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研究生:陳曉郁
研究生(外文):Hsiao-yu Chen
論文名稱:規範性與蒯因的自然化知識論
論文名稱(外文):Normativity and Quine''s Naturalized Epistemology
指導教授:方萬全方萬全引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wan-Chuan Fang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:哲學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:蒯因自然化知識論規範性基礎論金哲光弗理高德曼勞丹
外文關鍵詞:Willard. V. QuineNaturalized EpistemologyNormativityFoundationalismJaegwon KimRichard FoleyAlvin I. GoldmanLarry Laudan
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  蒯因的自然化知識論主要論及:第一、放棄傳統知識論的理由:這部分主要說明,蒯因為何不再探究以證成為中心的知識論。第二、如何在新的設定下進行知識論的研究:這部分指出,蒯因希望整合哲學與心理學(或其他科學理論)以建構出新型態的知識論。蒯因理論的重要性在於,它不僅指出傳統知識論所面臨的困境,同時還能配合當代科學理論發展,以科際整合的方式論述知識論的議題,如此適度地解開當代科學與哲學之間的糾葛。
  學者們通常從懷疑論及規範性兩方面批判蒯因的自然化知識論。在規範性的部分,學者們的爭論焦點集中在「蒯因的自然化知識論是否排除規範性?」這個問題上。有些知識論者(如金哲光)認為,蒯因主張放棄以證成為理論中心的知識論傳統,也就是在其知識論中排除了證成這個概念,因此也就排除了伴隨著證成而來的規範性。學者們強烈質疑:在缺乏規範性的情況下,蒯因還能不能進行知識論的研究?又如何進行研究?針對這個問題,蒯因從自然化知識論的角度很清楚地予以回應。然而,蒯因的回應是否令人滿意?這點還有待討論。
  本文分成五章進行論述:第一章簡述傳統知識論的架構--即笛卡兒的知識論,繼之以基礎論為例,說明當代知識論乃延續自笛卡兒為主的知識論傳統。本章不僅要闡明傳統知識論的精髓,同時希望指出笛卡兒知識論與當代基礎論之間的關聯性,更重要的是說明蒯因為文駁斥的傳統知識論所指為何,藉此為論述蒯因的自然化知識論預作準備。
  第二章將陳述自然化知識論的經典論述,也就是蒯因的理論。本章主要說明:為何蒯因要求我們完全放棄以證成為中心的知識論傳統,又為何將知識論研究的重心轉移到以描述科學理論為主這樣的型態。此外,蒯因也詳細說明他的自然化知識論的主要觀點,如從輸入到輸出的因果模式、知識論和自然科學之間相互包含的關係、觀察述句本身所發揮的作用等等,這些觀點不僅用來說明自然化知識論的整體內容,同時亦能呈現自然化知識論迥異於傳統知識論之處。
  第三章將透過金哲光、弗理等當代學者的論述,針對「蒯因的自然化知識論能否容納規範性」這點進行討論。其中將說明蒯因如何排除傳統知識論的規範性,又如何回應他人對其理論缺乏規範性的質疑。從這些問題中我們將歸結出,蒯因的自然化理論並不像他自己說的,是在一種新的設定及清楚的狀態下繼續發展的知識論。
  第四章將談到,在蒯因提出他的自然化知識論之後,許多學者開始剖析知識論中規範性與自然化的成分,並提出各式各樣不同的見解。本章將分別就金哲光、高德曼以及勞丹的主張來談知識論可能的發展方向。未來的知識論研究到底會朝向何處發展?是走向自然化的規範性知識論?或是發展其他的理論,如心理學進路的知識論?還是緊守著蒯因的主張,強調規範性的自然化知識論?本文將針對這些可能的結果加以說明。
  最後的結論部分,將重述本文討論的重點及主要議題,同時回顧前四章的內容,說明本文已釐清的論題何在,並嘗試論述與本文相關之未來研究及發展方向。
導論
第一章 傳統知識論的主要內容
  第一節 傳統知識論的先驅-笛卡兒的理論
  第二節 傳統知識論的延續-以當代基礎論為例
第二章 自然化知識論的源起-蒯因的理論
  第一節 蒯因主張自然化知識論的理由
  第二節 自然化知識論的內容
第三章 自然化知識論與規範問題
  第一節 金哲光的論證
  第二節 弗理的回應
  第三節 自然化知識論能否容納規範性
第四章 知識論中的規範性與自然化
  第一節 自然化的規範知識論--以金哲光的衍生理論為例
  第二節 心理學進路的知識論--以高德曼的可靠理論為例
  第三節 規範的自然化知識論--以勞丹的理論為例
結論
參考書目
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