(3.234.221.162) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/14 03:53
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:謝麗敏
研究生(外文):Li-Min Hsieh
論文名稱:兩種紅肉火龍果(Hylocereusspp.)加工特性之比較
論文名稱(外文):The Comparison Studies of Processing Quality for Two Red Flesh Pitayas (Hylocereus spp.)
指導教授:柯文慶柯文慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ching Ko
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:火龍果甜菜苷色素抗氧化
外文關鍵詞:pitayabetacyaninpigmentantioxidant
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
  • 點閱點閱:2145
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究以外觀特性相異的新竹(代號 HS )與高雄(代號 KS )兩種紅肉火龍果為材料,探討其組成成分及抗氧化能力之差異;另亦以加熱對色素之影響與貯藏期間色素之再生性等,評估火龍果色素安定性之影響因子,藉以了解兩種紅肉火龍果之加工特性。所得結果如下:
1. 一般理化特性上,KS 之總酸度高於 HS;色澤上 KS 之 Hunter L值 (明亮度) 比 HS 低,但 a 值 (紅色度) 與 b 值則較高。此特性使 HS 與 KS 呈示外觀上之差異。HS 與 KS 之基本成分,除了磷含量一致外,其餘含量皆不同。
2. 兩紅肉火龍果汁色素 betacyanin 的組成不同,KS 果汁之betacyanin 濃度為 HS 之1.73倍。火龍果純化 betacyanin 色素粉末中 betanin 含量,HS 與 KS 含量為4.39與8.65 mg/g,KS 之 betanin 色素含量約為 HS 之二倍。
3. 抗氧化成分之含量,KS 比 HS 豐富;抗氧化性質方面,KS 之還原力與捕捉 DPPH 自由基之能力比 HS 佳;螯合亞鐵離子之能力則是 HS 優於 KS。火龍果抗氧化能力之差異,應與 betacyanin色素組成與含量有關。
4. KS 與 HS 火龍果汁之色澤,均受熱而劣變,其劣變程度隨溫度昇高而增加;果汁色素在高溫長時間加熱下,以 pH 3~5 之安定性較好, pH 7 穩定性較差。90℃ 下加熱,色差值(ΔE 值)在品種間具有顯著差異(p<0.01);pH 對火龍果汁之色差值亦有顯著性差異(p<0.001)。HS 與 KS 皆以 pH 5環境之色素半衰期較長,色素熱安定性較佳。
5. HS 火龍果汁色素之熱安定性較佳,果汁貯藏期間 KS 之再生性較高,而在乙醇環境中亦以 KS 的安定性較佳。
6. 火龍果汁在貯藏期間,pH 與品種對果汁樣品 ΔE 值之影響具有顯著性,而貯藏溫度對 ΔE 值之影響最為顯著(p<0.001),而乙醇濃度對果汁色素黃色度之影響具有顯著性(p<0.001)。
Two kinds of red flesh pitaya in different figure, Hsin-chu (coded HS) and Kaohsiung (coded KS), were used as raw materials to investigate constituents and antioxidant capability. In addition, the factors that affect pigment stability were evaluated by heating on juice and pigment regeneration during storage. A clear explanation on processing quality for both pitayas had been solved. The results obtained were as follows:
1. On acidity, KS was higher than HS; on color, Hunter L of KS was lower than HS, but Hunter a and b values were the reverse. This resulted both pitayas in different appearance. On the other hand, both KS and HS contained different general compositions besides phosphorous content.
2. Compositions of juice pigment in HS and KS were quite different. The betacyanin concentration in KS was 1.73-fold that of HS. Betanin in betacyanin powder was 4.39 and 8.65 mg/g for HS and KS, respectively.
3. KS pitaya was rich in antioxidant components than HS. Comparison of the antioxidant capability, KS had higher reducing power and scavenging DPPH ability than HS, but HS showed higher chelating effect on ferrous ion. The difference between antioxidant properties probably related to betacyanin compositions.
4. Changes in color of pitaya juice were observed due to thermal treatment depending on temperature and time. The deterioration degree was 25℃< 60℃< 80℃<95℃. Pigment showed stability at pH 3~5 and the worst at pH 7. Heating at 90℃, the ΔE value was significantly different by species and pH values (p < 0.01). Both pigments in HS and KS pitaya juice showed the longest half-life at pH 5.
5. HS pitaya fruit juice pigment was more stable by thermal process, while KS was more stable by alcohol. KS pigment had high regeneration ability during storage.
6. Pigment in pitaya juice significantly changed during storage (p < 0.001), and the yellow degree was significantly affected by alcohol concentration (p < 0.001).
