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研究生:黃琬婷
研究生(外文):Wan-Ting Huang
論文名稱:年輕男中長跑運動員在比賽季之訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日之膳食營養狀況
論文名稱(外文):In-Season Dietary Intake of Young Middle- and Long- Distance Male Runners
指導教授:李寧遠李寧遠引用關係衛沛文衛沛文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ning-Yuean LeePui-Man Wai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:中長跑耐力運動員營養評估飲食習慣能量攝取
外文關鍵詞:middle- and long- distance runningendurance athletenutritional assessmentdietary habitenergy consumption
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中長跑是一種兼具速度與耐力的運動,且其一週的訓練量可能高達90-150 km,因此,中長跑選手相對的較一般運動員更需注意高的能量與營養需求。運動員的營養攝取,在比賽季節的不同時期可能有所變異。本研究目的在探討國內年輕男性中長跑運動員於比賽季之訓練期 (training, T)、比賽前期 (pre-race, PR) 與比賽日 (race, R) 之膳食營養狀況。受試者為9名大專男性中長跑運動員,平均年齡為 20.1 ± 1.2 y,身高171.5 ± 5.2 cm,體重59.9 ± 4.8 kg,估計體脂肪5.4 ± 0.8%。T與PR實施3-d食物秤重法;R實施飲食回憶法 [兩評估法已預先校正無差異 (P > 0.05) ],並利用飲食及身體活動問卷來增加對受試者飲食攝取狀況的瞭解。膳食營養成分分析的結果顯示,三個時期所有被分析的營養素攝取皆沒有顯著差異 (P > 0.05)。T的總能量攝取符合對運動員的飲食建議量,其他營養素攝取亦符合DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes);PR與R的總能量攝取有低於T的傾向 (分別比T少34.2% 和 34.6%),蛋白質攝取情況亦相似 (分別比T少60.1% 和 86.4%)。T、PR與R的脂肪攝取皆超過 30% 總熱量 (分別超過0.8%、1.3% 與 6.2%);醣類攝取有少於 500 g·d-1 的傾向 (分別少7.7%、17.5% 與 32.2%)。R的維生素E、B群 (除了維生素B12之外)、鈣、鋅的攝取有較DRIs低的傾向。另外,受試者三期使用營養補充劑的比率分別為44.4%、22.2% 與11.1%。電視、廣播與老師、教練為其獲得運動營養訊息的主要來源。建議提高醣類與降低脂肪的攝取量,並加強運動員運動營養方面的相關知識,改進飲食行為及習慣,以提升訓練品質與比賽表現。

Middle- and long- distance running requires both speed and endurance. The training volume could reach 90 to 150 kmּwk-1. Therefore, energy and nutritional consumption is a major concern. Dietary nutrients intake of athletes varies in different periods of in-season. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary nutrients intake of young male middle- and long- distance runners during training period (T), pre-race period (PR), and race period (R). The subjects were nine college male middle- and long- distance runners with age 20.1 ± 1.2 y (mean ± SD), height 171.5 ± 5.2 cm, weight 59.9 ± 4.8 kg and estimated body fat 5.4 ± 0.8%. Three-day weighed food record was obtained on T and PR; whereas 24-h dietary recall was obtained on R. No significant (P > 0.05) differences were found between the results of theses two methods in the subjects. Dietary and physical activity questionnaires were also conducted to evaluate the understanding of dietary intakes of the subjects. The result of all analyzed dietary nutrients intake had no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the three periods studied. The total energy intake (kcalּd-1) of T met the recommended dietary intake for middle- and long- distance athletes; other nutrients intakes of T met DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes). The total energy intakes of PR and R tend to be lower than T (-34.2% and -34.6%), so was the protein intake (-60.1% and -86.4%). The fat intakes of T, PR and R were over 30% of total intake (over 0.8%, 1.3%, and 6.2% respectively); Carbohydrate intake had a tendency of lower than 500 g·d-1 (-7.7%, -17.5% and -32.2% lower respectively); Vitamin E, B (except Vitamin B12), calcium, and zinc of R tend to be lower than DRIs. Furthermore, the percentages of number of subject in nutritional supplement intake of three periods are 44.4%, 22.2% and 11.1% respectively. Television, radio, teachers and coaches were subject’s major source of sport nutritional information. It is suggested to increase carbohydrate and decrease fat intake, promote practice of nutritional education and modification of dietary behavior to improve subject’s nutritional status and exercise performance.

