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研究生:廖玲秀
研究生(外文):Ling-Hsiu Liao
論文名稱:由大葉楠造癭木蝨Triozashuiliensis(Yang)探討造癭昆蟲的營養適應
論文名稱(外文):Nutritional adaptation of galling insects: an investigation based on globular galls of Trioza shuiliensis (Yang) on Machilus japonica var. kusanoi (Hayata) Liao
指導教授:楊曼妙楊曼妙引用關係楊棋明楊棋明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Man-Miao YangChi-Ming Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:大葉楠大葉楠木蝨癭學蟲癭營養適應形態發育成分分析光合色素
外文關鍵詞:Muchilus japonica var. kusanoiTrioza shuiliensisCecidologyinsect gallnutritional adaptationmorphogenesisbiochemical componentphoto-pigment
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本試驗利用大葉楠造癭木蝨Trioza shuiliensis (Yang)與其寄主植物大葉楠 (Machilus japonica var. kusanoi (Hyata) Liao),以及二者合力形成的球形蟲癭為材料,以植物組織營養分布的角度,由組織形態及其中的成分分析,探討蟲癭的營養適應假說。在大葉楠上造球形癭的大葉楠造癭木蝨T. shuiliensis (Yang)普遍分布於台灣全島低海拔闊葉林,一年僅一個世代。雌蟲於1—2月間將卵產於小枝條的樹皮縫隙內。3—4月間一齡若蟲孵化後,在初生葉的葉背主脈或次級支脈旁找尋到適當的造癭位置後固定不動,開始刺激植物形成凹穴狀癭,植物組織繼續增生將一齡若蟲完全包埋,癭逐漸變為水泡狀突出於葉面,於6—7月間變為球形癭並持續增長。若蟲共有五個齡期,均在癭內完成,成蟲約12月羽化於蟲癭中,之後蟲癭呈不規則狀開裂,成蟲得以離開蟲癭而交配產卵。由形態的觀察與蟲癭組織的生理生化分析發現,蟲癭組織具有極高的特異性,與葉片組織截然不同,而有蟲癭的葉組織與沒有蟲癭的葉組織,二者之間的化學成分或色素大多未有顯著差異。經由蟲癭的石臘切片觀察,發現此種蟲癭已具有細胞分化及組織分層的現象,並非只是單純的細胞增生,並具維管束結構包圍著蟲室,可能具有運送同化產物的功能。初級代謝物的測定結果顯示,成熟期的蟲癭組織較葉片組織有高出2倍的蛋白質含量;非結構性的碳水化合物部份,蟲癭組織同樣具高於葉片組織2—3.6倍的含量,雖然蟲癭組織的氮含量僅有葉片組織的一半,但由過往研究顯示氮同時扮演抗蟲物質的角色,因此總氮量並不足以做為表示該組織中所具有提供營養潛力的指數;在次級代謝物測定中發現,葉組織的類黃酮含量高出蟲癭組織近5倍,但在花青素的部份卻只有蟲癭組織的十分之一。由葉綠素及其衍生物的分析中,發現蟲癭的葉綠素a、b不到正常葉片含量的十分之一,且蟲癭的Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX)百分比偏高,顯示蟲癭的葉綠素合成可能在PPIX轉換到Mg-Protoporphyrin IX (MGPP)的過程中受到阻礙。在崩解過程的代謝物,亦顯示出蟲癭組織與葉組織在葉綠素崩解過程所偏好的路徑有所不同。由於蟲癭組織的光合作用色素含量遠低於其在葉片組織中的含量,推估蟲癭應該沒有能力行正常的光合作用,故蟲癭中高單位的營養成份含量,應當來自於其它的植物組織所供應,而蟲癭可能扮演一個模擬植物的積貯組織的角色,供給造癭昆蟲相較於自由生活的昆蟲有更多營養助益。
Nutritional adaptation of a galling psyllid, Trioza shuiliensis, was investigated based on anatomy and component analyses of the gall tissue. The psyllids induced globular galls on Machilus japonica var. kusanoi (Lauraceae) are abundant in the lower elevation of mountains in Taiwan. The psyllid is univoltin and the nymphs have five instars. Adults emerge first inside the galls in December and the irregular opening of galls follows later. Females lay eggs on chinks of twig bark during January and February. Around March and April, the hatched 1st instar nymphs locate themselves beside the midrib or secondary veins on the underside of the leaf and form small pit galls at the beginning. Then, the hyperplasy of plant tissue covers the 1st instar nymphs. The galls become blister-like which are protruded on the upper side of the leaf. Galls keep growing to various globular shape around June to July and open in December. The gall tissue display distinctive features to leaf tissue on both comparative anatomy and component analyses. However, the galled leaf tissue and gall-free leaf tissue did not show significant differences in the content of chemical compositions and photo-pigments. Through the paraffin sectioning of gall tissues, the galls show a differentiation of cells and tissues, not only a simple overgrowth of the plant cells. The larval chamber is surrounded by vascular bundles which suggests that the gall should play a function of convey assimilates. Based on the analyses of primary metabolites, the contents of protein in gall tissues is 2 folds than that of leaf tissue while the total non-structural carbohydrate 2-3.6 folds. In contrast, the contents of nitrogen is only half-times as much as in gall tissues than in the leaf tissues since nitrogen also participate in plant defense to herbivores. However, the predecessor’s study shows that the amount of nitrogen contents may not be the correct index for accessing the nutritional supply for certain tissues. The analysis of the secondary metabolite shows that the content of flavonoid is 5 folds in the leaf tissue than in the gall tissue, but the anthocyanidin only one tenth. By photo-pigment analyses, there are only one tenth on the contents of Chl a and b in the gall tissue than in the leaf tissue. The mole percent of PPIX in gall tissues is much higher than that of leaf tissues. It suggests that there are some troubles during the transformation from PPIX to MGPP in gall tissues during the process of synthesizing chlorophyll. The analyses of the derivatives in chlorophyll decaying shows that the gall tissues and leaf tissues have selected different pathways in chlorophyll decaying. The gall tissues should not have the ability to work normally in photosynthesis as indicated by the analyses of the contents of chlorophylls and their derivatives. The high contents of nutritional component in the gall tissue should come from other tissues and the gall tissue may imitate a sink to provide galling insects with more nutritional benefit than free-living herbivores.
中文摘要………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………iii
目錄……………………………………v
圖目錄…………………………………vii
表目錄…………………………………ix
緒論……………………………………1
第1章 基本生物學……………………3
前言……………………………………3
材料與方法……………………………9
一、野外生活史調查……………10
二、蟲癭的移植…………………11
結果……………………………………14
討論……………………………………18
第2章 蟲癭生長與發育的形態研究…30
前言……………………………………30
材料與方法……………………………38
結果……………………………………40
初始形成期前期(A0期)…………41
初始形成期後期(A1期)…………44
成長分化期(B期) ………………46
成熟期(C期) ……………………48
開裂前期(D期) …………………51
討論……………………………………52
第3章 蟲癭組織提供營養的潛能……81
前言……………………………………81
材料與方法……………………………86
結果……………………………………97
討論 …………………………………100
第4章 蟲癭組織的光合色素 ………108
前言 …………………………………108
材料與方法 …………………………112
結果 …………………………………116
討論 …………………………………117
結論與未來展望 ……………………126
參考文獻 ……………………………129
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