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研究生:許孝成
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Cheng Hsu
論文名稱:基於小波轉換之安全性展頻數位浮水印
論文名稱(外文):Wavelet Base Secure Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking
指導教授:歐陽彥杰
指導教授(外文):Y. C. Ouyang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:小波轉換數位影像浮水印展頻隨機碼
外文關鍵詞:wavelet transformdigital image watermarkingspread spectrumPN-Code
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在本篇論文中,小波轉換、展頻PN-Code與多層偵測技術將被運用來完成數位浮水印嵌入程序。首先,原始影像利用小波轉換將影像從空間域轉換到頻域。之後,我們為了保護這嵌入的浮水印,所以我們再利用展頻PN-Code與Modulo-2 運算子來加以保密。在我們的方法上,我們是將浮水印輕微的嵌入到三階小波轉換後的LL3 sub-band。為了有效提升取出浮水印的效能,我們提出一種多層偵測技術的方法。從實驗結果上可以佐證,我們的方法是具有強韌度,不管是嚴重的影像破壞或是大壓縮比的JPEG 與 JPEG 2000的壓縮破壞,浮水印都能存活下來。

The digital watermarks should be hided and invisible by the human visual system. The spread spectrum techniques are used to achieve the goal. The original image is transformed form spatial domain to frequency domain by using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We insert the spread spectrum PN-code and use modulo-2 operator to secure the watermark. The watermark is embedded into the LL3 sub-band after 3 times DWT. A multilevel detection is proposed to effectively watermark which can increase the retrieval performance. Form the experimental result, the proposed method is robust even under heavy attacks. For example, big compression ratio for JPEG and JPEG 2000, the retrieval watermarks still survive.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation.........……………………………………..….……..………………...1
1.2 Characterization of digital watermarking……………...….……..….…………...2
1.3 Organization of this thesis…….……..….………………...…………….……..6
Chapter 2 Review of Digital Watermarking
2.1 The kind of digital watermarking........................................................................7
2.2 Base digital watermarking principle………….……………………………….9
2.3 Spread Spectrum Based Watermarking…….…………………………….....10
Chapter 3 Background Techniques
3.1 Definition digital image quality………….………………………………....13
3.2 Digital image format in frequency domain
3.2.1 Discrete Cosine Transform……………….………..............................14
3.2.2 Discrete Wavelet Transform……………….…………………………16
3.3 Overview Former digital Image watermark technique
3.3.1 Watermark embedded.......................................................................………....19
3.3.2 Watermark detection………………………………………………………….24
Chapter 4 A Digital Watermark Techniques Based On Wavelet Transform, Spread Spectrum and Multilevel Detection
4.1 Embedding Method………………………………………………………….….27
4.2 Retrieving Method……………………………………..........................................32
Chapter 5 Experiment Results
5.1 Similarity……………………………………………………………………….37
5.2 Image processing attacks………………………………………………………..41
5.3 JPEG and JPEG 2000 compression attacks…………………………………..…55
5.4 Comparison…………………………………………………………………….58
Chapter 6 Conclusion………………………………………………….61
Reference……………………………………………………………….62

[1] C.T. Hsu and J.L. Wu, ”Hidden Digital Watermarks in Image,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol.8 pp.58~68, Jan 1999
[2] H. S. Malvar and D. A. Florencio, ”An improved spread spectrum technique for robust watermark”, Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 4 , 13-17 May 2002
Page(s): IV-3301 -IV-3304 vol.4
[3] K.R. Rao and J.J. Hwang, “Techniques and standards for image、video and audio coding,” Prentice-Hall. Inc, New Jersey, U. S. A. 1996
[4] M. Craizer, E. A. B. D. silva and E. G. Ramos, “Convergent algorithms for successive approximation vector quantization with applications to wavelet image compression,” IEEE Proceeding-Vision Image and Signal Processing, Vol. 146, No. 3,Jun. 1999, pp. 159-164
[5] H. J. Wang and C.C . J. Huo, “Amulti-threshold wavelet coder (MTWC) for high fidelity image compression ,” IEEE Proceeding International Conference on Image proceeding, Vol. 1, 1997, pp. 652-655.
[6] J.M. Zhong, C.H. Leung and Y.Y. Tang , “Wavelet image coding based on significance extraction using morphological operation,” IEE Proceedings Image and Signal processing, Vol. 146, No. 4, Aug. 1999, pp. 206-210.
[7] A. R. Calderbank, Ingrid Daubechies, Wim Sweldens, and Boon-Lock Yeo, “Wavelet transforms that map integers to intergers”, Journal of Applied andComputational Harmonic Analysis (ACHA), Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 322 —369, 1998.
[8] H. Inoue, A. Miyazaki, A. Yamamoto and T. Katsura, “A digital watermark based on the wavelet transform and its robustness on image compression”, ICIP 98, Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp.391 —395, 1998.
[9] Y.P. Wang, M.J. Chen, P.Y. Chang, “Robust Image Watermark With Wavelet Transform and Spread Spectrum Techniques”. National Dong-Hwa University, Electrical Engineering, Taiwan.
[10] X.L. Yang, S.D. Lin,“A Robust DWT-based Watermarking for Still Images”, National Dong-Hwa University, Computer Science, Taiwan.
[11] I.J. Cox,; J. Kilian,; F.T. Leighton,; T. Shamoon, “Secure spread spectrum
watermarking for multimedia” Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on , Volume:
6 Issue: 12 , Dec. 1997. Page(s): 1673 -1687
[12] C.T. Hsu; J.L. Wu, “Multiresolution watermarking for digital images” Circuits
and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on ,
Volume: 45 Issue: 8 , Aug. 1998. Page(s): 1097 -1101
[13] M.J. Tsai, K.Y. Yu, and Y.Z. Chen, “Joint Wavelet and Spatial Transformation for
Digital Watermarking” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Volume: 46
Issue: 1, Feb. 2000. Page(s): 237
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transformation of watermark for digital image authentication” Image Processing,
2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on , Volume: 1 , 2000. Page(s): 450 -453
[15] 陳同孝、張真誠、黃國峰,數位影像處理技術(Digital Image Processing Techniques),松崗電腦圖書資料股份有限公司,2001年1月。

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