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研究生:林稚修
論文名稱:英美特殊關係變遷之研究(1946-1989):從軍事防務面分析
指導教授:蔡東杰蔡東杰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:國際政治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:158
中文關鍵詞:英美特殊關係
外文關鍵詞:Anglo-American Special Relationship
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所謂「英美特殊關係」,指的是當美國與英國兩國在過去五十年中,超越一般盟友的合作關係。此種合作關係雖從未有一紙同盟條約,然而當英美在外交立場或意見不一致之時,「特殊關係」一詞卻並未破壞,可見其中有著堅強的基礎。
探究「特殊關係」一詞的由來,最早可追溯至英國戰時首相Winston Churchill在1946年3月5日鐵幕演講的講詞中,當時指稱的乃是英美的戰爭合作關係。是以學者一般皆認為,防務是「英美特殊關係」的主要基礎。英國學者John Baylis亦直接的提出,防務無疑是「特殊關係」的核心所在。
因此本文將以防務為探討英美特殊關係的主軸。並在本文中試圖去理解以下問題:
1.為何產生「英美特殊關係」?
2.「英美特殊關係」內容為何?如何發展?
3.「英美特殊關係」對英國有什麼利弊得失?

The meaning of “Anglo-American Special Relationship” is a kind of cooperation which beyond the generally understanding of “Allies”. In the close cooperation between Britain and United States, there was no any allies treaty behind. SO there must be something as the main substance to maintain the relationship going on.
The use of the idiom of "Special Relationship" began from the speech which Sir Winston S. Churchill took in 5th March, 1946. He use the idiom to describe the military and defence cooperation between two countries in The WWII. And Professor John Baylis argued, the defense relationship is the core of “Special Relationship”.
So this essay will through the studying of defense relationship to understand what is “Special Relationship”. This essay will try to answer three questions:
1.In the beginning, why the “Special Relationship” existed?
2.What is the main substance of “Special Relationship”? And how the “Special Relationship” develops?
3.Did there any thing courage or reward Britain to keep the “Special Relationship”?

第一章 緒論................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的..........................1
第二節 研究範圍、方法與限制....................5
第三節 文獻回顧...............................14
第二章 英美特殊關係的發展背景.................19
第一節 英國傳統霸權地位的衰落.................19
第二節 二次大戰期間的英美合作經驗.............28
第三節 冷戰時期國際體系變遷的影響.............41
第三章 傳統武力防務的合作發展趨勢.............51
第一節 戰後初期的歐洲局勢與英美關係發展.......51
第二節 駐歐美軍與英國軍事基地的運用...........58
第三節 英美部隊後勤合作的發展.................64
第四章 核子武力防務的合作發展趨勢.............75
第一節 戰後初期的核武合作問題爭議.............75
第二節 戰略性核武佈署.........................89
第三節 核武器生產與採購條件的設計.............99
第五章 共同決策程序的合作發展趨勢............105
第一節 共同戰略制定機構的發展................105
第二節 領袖間特殊聯繫管道的建立..............113
第三節 駐英美軍指揮權的協議..................117
第六章 歷任英國政府對特殊關係之態度與主張....121
第一節 從合作到嫌隙的初期發展(1946-1956)...121
第二節 關係重建時期(1957-1963).............124
第三節 關係調整時期(1964-1979).............127
第四節 保守主義聯盟時期(1980-1989).........133
第七章 結論..................................139
第一節 英美特殊防務關係的檢討................139
第二節 後冷戰變遷與英美關係發展..............146

一、中文部分
(一)書籍:
Charles Zorgbibe著,胡祖慶譯,1995年。《國際關係》。台北:五南出版社。
Clayton Roberts, David Roberts著,賈士蘅譯。1989年。《英國史》。台北:五南出版社。