頁次
中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
致謝 ………………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………………………XI
表目錄 ……………………………………………………………………XII
中英對照 …………………………………………………………………XVI
第一章 緒論 …………………………………………………………… 1
一、研究背景 ………………………………………………………… 1
二、研究動機 ………………………………………………………… 2
三、研究目的 ………………………………………………………… 3
四、研究結果與意義 ………………………………………………… 3
五、研究假設 ………………………………………………………… 4
六、研究範圍 ………………………………………………………… 4
七、研究限制 ………………………………………………………… 4
第二章 文獻回顧 ……………………………………………………… 5
一、運動營養 ………………………………………………………… 5
二、中長跑運動介紹 ………………………………………………… 6
三、運動員體內能量之代謝 ………………………………………… 6
(一) 運動持續時間 …………………………………………………… 6
(二) 運動強度與能量之利用 ………………………………………… 8
四、運動營養評估方法 ……………………………………………… 8
五、中長跑運動員的營養需求與飲食建議 ………………………… 14
(一) 中長跑運動員的熱量及營養素需求 …………………………… 14
(二) 訓練期與比賽前、比賽中的飲食需求 ………………………… 23
(三) 運動員營養補充劑的使用 …………………………………… 25
六、運動員運動營養態度 …………………………………………… 27
七、運動員營養評估的相關研究 …………………………………… 27
(一) 運動員營養評估 ……………………………………………… 28
(二) 中長跑運動員的營養評估 …………………………………… 29
(三) 國內運動員營養評估研究 …………………………………… 31
第三章 材料與方法 ………………………………………………… 38
一、研究對象 ………………………………………………………… 38
二、研究時間 ………………………………………………………… 38
三、研究方法與步驟 ………………………………………………… 39
(一) 實驗流程 ……………………………………………………… 39
(二) 實驗項目 ……………………………………………………… 40
(三) 實驗步驟 ……………………………………………………… 43
(四) 研究分析方法 ………………………………………………… 52
第四章 結果 ………………………………………………………… 54
一、飲食習慣 ………………………………………………………… 54
(一) 一般性飲食習慣 ……………………………………………… 54
(二) 比賽前期飲食習慣 …………………………………………… 54
二、飲食營養素攝取狀況 …………………………………………… 58
(一) 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日之熱量攝取情形 ……………… 58
(二) 三大營養素攝取情形 ………………………………………… 61
(三) 抗氧化維生素攝取情形 ……………………………………… 67
(四) 能量代謝相關之維生素B群攝取情形 ………………………… 69
(五) 礦物質攝取情形 ……………………………………………… 69
三、補充劑的使用情形 ……………………………………………… 72
四、每日飲水量與水分的補充 ……………………………………… 72
五、運動營養訊息的關心程度及訊息來源 ………………………… 79
六、體位測量 ………………………………………………………… 79
第五章 討 論 ………………………………………………………… 84
一、飲食營養素攝取狀況 …………………………………………… 84
(一) 中長跑運動員飲食習慣 ……………………………………… 84
(二) 熱量攝取分析 ………………………………………………… 85
(三) 三大營養素攝取分析 ………………………………………… 89
(四) 維生素攝取情形 ……………………………………………… 94
(五) 礦物質攝取情形 ……………………………………………… 99
二、補充劑的使用情況 ……………………………………………… 101
三、運動員的運動營養態度與營養訊息來源 ……………………… 103
四、體位測量 ………………………………………………………… 104
五、國內年輕中長跑運動員的飲食營養問題 ……………………… 105
第六章 結論與建議 ……………………………………………………108
一、結論 ……………………………………………………………… 108
