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研究生:藍子強
研究生(外文):Zi-Qiang Lan
論文名稱:乾燥對胡蘿蔔生理活性和品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Dehydration on the Physiological Activity and the Quality of Carrot
指導教授:金安兒金安兒引用關係
指導教授(外文):An-Erl King
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:胡蘿蔔乾燥呼吸作用
外文關鍵詞:carrotdehydrationrespiration
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中文摘要
乾燥為食品保存的一種方法,但在乾燥過程中亦會引起某些物理、化學及生化改變於食品材料上。這些改變的影響如何,則視乾燥前處理、乾燥方法及復水程序等而定。當考慮以乾燥為保存方法時,值得注意的是,處理之目的是在獲得生化代謝路徑不受傷害的原料,亦即趨向於獲得細胞具有生存性的產品與否。穀類發粉及活性麵包酵母之乾燥,即為保存細胞生存性及不危害生化代謝活性等的例子;另一方面,水果、蔬菜、肉、蛋等之乾燥,則擔負了得到具有穩定感官及營養特質保存性產品之責任。此外,觀察植物組織的呼吸作用變化亦可以對其組織細胞活性有一粗略的了解。本研究的目的在觀察不同乾燥方法及其後續的復水,對胡蘿蔔組織呼吸作用活性的影響。實驗中,對新鮮及不同乾燥程度胡蘿蔔組織的呼吸作用皆有測量,對復水後的樣品亦作有呼吸作用的測定。樣品的水活性、硬度測定以及電子顯微鏡觀察,皆可以對胡蘿蔔組織結構所受到的乾燥加工操作之破壞和其呼吸作用的關係,作進一步的了解。
研究結果顯示胡蘿蔔組織以乾燥處理後,會導致細胞結構及組織的傷害及改變,此一傷害改變會表現在呼吸作用活性上,且乾燥對組織結構的傷害是不可逆的。乾燥對胡蘿蔔組織結構及呼吸作用路徑之傷害,多在乾燥初期造成。而冷凍乾燥對胡蘿蔔組織結構及呼吸作用路徑所造成之傷害較低且較和緩。冷凍乾燥中,在較低的冷凍溫度所致的較高冷凍速率及較短的預凍時間下,胡蘿蔔組織復水後會有較高的呼吸作用活性恢復。滲透脫水對胡蘿蔔組織呼吸作用活性之影響方式和熱風乾燥與冷凍乾燥不同,而經過滲透處理後再進行乾燥的產品,在復水後其呼吸作用活性會有較高之恢復。保水性、硬度和SEM觀察等所得到之結果,會和呼吸作用活性的分析結果具有相當程度的相似性。

英文摘要
Drying as a method of food preservation causes many physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in processed materials. Effects of these changes are dependent on predrying treatments, drying methods and parameters as well as rehydration procedures. Considering drying as a method of preservation it is worth noting that some dehydration methods are aimed at obtaining materials with uninjured biochemical pathways, while others lead to products in which the viability of cells is not an important issue. Drying of seed grain, powder starters or active baker’s yeast are the examples of those drying processes in which preservation of viability of cells and undamaged biochemical activity are the aims of the process. On the other hand, drying of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs is undertaken in order to obtain shelf-stable products with preserved sensory and nutritional attributes. Moreover, observing changes of respiratory activity can roughly understand the activity of tissue cells. The aim of this study was to observe changes of respiratory activity of cube carrot tissue subjected to different drying ways and subsequent rehydration. In this work, respiration of carrot tissue was measured in the fresh state and at different degrees of dryness after treated with different drying methods. Moreover, respiration of rehydration samples was measured. Measurement of water holding capacity, firmness and scanning electron microscopic examination can further understand the relationship between structural damages and respiratory activity.
Results showed that dehydration of carrot tissue caused substantial changes in cell structure and organization. It was manifested by a decrease in respiration activity. Most of the injury to tissue structure and respiration pathways was done at the initial stages of drying. Freeze drying caused less and tender damage to the structural and respiratory activity of carrot samples. In freeze drying, lower pre-freezing temperature and shorter pre-freezing time would make carrot tissue have higher respiratory activity after rehydration. Osmotic dewatering also affected respiration of carrot tissue but the mechanism of injury seemed different from that occurring during convective drying and freeze drying. After osmotic treatment, the dried carrot would possess higher respiratory activity after rehydration. Moreover, the results of water holding capacity, firmness, and scanning electron microscopic examination were similar to the results of respiratory activity experiment.


