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研究生:沈信男
研究生(外文):Sheen-Nan Xan
論文名稱:飼糧非澱粉多醣類含量對雛鵝肝臟脂質蓄積及脂質合成相關酵素活性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Non-starch Polysaccharides on the Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and on the Activities of Hepatic Lipogenic-related Enzymes in Goslings
指導教授:許振忠許振忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Chung Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:非澱粉多醣類雛鵝肝臟脂質蓄積脂質合成相關酵素
外文關鍵詞:non-starch polysaccharidegoslinghepatic lipid accumulationlipogenic-related enzymes
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以三個試驗探討飼糧中非澱粉多醣類(non-starch polysaccharides, NSP)含量對雛鵝肝臟與血漿中脂質含量及肝臟中脂質合成相關酵素活性之影響。試驗一,選取1日齡體重相近之雌白羅曼雛鵝(White Roman geese)200隻,逢機分置於5個處理組,每處理4重複,每重複10隻,鵝隻分別餵飼等蛋白質(粗蛋白質20%)、等熱能(代謝能3000 kcal/kg)以大麥糠配製成含 0、3、6、9及12%NSP之飼糧;試驗二,選取1日齡體重相近之雌白羅曼雛鵝140隻,逢機分置於5個處理組,每處理4重複,每重複7隻,以純化的大麥糠NSP,分別額外添加0、3、6、9及12%於基礎飼糧(基礎飼糧粗蛋白質含量為20%、代謝能含量為3000 kcal/kg);試驗三,選取1日齡體重相近之雌白羅曼雛鵝27隻,逢機分置於3個處理組,每處理3重複,每重複3隻,其中一組作為對等飼養組(paired feeding),餵飼與試驗二基礎飼糧相同之飼糧,另2個處理組分別餵飼含基礎飼糧及基礎飼糧添加9%NSP(純化NSP處理組)。三個試驗雛鵝皆以籠飼飼養(90 cm X 56 cm X 58 cm),試驗期為3週,試驗一與試驗二之飼料與飲水採任食,試驗三雛鵝之採食量依對等飼養(paired feeding)前一日採食量乘以餵料係數(分別為100%及109%),使雛鵝採食營養分的濃度一致,飲水採任食。試驗結果顯示,隨飼糧NSP含量增加,飼糧纖維含量有增加的現象。黏度方面,試驗一飼糧有隨著NSP含量增加而增加的現象;試驗二和試驗三各處理組間則無此現象。三個試驗,除了試驗一之飼料轉換率、隻日能量利用效率和蛋白質利用效率,隨著NSP含量增加有較佳趨勢,以及試驗三之採食量,以添加NSP處理組鵝隻之採食量與對照組比較呈顯著之增加(P<0.05)外,其它生長性狀在各處理組間均無顯著之差異(P>0.05)。肝臟脂質合成相關酵素活性方面,除了試驗一及試驗三的NADP-蘋果酸去氫(NADP-malate dehydrogenase,NADP-MDH)各處理組間無顯著差異外(P>0.05),其他之NADP-MDH、葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫(glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,G-6-PDH)、脂肪酸合成(fatty acid synthetase,FAS)及ATP-檸檬酸分解(ATP-citrate cleavage enzyme,CCE)等之活性,皆隨著NSP含量之增加呈線性降低(P<0.05)。肝臟中脂質成分含量方面,試驗一與試驗二之肝臟中三酸甘油酯、總膽固醇及總脂質含量,亦隨NSP含量增加呈降低之趨勢,試驗一鵝隻總脂質以12%NSP處理組與對照組比較呈顯著降低(P<0.05);試驗二以9%NSP處理組與3%NSP處理組比較呈顯著降低(P<0.05);試驗三以添加NSP處理組與對照組比較呈顯著降低(P<0.05)。血漿中三酸甘油酯、總膽固醇及總脂質,皆隨著NSP含量增加呈顯著線性降低(P<0.05),試驗一與試驗二以9或12%NSP處理組與對照組或3%NSP處理組比較呈顯著降低(P<0.05);在總膽固醇方面,試驗三以添加NSP處理組與對照組比較呈顯著降低(P<0.05)。雛鵝之相對肝臟及腹脂重量在各處理組間均無顯著差異(P>0.05),但隨NSP含量增加,有降低之趨勢。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) level on the lipid contents of the liver and the plasma, and on the activities of hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes in goslings.Three trials were carried out in this study. In Trial 1, two hundred 1 day old of White Roman female goslings were selected and divided at random into five groups of forty goslings each and housed in wire cages(90 cm X 56 cm X 58 cm). Each group of goslings was made four replicates and fed one of five isocaloric、isonitrogenous diets that contained 0、3、6、9 and 12% NSP from barley hull, respectively.Goslings were fed diets containing 20% crude protein and 3,000 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. In trial 2, one hundred forty 1 day old of White Roman female goslings were used and divided at random into five groups of twenty-eight goslings each and housed in wire cages. Each group of goslings was made four replicates and fed one of five diets that contained basal diet(containing 20% crude protein and 3,000 kcal/kg metabolizable energy) supplemented with 0、3、6、9 and 12% purified NSP extracted from barley hull, respectively. In trial 3, twenty-seven 1 day old of White Roman female goslings were allocated at random into three groups of nine goslings each and housed in wire cages. Two groups of goslings were fed with basal diet and basal diet supplemented with 9% NSP(purified NSP). Another group was paired feeding, which was fed with basal diet as trial 2. In trial 1 and trial 2, Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. In trial 3, feed was supplied with according to prior day feed intake of pair feeding group multiplied factor of feeding(100% and 109% for none and 9% purified NSP) in order to make same nutrient intake for two experimental group of goslings. Water was supplied ad libitum. Each trial experimental period was three weeks.