Detlef Bald著,蔣仁祥、王宏道譯。《核子威脅》。2000年。台北:麥田出版社。
Jost Dulffer著,朱章才譯。2000年。《二次大戰與兩極世界的形成》。台北:麥田出版社。
Kenneth N. Waltz著,胡祖慶譯。1989年。《國際政治體系理論解析》。台北:麥格羅希爾。
Henry Kissinger著,顧淑馨、林添貴譯。1998年。《大外交》。中國大陸海口市:海南出版社。
Margaret Thatcher著,月旦編譯小組譯。1994年。《柴契爾夫人回憶錄:唐寧街歲月》。台北:月旦出版。
Roy Macridis主編,胡祖慶譯。1991年。《當代各國外交政策》。台北:五南出版社。
陳樂民主編。1995年。《西方外交思想史》。中國大陸北京市:中國社會科學出版社。
陳樂民主編。1994年。《戰後英國外交史》。中國大陸北京市:中國社會科學出版社。
(二)論文
張志孝,2000年。《毛澤東對中共與美國關係認知轉變之研究(1969-1972)》。台北:台灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文。
陳君偉。1992年。《柴契爾-雷根時期英美特殊關係之研究》。台北:淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文。
(三)網路資料來源
作者不詳。《B-29 "超級空中堡壘》。
http://www.sky1903.com/
劉明德,〈布希和施洛德似乎伊戰芥蒂仍在互動冷淡〉,《多維新聞》,民國92年6月2日,http://www4.chinesenewsnet.com/MainNews/Topics/cna-c1381cde-4026619.html
吳錦發,〈布萊爾為英國爭取到最大利益〉,《南方快報》,民國92年4月8日,http://home.kimo.com.tw/snews1965/specil_coul/Wu_zinfa/Wu_zinfa_00/00101.htm
蔡筱穎,〈反戰反美時勢,推席哈克成英雄〉,《中國時報》,民國92年3月10日。http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/report/Gulfwar/International/htm/92031013.htm
俞力工,〈美德交惡〉,《中時晚報》,民國91年10月12日,http://forums.chinatimes.com.tw/report/Gulfwar/International/htm/91101202.htm
二、外文部分
(一)書籍:
Allen, H. C. 1954. Great Britain and the United States: A History of Anglo-American Relations (1783-1952) London: Odhams Press
Ball, G. W. 1968. The Discipline of Power. London: Bodley Head Press.
Bamford, J. 1983 The Puzzle Palace. London: Penguin Press.
Baylis, J. 1984. Anglo-American Defence Relations 1939-1984: The Special Relationship. London: Macmillan Press.
Bell, C. 1964. ‘The Special Relationship’, The Debatable Alliance: An Essay in Anglo-American Relations. London: Oxford University Press.
Boardman, R. 1976. Britain and the People’s Republic of China 1959-74 London: Macmillan Press.
Brogan, D. 1964. American Aspects. N.Y.: Harper & Row Press.
Butler J.R.M., and Gwyer, J.M.A. 1964. Grand Strategy, Vol.III, part 1. United Kingdom History of the Second World War. London: HMSO.
________. 1964. Grand Strategy, Vol.III, part 2. United Kingdom History of the Second World War. London: HMSO.
Butler, J.R.M. 1957. Grand Strategy, Vol.Ⅱ. London: HMSO.
Churchill, W. S. 1949. Their Finest Hour London: Cassell Press.
Council on Foreign Relations and Royal Institute of international Affairs. 1953. Britain and the United States.N.Y.: Council on Foreign Relations and London: The Royal Institute of international Affairs
Crossman, R. S. 1976. The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, Vol.II. London: Hamish Hamilton and Jonathan Cape Press.
________. 1975. The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister Vol.I. London: Hamish Hamilton and Jonathan Cape Press.
Dumbrell, J. 2001. A Special Relationship: Anglo-American Relations in the Cold War and After. N.Y.: St. Martin’s Press.
Eden, Anthony. 1969. The Memoirs of Sir Anthony Eden: Full Circle London: Macmillian Press.
