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研究生:張智謙
研究生(外文):Chih- Chien Chang
論文名稱:基於社群之點對點搜尋
論文名稱(外文):Peer-to-Peer Search based on Community
指導教授:梅興梅興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsing Mei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:點對點搜尋社群選徑
外文關鍵詞:Peer-to-PeerP2PSearchCommunityRouting
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:138
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
隨著網際網路的廣泛使用,點對點(Peer-to-Peer)傳輸模式應用快速增加,目前依循點對點的應用有:檔案傳輸(File-Sharing)、即時通訊(Instant Messaging)、遠端協同合作(Group Collaboration)以及分散式運算(Distributed Computing)等。這些點對點傳輸模式的應用,在取得資源前都必須先尋找到分享的資源。如何提供一個有效率的機制去尋找分享的資源,並且能夠適用於不同的應用,即是本論文所要解決的問題。
在本論文中,我們提出了應用社群(Community)的概念達到適用於不同應用上,並且將網路分割為許多較小的區塊(Cluster),透過選徑(Routing)的方式將查詢(Query)送往不同的區塊,藉此達到有效率的搜尋。另外,為了對於社群的總數以及單一社群的存廢做有效的控制,我們提出了一個過濾的機制(Filter Function),將較不重要或是已無人使用的社群過濾出來,藉此達到對於社群的管理。我們實做了一個P2P系統測試平台(Test bed)用以測試各項轉送(Forwarding)查詢方式的效率,其中我們比較了三種轉送查詢的方式,分別為氾濫 (Flooding)轉送、隨機(Random)轉送以及選徑轉送。從實驗的結果顯示,在不同的環境特性下,使用選徑的方式轉送查詢皆擁有最佳的效率,其能夠有效的減少查詢時所產生的訊息(Message)量。在最佳情形下,選徑轉送較氾濫轉送節省80%的訊息量,並且較隨機轉送節省65%的訊息量。

Network applications based on Peer-to-Peer (P2P) model increase rapidly as Internet grows. Current P2P applications include: file-sharing, instant messaging, group collaboration, and distributed computing. All P2P applications have to provide a search scheme to find the sharing resources. We proposed an efficient search scheme to find peers of specific community, and this scheme can also be applied to generalized P2P systems.
The search scheme we proposed for P2P systems is called Community based P2P Search. To make search efficient, the network is divided into small clusters, and queries are routed among clusters. We also proposed a filter function for community management. The filter function can filter out the less important or unpopular communities, and keeps the number of communities under control. A test bed is implemented to test the performance of our search scheme based on three forwarding algorithms: flooding, random, and routing forwarding algorithms. The experimental results show that the routing forwarding has best performance in most cases. Routing forwarding may reduce the query cost up to 80% comparing with flooding forwarding, and up to 65% comparing with random forwarding.

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Chapter 2. Background 5
2.1 P2P Systems 5
2.1.1 Centralized Approach 5
2.1.2 Distributed Approach 6
2.1.3 Hybrid Approach 7
2.2 Community Management 10
Chapter 3. Community based P2P Search 13
3.1 Architecture 13
3.2 Community Management 15
3.3 Search Routing 17
3.4 Performance Model 25
Chapter 4. Experiments 28
4.1 Experiment Environment 28
4.2 Experiment Parameters 30
4.3 Experiment Results 34
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Future Work 43
Reference 45

[1] The Napster website, http://www.napster.com
[2] The Gnutella website, http://gnutella.wego.com
[3] The MSN Messenger website, http://messenger.msn.com
[4] The ICQ website, http://web.icq.com
[5] The Groove Network website, http://www.groove.net
[6] The SETI@home website, http://setiathome.ssl.berkely.edu
[7] The United Device website, http://www.ud.com
[8] The Freenet website, http://freenetproject.org
[9] D. Kato, “GISP: Global Information Sharing Protocol - a Distributed Index for Peer-to-Peer Systems”, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Sept. 2002, pp. 65-72.
[10] M. Portmann, and A. Seneviratne, “The Cost of Application-Level Broadcast in a Fully Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Network” , in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Computers and Communications, July 2002, pp. 941-946.
[11] M. Portmann, P. Sookavatana, S. Ardon, and A. Seneviratne, “The Cost of Peer Discovery and Searching in The Gnutella Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Protocol”, in Proceedings of Ninth IEEE International Conference on Networks, Oct. 2001, pp. 263-268
[12] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Liben-Nowell, D.R. Karger, M.F. Kaashoek, F. Dabek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: a Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 11, No. 1 , Feb. 2003, pp. 17-32
[13] Balachander Krishnamurthy, Jia Wang and Yinglian Xie, “Early Measurements of a Cluster-based Architecture for P2P Systems”, in ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop, Nov. 2001, pp. 105-109
[14] Steven Waterhouse, “JXTA Search: Distributed Search for Distributed Networks.” http://search.jxta.org
[15] S. Botros, S. Waterhouse, “Search in JXTA and Other Distributed Networks” , in Proceedings of First International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Aug. 2001, pp. 30-35
[16] B. Yang, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Improving Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks”, in Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, July 2002, pp. 5-14
[17] A. Crespo, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Routing Indices for Peer-to-Peer Systems”, in Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, July 2002, pp. 23-32
[18] Hari Balkrishnan, M. Frans Kaashoek, David Karger, Robert Morris and Ion Stoica, “Looking Up Data in P2P Systems,” Communication of The ACM , Feb. 2003, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 43-48
[19] A. Rowstron, and P. Druschel, “Pastry: Scalable, Distributed Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems”, in IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms, Nov. 2001, pp. 329-350
[20] Heejeong Kim, Dongman Lee, and Hee Yong Youn, “A Scalable Membership Service for Group Communications in WANs”, in Proceedings of 2000 Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, Dec. 2000, pp.59-66
[21] Bumho Kim, Dongman Lee, and Dukyun Nam, “Scalable Group Membership Service for Mobile Internet”, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems, Jan. 2002, pp. 295-298
[22] Michael Miller. “Discovering P2P”. SYBEX, ISBN:0-7821-4018-1

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