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研究生:林文甫
研究生(外文):Wen Fu Lin
論文名稱:白斑蛾蚋之生態學及其對殺蟲劑感受性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Bionomics and Insecticide Susceptibility of the Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae)
指導教授:李學進李學進引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shae-Jinn Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:白斑蛾蚋生態學感受性
外文關鍵詞:Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae)BionomicSusceptibility
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摘 要
白斑蛾蚋(Clogmia albipunctata)在洋菜、濾紙及棉花等不同基質(substrate)飼育下,幼蟲之存活率於各組間有顯著差異,其中以棉花組之存活率68%為最高。幼蟲發育所需時間以棉花組之15.05天為最長,濾紙組之11.24天為最短。蛹期在洋菜組、棉花組及濾紙組之間差異不顯著。食物量之充足與否對幼蟲存活有顯著之影響,以16 mg處理組之幼蟲存活率59%為最高。幼蟲發育所需時間隨食物量增加而逐漸縮短,於餵食幼蟲0.5 mg之處理組發育所需時間最長(37天),餵食8 mg處理組之幼蟲發育所需時間最短(14天)。不同定溫下幼期各蟲期發育所需時間隨溫度之上升而縮短;卵期以16℃下之7.09天為最長,36℃下之2.03天為最短;一齡至四齡幼蟲發育所需時間以20℃下之25.31天為最長,32℃下之10.16天為最短;蛹期於20℃下最長,為6.05天,36℃下為2.8天;從卵發育至成蟲所需時間以20℃下之36.64天為最長,36℃下之14.6天最短。定溫20℃∼36℃下,於較低之溫度,成蟲之壽命較長,產卵量也較高;其中於24℃下雌成蟲壽命為10.4天,雄成蟲壽命為9.7天,於此溫度下雌成蟲之繁殖力達最高,平均每雌蟲一生可產卵309粒。卵、幼蟲及卵發育至成蟲之發育臨界低溫分別為8.57℃、12.89℃及8.69℃,總積溫分別為62.04日度(degree-day, DD)、212.77DD及384.62DD。內在增殖率(r)及終極增長率(λ)隨溫度上升而逐漸增大,於20℃及32℃下之內在增殖率分別為0.099/天及0.207/天;淨增殖率(R0)以24℃之113.5子代/個體為最高,而於20℃,28℃及32℃下之淨增殖率間差異不顯著;平均世代時間(T)隨溫度提升而逐漸縮短,以20℃下之42.7天為最長,32℃下之18.8天為最短。集體飼育下,幼蟲之發育時間以飼育200隻組之12.34天為最長,50隻與100隻兩組之間則無顯著差異,而三組之存活率間差異不顯著。由白斑蛾蚋成蟲對殺蟲劑之感受性試驗顯示,成蟲對陶斯松之感受性最高(LC50 = 348ppm),而對亞培松之感受性最低(LC50 = 10097ppm)。
Abstract
Survival rates of larvae for moth fly, Clogmia albipunctata, were significantly different when the 1st larval instars were reared in agar, filter paper and cotton substrates, respectively. The highest larval survival rate, 68%, was found in cotton substrate. The duration of larvae, reared in cotton substrate, was the longest, 15.05 days, and that of larvae in filter paper substrate, 11.24 days, was the shortest. Durations of pupae were not different in the treatments with three substrates. The survival rate increased and the developmental time reduced with ascending food weight for larval instars. The highest survival rate of larvae was 59% in the 16 mg treatment. The duration of larvae in the 0.5 mg treatment was the longest, 37 days, and that of larvae in the 8 mg treatment, 14 days, was the shortest. The developmental time of the immature shortened with increasing temperatures from 16℃to 36℃. Egg duration was 7.09 days at 16℃, 2.03 days at 36℃. Low constant temperature (16℃) resulted in the failure for the development of 4th larval instars. It took 25.31 days to complete the development of larval instars at 20℃. And other duration of larvae was 16.02 days at 24℃, 12.23 days at 28℃, 10.16 days at 32℃, respectively. The pupa duration was 6.05 days at 20℃ and 2.8 days at 36℃. The development from eggs to adults took an average of 36.64 days at 20℃ and 14.6 days at 36℃. Adults had longer longevity and produced more eggs at lower temperature from 20℃ to 36℃. Adult longevity was 10.4 days for female and 9.7 days for male at 24℃. Female adults had the highest fecundity and laid an average of 309eggs/female through the life span at 24℃. The estimated low developmental threshold for eggs, larvae and eggs to adults was 8.57℃, 12.89℃ and 8.69℃, respectively. The thermal summation was 62.04 degree-days (DD) for eggs, 212.77DD for larvae and 384.62DD for eggs to adults. Both intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) increased with ascending temperatures. The r-value was 0.099/day at 20℃ and 0.207/day at 32℃. The highest net reproductive rate (R0), 113.5 offspring/individual, was found at 24℃ and R0 -values were not significantly different at 20℃, 28℃ and 32℃. The mean generation time (MGT) decreased with raising temperatures. The highest MGT was 42.7 days at 20℃ and the lowest one was 18.8 days at 32℃. Under collective rearing, the duration of larvae, 12.34 days, for the treatment with 200 larvae, was significantly different from the treatments with 50 larvae and 100 larvae. But survival rates of these three treatments were the same. The susceptibility test of the moth fly to five insecticides showed that 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was 348ppm for chlorpyrifos and 10097ppm for temephos. That is the moth fly had the highest susceptibility to chlorpyrifos among five tested insecticides.
目 錄
摘 要 1
Abstract 3
前 人 研 究 7
一、蛾蚋之分佈及形態特徵 7
二、蛾蚋之孳生環境 8
三、蛾蚋之生態習性 10
四、蛾蚋之重要性 13
五、蛾蚋之防治 15
材 料 與 方 法 17
一、供試蟲源 17
二、不同基質對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲存活及發育之影響 17
三、不同食物量對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲發育生長及存活之影響 18
四、不同定溫下白斑蛾蚋之發育生長、成蟲壽命及族群 介量 19
五、集體飼育對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲發育生長影響 21
六、白斑蛾蚋成蟲對殺蟲劑之感受性試驗 22
結 果 24
一、不同基質對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲存活及發育之影響 24
二、不同食物量對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲發育及蛹重之影響 25
三、不同定溫下白斑蛾蚋幼蟲之發育生長、成蟲壽命及 其族群介量 26
四、集體飼育對白班蛾蚋幼蟲存活及發育之影響 31
五、白斑蛾蚋成蟲對殺蟲劑之感受性 32
討 論 34
一、不同基質對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲存活及發育之影響 34
二、不同食物量對白斑蛾蚋幼蟲發育生長之影響 35
三、不同定溫下白斑蛾蚋幼蟲之發育生長、成蟲壽命及 其族群介量 36
四、集體飼育對白班蛾蚋幼蟲存活及發育之影響 39
五、白斑蛾蚋成蟲對殺蟲劑之感受性 39
參 考 文 獻 41
表......................................................50
圖......................................................66
附錄....................................................74
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