Field-Marshal Montgomery. 1958. The Memoirs of Field-Marshal the Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, K.G. London: Collins Press.
Fullick, R. and Powell, G. 1979. Suez: The Double War. London: Hamish Hamilton and Jonathan Cape Press.
Gowing, M. 1964. Britain and Atomic Energy 1939-45. London: Macmillan Press.
________. 1974. Independence and Deterrence, Britain and atomic energy, 1945-1952, Vol.Ⅰ. London, Macmillian Press.
Greenfield, K.R. 1960. Command Decisions Washington: Department of The Army.
Hagan, K.J.(ed.), In Peace and War: Interpretations of American Naval History 1775-1978 (London: Greenwood Press, 1978)
Hall, H. D. 1955. North American Supply. London: HMSO.
Hall, H. D., and Wrigley, C. C. 1956. Studies of Overseas Supply. London: HMSO.
Hewlett, R. G. and Duncan, F. 1969. The History of USAEC: Atomic Shield, Vol.II 1947-52, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press
Hewllet, R. G. and Anderson, O. 1962. History of USAEC: The new world. Vol.Ⅰ. Pennsylvania: Pennysylavia State University.Press.
Hinsley, F. H. etc. 1981. British Intelligence in the Second World War, Vol.Ⅱ. London: HMSO
Hinsley, F. H., Thomas, E. E., Ransom C.F.G., and Knight, R.C. 1979. British Intelligence in the Second World War, Vol.Ⅰ. London: HMSO.
Hollowell, Jonathan. 2001. Twentieth-Century Anglo-American Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers Ltd Press.
Hyde, H. 1962. The Quiet Canadian. London: Hamish Hamilton Press.
James, R. R.(ed.) 1974. Winston Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897-1963,Vol.VII London: Chelsea House Publishers.
Lash, J. P. 1976. Roosevelt and Churchill, 1939-1941: The Partnership that Saved the West. N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company Press.
Lewin, R. 1978. Ultra goes to War: The Secret Story London: Hutchinson Press.
MacDonald, I. S. 1974. Anglo-American Relations since the Second World War. London: David & Charles Press.
Maclean, D. 1970. British Foreign Policy since Suez. London: Hodder & Stoughton Press.
Macmillan, H. 1971. Riding the Storm, 1956-59. London: Macmillan Press.
________. 1972. Pointing the way, 1959-61. London: Macmillan Press.
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Manderson-Jones, R.B. 1972. The Special Relationship: Anglo-American Relations and Western European Union 1947-1956 London: Weiden-feld & Nicolson Press.
Matloff, M. and Snell, E. 1953. Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1941-1942 Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army.
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Neustadt, R. E. 1970. Alliance Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Osgood, R. E. 1962. NATO: The Entangling Alliance London: University of Chicago Press.
Pierre, A. 1972. Nuclear Politics: The British Experience with an Independent Strategic Force, 1939-1970. London: Oxford University Press.
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________. 1948. The White House Papers of H.L. Hopkins, Vol.Ⅰ London: Eyre & Spottiswoode Press.
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(二)論文:
Coker, Christopher. 2001. ‘The Anglo-American Defence Partnership’, In Barry Rubin ed. US Allies in a Changing World. London: Frank Cass Press, 75-92.
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(三)未出版論文
Rose, R. 1959. The Relation of Socialist Principles to British Labour Foreign Policy, 1945-51. Oxford University.
(四)官方文書
英國:
Cmnd.8517 The British Strategic Nuclear Force, March 1982. In J. Baylis, 1984. Anglo-American Defence Relations 1939-1984: The Special Relationship. London: Macmillan Press. 202-5
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美國:
Foreign Relations of the United States. 1946-1953. Washington: Department of State Publications.
(五)網路資料來源
‘America at War: American Military History: Revolutionary War to World War II’, http://www.semo.net/suburb/dlswoff/wwii1941.html

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