二、建議 ……………………………………………………………… 109
參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………… 110
附錄一、飲食習慣問卷 ……………………………………………… 124
附錄二、營養知識問卷 ……………………………………………… 128
附錄三、身體活動問卷 ……………………………………………… 131
附錄四、飲食記錄表格 ……………………………………………… 132
附錄五、食物廢棄率 ………………………………………………… 133
附錄六、受試者飲食中三大營養素之主要食物來源 ……………… 137
表 1 訓練期飲食中三大營養素主要食物來源 …………………… 137
表 2 比賽前期飲食中三大營養素主要食物來源 ………………… 139
表 3 比賽日飲食中三大營養素主要食物來源 ………………………141
附錄七、受試者個人基本資料 ……………………………………… 143
附錄八、受試者每日平均營養素攝取 ……………………………… 144
表 1 訓練期每日平均營養素攝取 ……………………………………144
表 2 比賽前期每日平均營養素攝取 …………………………………145
表 3 比賽日每日平均營養素攝取 ……………………………………146
《圖目錄》 頁次
圖 3 - 1 實驗流程……………………………………………………… 39
圖 4 - 1 受試者三大營養素攝取量佔總熱量百分比………………… 60
圖 4 - 2 受試者餐次攝取量佔總熱量百分比………………………… 62
圖 4 - 3 中長跑運動員不同時期各類食物中蛋白質攝取量………… 64
圖 4 - 4 中長跑運動員不同時期各類食物中脂肪攝取量…………… 65
圖 4 - 5 中長跑運動員不同時期各類食物中醣類攝取量…………… 66
圖 5 - 1 受試者三大營養素攝取量佔NAHSIT 百分比…………………91
圖 5 - 2 受試者維生素攝取量佔DRIs 百分比……………………… 96
圖 5 - 3 受試者維生素攝取量佔NAHSIT 百分比………………………97
圖 5 - 4 受試者礦物質攝取量佔DRIs 百分比…………………………100
《表目錄》 頁次
表 2 - 1 各種跑步項目的能量利用 ………………………………… 15
表 2 - 2 運動員營養評估之相關文獻摘要表 ……………………… 33
表 3 - 1 受試者基本資料 …………………………………………… 38
表 3 - 2 中長跑運動員實際攝取食物項目與回憶食物項目之比較…46
表 3 - 3 中長跑運動員實際與回憶食物攝取重量之比較 ………… 48
表 3 - 4 中長跑運動員實際與回憶熱量及營養素攝取量之比較 … 49
表 3 - 5 中長跑運動員實際與回憶熱量及營養素攝取量之相關性…50
表 4 - 1 受試者飲食習慣 …………………………………………… 55
表 4 - 2 受試者三餐與點心、晩點攝取狀況 ……………………… 56
表 4 - 3 受試者比賽前期飲食改變時間 …………………………… 57
表 4 - 4 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者每日平均熱量及三大營
養素比較 …………………………………………………… 59
表 4 - 5 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者每日平均微量營養素攝取
比較 ………………………………………………………… 68
表 4 - 6 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者每日平均維生素B群攝取
比較 ………………………………………………………… 70
表 4 - 7 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者每日平均礦物質攝取比
較………………………………………………………………71
表 4 - 8 受試者補充劑使用情形 …………………………………… 73
表 4 - 9 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者營養補充劑實際攝取頻率 …………………………………………………………………74
表 4 - 10 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日受試者每日平均維生素攝取比
較 ……………………………………………………………75
表 4 - 11 受試者每日飲水量 …………………………………………78
表 4 - 12 訓練期、比賽前期與比賽日飲料攝取頻率 ………………80
表 4 - 13 受試者對運動營養的關心程度 ……………………………81
表 4 - 14 運動營養訊息來源 …………………………………………82
表 4 - 25 受試者自覺體重狀況 ………………………………………83

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