix inversion from which the weighting based on LCMV is derived, and apply either the sequential or parallel projection technique to derive iteratively the same weighting solution as that of the LCMV does. When doing vector space projection, the convergence rate of carrying sequential or parallel projection determines the performance of both techniques. We analyze how the correlation and the organization of constrain matrix can control the convergence rate. Three techniques which are relaxed projection, decorrelation and Gram-Schmidt orthogonal processing are introduced to accelerate the convergence rate. We show one iteration is required to achieve the same LCMV solution. The simulation results show that the projection approach of beamforming is effective.
目 錄
摘要 ……………………………………………………………….… i
Abstract…………………………………………………………… ii
誌謝 ………………………………………………………..……… iii
目錄 ……………………………………………………...………… iv
圖目錄 …………………………………………………...………… vi
縮寫及符號對照表 …………………………………………….… ix
第一章 緒言 …………………………..…………………...……… 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 ………………………………….…… 1
1.2 研究方法與內容概述 ………………………….……… 5
第二章 適應性演算法與向量空間投影技術 ……………..…… 7
2.1 LCMV與LCMN演算法介紹 ………………….……… 7
2.2 向量空間投影 …………………………………..…… 10
2.3 本章結論 ……………………………………………… 15
第三章 串列投影技術應用於波束合成 ……………………… 16
3.1 串列投影原理介紹 ………………………………...… 16
3.2 影響串列投影效能之因素探討 ……………..……… 18
3.2.1 限制矩陣之相關性 …………………….……… 18
3.2.2 限制式之組合方式 ……………………….…… 39
3.3 本章結論 ……………………………………………… 52
第四章 並列投影技術應用於波束合成 ……………………… 53
4.1 並列投影原理介紹 ………………………………… 53
4.2 影響並列投影效能之因素探討 …………………..… 54
4.2.1 並列投影之貢獻度 ………………………….… 54
4.2.2 限制矩陣之相關性 ……………………….…… 58
4.2.3 限制式之組合方式 ………………………….… 65
4.3 本章結論 ……………………………………………… 68
第五章 加快並列與串列投影速度之研究 …………………… 70
5.1 加快投影速度之原理之介紹 ……………………..… 70
5.1.1 應用放寬投影技術 ……………………….…… 70
5.1.2 去相關加快投影速度 …………………….…… 72
5.1.3 應用Gram-Schmidt技術 ………………….… 73
5.2 加快並列投影速度之方式 ……………………..…… 74
5.2.1 應用放寬投影技術 …………...…………..…… 74
5.2.2 去相關加快投影速度 …………………….…… 77
5.2.3 應用Gram-Schmidt技術 …………….……… 78
5.3 加快串列投影速度之方式 …………………..……… 81
5.3.1 去相關加快投影速度 …………………….…… 81
5.3.2 應用Gram-Schmidt技術 ……………….…… 82
5.4 本章結論 ……………………………………………… 85
第六章 結論 …………………………………………………...… 86
參考文獻 …………………………………………………..……… 88
作者簡介 ……………………………………………………..…… 91
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