目錄
中文摘要 .....................................................I
英文摘要 ...................................................III
圖表索引 ..................................................VIII
壹、前言 .....................................................1
一、研究動機..................................................1
二、研究目的..................................................2
三、文獻整理..................................................3
(一)火龍果簡介................................................3
(二)甜菜苷(betalain)之介紹..................................7
(三)抗氧化性質...............................................19
貳、材料與方法...............................................26
一、實驗設計.................................................26
二、實驗材料.................................................26
三、實驗試藥.................................................26
四、實驗方法.................................................30
1. pH值......................................................30
2. 可溶性固形物..............................................30
3. 總酸度 ....................................................30
4. 色澤......................................................30
5. Betacyanin 分光光度計測定.................................31
6. 波長掃描..................................................31
7. 水分......................................................31
8. 灰分......................................................31
9. 粗蛋白質..................................................32
10. 粗脂質...................................................32
11. 粗纖維...................................................33
12. 碳水化合物...............................................33
13. 鈣含量...................................................33
14. 磷含量...................................................34
15. 果膠含量.................................................35
16. 火龍果色素萃取...........................................35
17. Betacyanin 之純化........................................36
18. Betacyanin 測定..........................................36
19. 總酚類化合物含量測定.....................................37
20. 總花青素含量的測定.......................................37
21. 總類胡蘿蔔素含量測定.....................................38
22. 火龍果甲醇萃取液製備.....................................38
23. 還原力之測定.............................................39
24. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定.....................................39
25. DPPH(α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl)自由基清除能力測定..39
27. 總生菌數.................................................40
28. 統計分析.................................................40
參、結果與討論...............................................41
一、火龍果成分分析...........................................41
(一)一般理化特性分析.........................................41
(二)基本成分分析.............................................42
(三)Betacyanin 色素分析......................................42
(四)抗氧化能力分析 ...........................................46
二、色素安定性試驗 ...........................................52
(一)色素熱安定性.............................................57
(二)色素的酸鹼安定性.........................................58
(三)Betacyanin色素分解之半衰期...............................58
三、色素再生性試驗 ...........................................71
(一)酸鹼性對火龍果汁色素再生性之影響.........................71
(二)酒精濃度對火龍果汁色素再生性之影響.......................78
(三)貯藏溫度對色素再生性之影響...............................81
肆、結論.....................................................87
伍、參考文獻.................................................88
王群光。1999。仙蜜果的魅力。生態平衡栽培法的實踐經驗。台灣仙蜜果有限公司。台北。
吳明昌、涂珊菁、顏昌瑞。1997。火龍果果肉中數種與品質有關酵素之活性與pH、溫度之關係。屏東科技大學學報6: 207-215。
李雪如。2002。貯藏溫度對紅龍果品質之影響。高雄區農業專訊40(6): 20-21。
林秀芳、吳淑珍、葉東柏。1983。澎湖產仙人掌果肉天然色素之研究。嘉南學報9(10): 49-58。
林秀雄、廖銘清、洪忠修。2003。92年6月蔬菜、果品、主要切花及雜糧作物生產預測。農政與農情132: 108-114。
林怡君。2002。紅肉火龍果(Hylocereus polyrhizus)甜菜苷色素安定性之研究。東海大學碩士論文。台灣。
邱蕙萍。2003。紅龍果浸漬酒成分與色澤變化之探討。國立屏東科技大學碩士論文。台灣。
張智強、顏昌瑞。1999。仙人掌紅龍果之利用。農業世界193(9): 86-91。
許夏芬、張肇麟。2000。數種蔬菜中類黃酮含量及抗氧化性。台灣農業化學與食品科學38: 377-387。
許瑛玿。2003。紅龍果種籽成份分析。國立成功大學碩士論文。台灣。
黃士安、孫璐西。1981。莧菜紅色素之研究﹐第一報:應用高效能液相層析法分離及鑑定莧菜紅色素。食品科學8: 13-25。
黃喜玲、莊允當、劉曜東。1992。仙人掌果實紅色素之特性與穩定性改善之研究。台灣糖業研究所研究彙報138: 37-455。
廖姿婷。2002。龍鬚菜抗氧化性質評估及其飲料產品研製。國立中興大學碩士論文。台灣。
趙文婉、張珍田、周淑姿。2002。淺談植物類化學物質對抗自由基之機制。食品工業34(2): 49-59。
劉 熙。1986。果樹園藝栽培法。五洲出版社。台北市。
鄭金梅。2000。仙人掌紅龍果(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & rose)花粉與形態活力及果實生長之研究。中興大學碩士論文。台灣。
顏昌瑞、張鳳如。1996。仙人掌果品種之栽培及展望。農業世界155(7): 59-63
羅佩文。2001。台灣數種特有水果抗氧化活性及清除自由基能力之評估。輔仁大學碩士論文。台灣。
A.O.A.C. 1980. “Offical Method of Analysis”. 13thed. Association of Official Analytical chemist, Washington, D. C., U.S.A.