Results indicated that the total dietary fiber content increased with incorporated levels of NSP in the diet. In trial 1, the viscosity were increased with NSP level increased, but in trial 2 and 3 were not. Growth performance was not significantly different among experimental treatments in each trial except feed conversion ratio, metabolized energy utilization and protein utilization in trial 1, which were improved with NSP level increased and feed intake in trial 3 which were significantly higher in the purified NSP treatment than that in the control diet. The hepatic lipogenic-related enzymes, ie., NADP-malate dehydrogenase(EC1.1.1.40;NADP-MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(EC1.1.1.49;G-6-PDH), fatty acid synthetase(FAS) and ATP-citrate cleavage enzyme(EC 4.1.3.8;CCE) activities were linearly decreased or tended to decrease with increased dietary NSP level. With regard to the liver fractions in trial 1 and 2, the contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol and total lipid in the liver tended to decrease as NSP level were increased. In total lipid, in trial 1, there were significantly lower in 12% NSP treatment than in the control diet;in trial 2 there were significantly lower in 9% NSP treatment than in the 3% NSP treatment;in trial 3 there were significantly lower in the purified NSP treatment than that in the control diet. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and total lipid in the plasma had a linearly decreased when NSP level were increased; In trial 1 and 2, there were significantly lower in 9 or 12% NSP treatment than in the control or 3% NSP treatment. In total cholesterol, in trial 3 there were significantly lower in the purified NSP treatment than in the control treatment. The relative liver and abdominal fat weights(g/100 g B.W.) were not significantly different among experiment groups for three trials, but they trended to decrease as NSP level increased.
目錄
頁次
壹、中文摘要---------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、前言---------------------------------------------------------------- 3
參、文獻檢討---------------------------------------------------------- 5
一、NSP、飼糧纖維及粗纖維之定義--------------------------- 5
二、NSP之化學結構----------------------------------------------- 8
三、飼糧纖維與NSP之關係------------------------------------- 11
四、NSP的物理化學特性及其對生理之影響---------------- 11
(一)水合作用-------------------------------------------------- 11
(二)黏滯性----------------------------------------------------- 12
五、NSP對脂質代謝之影響-------------------------------------- 15
六、家禽脂質代謝之特徵---------------------------------------- 16
(一)家禽對飼糧中脂肪之吸收----------------------------- 16
(二)脂質生成作用之部位----------------------------------- 18
(三)脂肪酸之合成-------------------------------------------- 18
(四)家禽脂質之輸送與蓄積-------------------------------- 25
肆、材料與方法------------------------------------------------------- 27
一、試驗動物與試驗設計---------------------------------------- 27
二、試樣之採取與處理------------------------------------------- 33
三、分析項目與方法---------------------------------------------- 34
(一)飼料之化學分析----------------------------------------- 34
(二)NSP之萃取方法(鹼萃取法)--------------------------- 34
(三)飼糧纖維含量之測定----------------------------------- 35
(四)in vitro法測定飼料原料及飼糧黏度---------------- 35
(五)血液脂質成分之測定----------------------------------- 36
1.三酸甘油酯---------------------------------------------- 36
2.總膽固醇------------------------------------------------- 37
3.總脂質---------------------------------------------------- 37
(六)肝臟中脂質成分之測定-------------------------------- 39
1.三酸甘油酯---------------------------------------------- 40
2.總膽固醇------------------------------------------------- 40
3.總脂質---------------------------------------------------- 40
(七)肝臟中脂質合成相關酵素活性之測定-------------- 41
1.ATP-檸檬酸分解------------------------------------ 41
2.NADP-蘋果酸去氫--------------------------------- 42
3.脂肪酸合成------------------------------------------- 42
4.葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫--------------------------------- 43
5.肝臟酵素測定液蛋白質濃度之測定---------------- 44
6.酵素比活性之計算------------------------------------- 44
四、統計分析------------------------------------------------------- 45
伍、結果與討論------------------------------------------------------- 46
一、飼料原料中飼糧纖維之含量及黏度分析---------------- 46
二、生長性狀------------------------------------------------------- 50
三、肝臟中脂質合成相關酵素之活性------------------------- 56
四、肝臟中各種脂質成分含量---------------------------------- 62
五、血漿中各種脂質成分含量---------------------------------- 67
六、肝臟與腹脂重量---------------------------------------------- 74
陸、結論---------------------------------------------------------------- 78
柒、參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------- 81
捌、附表--------------------------------------------------------------- 91
玖、英文摘要--------------------------------------------------------- 93
柒、參考文獻
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