壹、緒言………………………………………………………………….1
貳、文獻整理……………………………………………………………..3
【胡蘿蔔】……………………………………………………3
一、胡蘿蔔之來源與品種…………………………………………..3
二、胡蘿蔔之產銷現況及貯藏方式……………………………….4
三、胡蘿蔔之一般組成及其營養生理化功能…………………….7
四、胡蘿蔔原料在貯藏期間之品質變化………………………….9
五、胡蘿蔔乾燥加工之品質變化…………………………………11
【冷凍乾燥】
一、源起………………………………………………………….. 13
二、一般原理………………………………………………………15
三、蔬菜冷凍乾燥加工步驟………………………………………23
四、胡蘿蔔之冷凍乾燥……………………………………………31
五、冷凍乾燥法在加工食品應用上之優缺點……………………33
【呼吸作用】
一、呼吸作用之意義與現象………………………………………37
二、蔬菜之呼吸作用………………………………………………43
三、影響呼吸率之因子……………………………………………44
【滲透脫水─高滲透壓食品】
一、簡介…………………………………………………………..49
二、滲透脫水之原理機制………………………………………..50
三、糖液滲透……………………………………………………...53
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………..56
一、試驗材料………………………………………………………..56
二、試驗方法及步驟…………………………………………………56
(一)冷凍乾燥對呼吸作用之影響………………………………56
(1)不同冷凍乾燥條件對樣品呼吸作用之影響…………….56
(2)冷凍乾燥過程對呼吸作用之影響……………………….58
(二)熱風乾燥對呼吸作用之影響………………………………59
(三)滲透脫水對呼吸作用之影響………………………………60
(1)滲透浸漬…………………………………………………..60
(2)滲透脫水………………………………………………….61
(四)復水實驗……………………………………………………61
(五)呼吸作用之測定……………………………………………61
(六)保水性之測定………………………………………………63
(七)硬度測定……………………………………………………63
(八)掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察……………………………………63
三、實驗架構………………………………………………………...64
(一)樣品處理…………….…………………………………….64
(二)呼吸活性與品質分析……………………………………..65
肆、結果與討論………………………………………………………..66
一、不同乾燥過程對胡蘿蔔呼吸作用之影響……………………..67
(一)熱風乾燥與冷凍乾燥……………………………………..67
(1)乾燥過程中呼吸作用的變化…………………………….67
(2)乾燥復水後之呼吸作用變化……………………………..70
(3)復水與乾物含量和呼吸作用之關係…………………….75
(4)不同冷凍乾燥前處理對胡蘿蔔組織呼吸作用的影響….79
(二)滲透脫水……………………………………………………90
(1)滲透浸漬………………………………………………….90
(2)滲透乾燥………………………………………………….93
二、不同乾燥過程復水後對胡蘿蔔保水性之影響………………....97
三、不同乾燥過程復水後對胡蘿蔔硬度之影響………………….104
四、乾燥胡蘿蔔之SEM觀察………………………………………109
伍、結論………………………………………………………………..116
陸、中文摘要……………….………………………………………….118
柒、英文摘要…………………………………………………………..120
捌、參考文獻…………………………………………………………..122
圖表目錄
表次 頁次
表1. 胡蘿蔔之儲存溫度及儲存期限…………………………………. 6
表2. 胡蘿蔔之一般組成份……………………………………………..8
表3. 冷凍燥製品一覽表……………………………………………….14
表4. 蔬菜之冷凍點…………………………………………………….25
表5. 蔬菜的比熱與溼度含量………………………………………….26
表6.不同蔬菜之冷凍乾燥情況………………………………………...30
表7. 各種乾燥方法相對乾燥成本的比較…………………………….36
表8.不同截切程度下冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品所呈現之呼吸作用速
率和呼吸作用恢復(-80℃,預凍2 days)………………………….89
圖次 頁次
圖一、純水的氣態-液態-固態相圖以及冷凍乾燥的路徑……………17
圖二、食品的乾燥機制…………………………………………………18
圖三、冷凍乾燥進行的模式圖…………………………………………19
圖四、冷凍乾燥機的構造圖……………………………………………21
圖五、冷凍乾燥法的流程………………………………………………22
圖六、糖解作用…………………………………………………………39
圖七、三羧酸循環………………………………………………………40
圖八. 滲透脫水之機制………………………………………………...52
圖九、蔗糖的結構……………………………………………………...54
圖十、胡蘿蔔乾燥期間CO2產生量與乾物含量之關係圖…………..68
圖十一、胡蘿蔔樣品於乾燥期間水分移除百分比和復水後CO2的
產生量關係圖………………………………………………...71
圖十二、胡蘿蔔樣品於乾燥期間水分移除百分比和復水後CO2的
產生百分比關係圖…………………………………………..73
圖十三、胡蘿蔔樣品在經過乾燥過程中,乾物含量百分比與乾物
損失之關係圖………………………………………………..77
圖十四、胡蘿蔔樣品在經過乾燥過程中,乾物含量百分比與復水
後乾物損失和CO2產生量之關係圖………………………..78
圖十五、不同冷凍前處理溫度對冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔CO2產生之關係
圖………………………………………………………..……85
圖十六、不同冷凍前處理時間對冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔CO2產生之關係
圖..............................................................................................86
圖十七、滲透脫水胡蘿蔔樣品於滲透過程中乾物含量與CO2產生
和相對總重的關係圖………………………………………..91
圖十八、不同乾燥形式胡蘿蔔樣品CO2產生%的關係圖…………..95
圖十九、經不同預凍時間處理之冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品復水後以不
同離心速度所測定之重量損失率…………………………..98
圖二十、經不同冷凍溫度處理之冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品復水後以不
同離心速度所測定之重量損失率…………………………100
圖二十一、經不同處理之乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品復水後以不同離心速度
所測定之重量損失率…………………………………....102
圖二十二、不同冷凍乾燥預處理之胡蘿蔔樣品復水後硬度間之關
係圖………………………………………………………105
圖二十三、經不同處理之乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品復水後硬度間之關係圖..107
圖二十四、不同預凍時間之冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品的電子顯微鏡圖
(100倍)…………………………………………………...110
圖二十五、不同預凍溫度之冷凍乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品的電子顯微鏡圖
(100倍)…………………………………………………...112
圖二十六、經不同處理之乾燥胡蘿蔔樣品之電子顯微鏡圖(100倍).114
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