A.O.A.C. 1984. “Offical Method of Analysis”. 14thed. Association of Official Analytical chemist, Washington, D. C., U.S.A.
A.O.A.C. 1990. “Offical Method of Analysis”. 15thed. Association of Official Analytical chemist, Washington, D. C., U.S.A.
Avinoam, N., Feiga, G. and Yosef, M. 1999. Ripening and postharvest behaviour of fruits of two Hylocereus species (Cactaceae). Postharvest Bio. Tech. 17: 39—45.
Bilyk, A., Kolodij, M. A., and Sapers, G. M. 1981. Stabilization of red beet pigment with isoascorbic acid. J. Food Sci. 46: 1616-1617.
Blumenkrantz, N. and Asboe-Hansen, G. 1973. New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids. Anal. Biochem. 54: 484-489.
Bosh-Millares, J. 1967. Siglo XVIII. la ciudad de las palmas en este siglo: otros remedios caseros en el siglo XVIII. In: Historia de la medicina en gran canaria. Excmo cabildo insular de gran canaria. Las Palmas. 1: 270-271.
Burton, G.W. 1994. Vitamin E: molecular and biological function. Proc Nutr. Soc. 53: 251-262.
Cai, Y. Z., Sun, M. and Corke, H. 2001. Dentification and distribution of simple and acylated betacyanins in the Amaranthaceae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 1971-1978.
Daeseok, H., Seok, J. K., Sang, H. K. and Dong, M. K. 1998. Repeated regeneration of degraded red beet juice pigments in the presence of antioxudants. J. Food Sci. 63:69-72.
Daryl, L. 2003. Predicting the impact of food processing on food constituents. J. Food Eng. 56: 113—117.
Delgado-Vargas, F.; Jime´nez, A. R. and Paredes-Lo´pez, O. 2000. Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains Characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 173-289.
Dinis, T. C. P., Madeira, V. M. C. and Almeida, L. M. 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315: 161-169.
Dziezak, J. D. 1986. Preservatives: Antioxidants. Food Technol. 40(9): 94-102.
Elisabetta, F., Andrea, P., Dario, M. and Andrea, M. 1992. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pigments of blood-red prickly pear(Opuntia ficus indica). J. Chromatogr. 593: 177-183.
Escribano, J., Pedren. o, M. A., Garca- Carmona, F. and Mun. oz, R. 1998. Characterization of the antiradical activity of betalains from Beta vulgaris L. roots. Phytochem. Anal. 9: 124—127.
Florian, C. S., Andreas, S., and Reinhold, C. 2002. Betacyanins in fruits from red-purple pitaya, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose. Food Chem. 77:101—106.
Floroan, C. S., Andreas, S., and Reinhold, C. 2002. Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus- indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization Mass Spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 2302-2307.
Fuleki, T. and Francis, F.J. 1968a. Quantitative methods for anthocyanins . 1.Extraction and determination of total anthocyanin in cranberries. J. Food Sci. 33:72-77.
Fuleki, T. and Francis, F.J. 1968b. Quantitative methods for anthocyanins . 2. Determination of total anthocyanin and degradation index for cranberry juice. J. Food Sci. 33:78-83.
Hallagan, J. B., Allen, D. C. and Borzelleca, J. F. 1995. The safety and regulatory status of food, drug and cosmetics colour additive exempt from certiification. Food Chem. Toxicol. 33: 515-528.
Halliwell, B. 1994. Free radicals and antioxidant:a personal view. Nutr. Rev. 52: 253-265.
Halliwell, B., Murcia, M. A., Chirico, S. and Aruoma, O. I. 1995. Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo: what they do and how they work. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35: 7-20.
Jackman, R.L. and Smith, J.L. 1992. Beetroot. In:Natural Food Colorants. Ch.2. Hendry, G.A.F. and Houghton, J.D. ed. Blackie Academic&Professional. London, New York.
Jackman, R. L. and Smith, J. L. 1996. Anthocyanins and betalains. In: Natural Food Colorants. Hendry, G.A.F. and Houghton, J. D. 2nd ed. Blackie Academic & Professional. London, New York.Ch.8
Jacob, R. A. 1994. Nutrition, health and antioxidants. INFORM. 5: 1271-1275.
Joseph, K., Stela, H. and Rina, G. 2001. Betalains─ a new class of dietary cationized antioxidants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 5178-5185.
