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研究生:曾心嫻
研究生(外文):Tseng Hsin-hsien
論文名稱:性別干預與白人自由主義:娜汀葛蒂瑪《柏格的女兒》中種族隔離的抗拒與自我身份的重建
論文名稱(外文):Gender Intervention with White Liberalism: Resisting Apartheid, Reconstructing Self-Identity in Nadine Gordimer''s Burger''s Daughter
指導教授:陳淑卿陳淑卿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:性別種族隔離後殖民娜汀.葛蒂瑪
外文關鍵詞:genderapartheidpost-colonialismGordimerNadine
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摘要
在南非實行種族隔離政策時,種族不平等呈現在階級、種族、空間的劃分。娜汀葛蒂瑪 (Nadine Gordimer)的小說《柏格的女兒》(Burger’s Daughter)藉由主角Rosa Burger的敘述,探討南非社會的黑白對立、白人獨裁政府與白人自由主義者的對抗,以及Rosa Burger如何經由母女關係(mother-daughter relationship)尋求個人意志,藉以認同南非及身為白人自由主義者在黑人運動(black movement)的地位。
本文包括序論、三個章節、與結論。第一章探討種族隔離政策(apartheid)在南非的興起,繼而討論歐洲勢力如何在南非發展其政治影響。在此章,源自歐洲的理論 (European enlightened theories)表現在書中角色Lionel Burger 及Brandt Vermeulen的政治行動上,前者藉由共產主義教條領導黑人推翻白人政府;後者則代表白人特權份子實施種族隔離政策藉以壓迫黑人。但兩者都忽略黑人本身有自決的能力。在第二章,Rosa Burger 對白人自由主義者領導黑人運動的行動抱持的悲觀態度,以及父權傳統壓抑她自身的欲望感到失望,因此她放逐自己到歐洲尋求個人經驗。Julia Kristeva的 motility of the semiotics 將分析Rosa如何在旅途中的行動力(movement)中重新架構與母親之間的關係,並藉此關係重新建構對自我身份的認同。當她在回到南非之後,此一行動力證明Rosa已具備背負黑人運動的責任。第三章探討Rosa Burger在重返南非之後,身為國內的少數白人在黑人佔多數的南非,她身為白人的位置(place)將置於何處。另外,白人政府立法強迫黑人生活在black homelands中,黑人在black homelands產生其自身的反抗意識,進而將此意識付諸行動於1976年的Soweto Revolt,並藉此推動社會改革的聲浪。
Abstract
In Burger’s Daughter, Nadine Gordimer examines whites and blacks, the multiple voices from races and political parties and anti-apartheid groups, the political and the personal struggle for individual will, the symbolic and semiotic, and the relationship of self to conscience and social position under the apartheid system in South Africa through the heroine, Rosa Burger’s narrative in the novel. Gordimer presents the opposition between the personal and political self-realization through revolutionary commitments by Rosa’s struggle for individual will. This novel seems personal about rebellion against family as well as the government, and through Rosa Burger’s explorations of ways of living, it undertakes to bring together the truth of the body and the senses with the demands of the mind and moral consciousness about black movement in South Africa.
In my thesis, I will first discuss the historical background of apartheid system in South Africa and present both the white racists’ and white liberals’ complicity of oppression on the blacks. Kristeva’s argument of “mobility of the semiotic” elaborates how Rosa Burger reconstructs her self-identity from the symbolic to the semiotic in her journey to Europe. Foucault’s concept of “heterotopias” justifies the black people’s place as the place of resistance in the revolution. As the novel’s epigraph “I am the place in which something occurred”─Rosa Burger is one such place: South Africa, as well as Gordimer’s text─are sites for/of political and personal, public and private that entail taking responsibility for the blacks’ suffering in the long run. By inscribing Rosa’s monologue about the values of herself as a white, Gordimer‘s Burger’s Daughter evokes a historical situation in which the personal cannot separate from such other realities like the black African struggle and suffering in the country.
Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………….….. 1
Chapter One Liberalism and Racism: Can White Liberalism Resist Apartheid?
………………………………………………………... 7
Chapter Two Rosa Burger’s Reconstruction of Self-Identity through Mother-Searching
………………………………………………………... 26
Chapter Three Places of Resistance
………………………………………………………... 62
Conclusion ………………………………………………………... 74
Works Cited ………………………………………………………... 78
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