Kapadia, G. J., Tukuda, H., Konoshima, T. and Nishino, H. 1996. Chemoperevention of lung and skin caner by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract. Caner Lett. 100: 211-214.
Kent, R. Vincent, and Robert, G. Scholz. 1978. Separation and quantification of red beet betacyanins and betaxanthins by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26: 812-816.
Loro, J. F. and Delrio, I. 1990. Preliminary studies of analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract. J. Ethnopharmacology 67: 213-218.
Namiki, M. 1990. Antioxidants/antimutagens in foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 273-300.
Nerd, A. and Mizrahi, Y. 1997. In:Reproductive Biology of Cactus Fruit Crops. Hortic. Rev. Ch. 7. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 18: 321-346.
Ough, C.S. 1985. Some effects of temperature and SO2 on wine during simulated transport or storage. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 36 (1): 18-22.
Pedren. o, M. A. and Escribano, J. 2001. Correlation between antiradical activity and stability of betanine from Beta vulgaris L. roots under different pH, temperature and light conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem., 81: 627—631.
Piatelli, M. and Minale, L. 1964. Pigments of centrospermae II. Distribution of betacyanins. Phytochem. 3: 547-557.
Piattelli, M. 1981. The betalains: structure, biosynthesis and chemical taxonomy. In The Biochemistry of Plants: A ComprehensiVe Treatise; Conn, E. E., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, 557-575.
Reynoso, R.C., Giner, T.V., and de Mejia, E.González 1999. Safety of a filtrate of fermented garambullo fruit: biotransformation and toxicity Studies. Food chem. toxic. 37: 825-830.
Richheimer, S. L., Bernart, M. W., King, G. A., Kent, M. C. and Bailey D. T. 1996. Antioxidant activity of lipid-soluble phenolic diterpenes from rosemary. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73: 507-514.
Rosario, C., José M.O., Mercedes A., and José F. L., 2003, Color properties and stability of betacyanins from Opuntia fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2772-2776.
Saguy, I. 1979. Thermostability of red beet pigments (betanine and vulgaxanthin-I): Influence of pH and temperature. J. Food Sci. 44: 1554-1555.
Saguy, I., Kopelman, I. J. and Mizrahi, S. 1978. Thermal kinetic degradation of betanin and betalamic acid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26: 360-362.
Sapers, G. M. and Hornstein, J. S. 1979. Varietal differences in colorant properties and stability of red beet pigments. J. Food Sci. 44: 1245-1248.
Schwartz, S. J., von Elbe, J. H., Pariza, M. W., Goldsworthy, T. and Pitot, H. C. 1983. Inability of red beet betalain pigments to initiate or promote hepatocarcinogenesis. Food chem. toxic. 21: 531-535.
Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. and Nakamura, T. 1992. Antioxidantive properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 945-948
Simon, P., Drdak, M. and Altamirano, R. C. 1993. Influence of water activity on the stability of betanin in various water alcohol model systems. Food Chem. 46: 155-158.
Simon, P.W., Peterson, C.E., and Lindsay, R.C. 1980. Correlation between sensory and objective parameters of carrot flavor. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28: 559-562.
Slawomir, W. and Yosef, M. 2002. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in Hylocereus Cacti. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6086-6089.
Slawomir, W., Itzhak, P., Shimona, G., Hugo, E.G., Marcela, H., Michael, M. and Yosef, M. 2001. Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus. Phytochem. 58: 1209—1212.
Stintzing, F.C., Schieber, A. and Carle, R. 2001. Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212: 396-407.
Stuppner, H. and Egger, R. 1996. Application of capillary zone electrophoresis to the analysis of betalains from Beta vulgaris. J. Chromatogr. 735: 409-413
Taga, M. S., Miller, E. E. and Pratt, D. E. 1984. Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61: 928-931.
von Elbe, J. H. (1975) Stability of betalains as food colors. Food Technol. 29(5): 42-46.
von Elbe, J. H., Maing, I.-Y. and Amundson, C. H. (1974) Color stability of betanin. J. Food Sci. 39: 334-337.
von Elbe, J. H., Schwartz, S. J. and Hildenbrand, B. E. 1981. Loss andregeneration of betacyanin pigments during processing of red beets. J. Food Sci. 46: 1713-1715.
Winter, C. A., Risley, E. A. and Nuss, G. W. 1962. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiinflammatory drugs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 111: 544-547.
Wu, M. C. and Chen, C. S. 1998. Variation of sugars distribution in various parts of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt. et Rose). Food Preservation.Sci. 24(6): 369-374.
Yen, G. C., Wu, S. C. and Duh, P. D. 1996. Extraction and Identification of antioxidant components from the leaves of Mulberry (Morus alba L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 1687-1690.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