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研究生:黃國強
研究生(外文):Guo-Chiang Huang
論文名稱:應用HAZOP及RBI系統於輕裂工場風險分析及其效益之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of HAZOP and RBI System with Application to Naphtha Cracking Plant Process Safety Analysis and Benefits Evaluation
指導教授:江建利
指導教授(外文):Jian-Li Jiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工學院工程管理專班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:輕裂
外文關鍵詞:NDTMIRBIHAZOPNaphtha cracking
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石化工廠之生產損失大多肇因於設備故障,因此應妥善分析確認工廠設備故障時可能影響之安全等級,並找出關鍵性設備以利在其壽命週期內投入高度完整性資源,使其風險能適度地降低到可接受之程度,此即是MI的觀念。
本研究利用HAZOP及RBI等一系列風險分析技術於輕裂工場,並利用適當方法降低其風險。本研究分析輕裂工場三個主要製程(1)烯烴製程(2)乙炔回收(3)乙烯儲存;超過1894條管線數,這些區域為輕裂工場潛在失誤風險最高之製程,經三年之HAZOP分析改善,該工場設備可靠度從88.2﹪提高至98.1﹪,危害等級從3到4變為4至5。
同時利用RBI分析技術優先安排NDT檢測與維護,通常能產生極大之經濟效益,本研究中,該工場利用分析後之風險排序、可靠度資料分析與實施檢測規劃,結果關鍵設備裂解爐每年平均三次之停爐降為0次,每年平均1,190萬元停爐損失亦降為0元。
因此利用RBI產生之檢測規劃經研究通常能改善績效與設備可靠度,同時也有較低之生產損失與風險等級。
Most of production losses in chemical plants were cause by equipment failures. Arrangements shall be implemented to ensure that any item of plant or equipment, which failure would adversely affect the level of safety. ‘Safety Critical’ equipment arrangements shall be implemented to ensure a high level of integrity is assured throughout the life cycle of the equipment, the extent of arrangements should be appropriate and in proportion to its contribution to the overall safety risk. That is the concept of MI.
In the Study, we used PHA、HAZOP、FMEA、RBI, a set of studies carried out to ensure that Naphtha cracking plant’s hazards are identified and understood, properly controlled to minimize risks, and eliminated if practicable. The scope of the Naphtha cracking plant risk analysis included three process units, more than 1894 vessels. The process units assessed were:(1)master unit(2)Acetylene reuse unit(3)Ethylene storage tank unit. These units were representative of the vessels in the plant and the potential failure modes that could be expected. In 3 years HAZOP program, the plant has increase the reliability of vessels from 88.2﹪ to 98.1﹪.That is, the equipment that accounted for likelihood-of-failure values of 3 and 4 have shifted to likelihood-of-failure values of 4 and 5.
The application of risk-based prioritization for scheduling maintenance and NDT activities can yield significant economic advantages. In this study, the plant creates a relative risk ranking. Reliable data analysis and a commitment to a strategy also could reduce the furnace shutdown times from 3 times/per year to 0, and reduce the loss caused by furnace shutdown from NT$11,900,000/ per year to 0.
The risk-based effort has resulted in an inspection program with improved performance and reliability at a lower production loss and documented risk.
中文提要  ---------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
英文提要 ---------------------------------------------- Ⅲ
誌謝 ---------------------------------------------- Ⅴ
目錄 ---------------------------------------------- Ⅵ
表目錄 ---------------------------------------------- Ⅷ
圖目錄 ---------------------------------------------- Ⅹ
符號說明 ---------------------------------------------- ⅩⅡ
第一章 緒論 --------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 研究緣起 --------------------------------------- 1
1.2 研究目的 --------------------------------------- 1
1.3 研究方法 --------------------------------------- 2
第二章 文獻探討 ----------------------------------------- 4
2.1 重大災害回顧 ------------------------------------ 4
2.2 風險分析方法 ------------------------------------ 8
2.2.1 定性分析 ------------------------------------ 9
2.2.1.1 初步危害分析法 -------------------------- 9
2.2.1.2 危害與可操作性分析法 -------------------- 9
2.2.1.3 道氏火災爆炸指數 ------------------------ 18
2.2.2 定量分析 ------------------------------------ 21
2.2.2.1 失誤模式影響分析法 ---------------------- 21
2.2.2.2 故障樹分析法 ---------------------------- 22
2.2.3 風險分析方法之應用範圍 ---------------------- 24
2.2.4 實施風險分析之利益 -------------------------- 25
2.2.4.1 法律要求 -------------------------------- 25
2.2.4.2 損害防制 -------------------------------- 28
第三章 RBI分析系統 ------------------------------------- 29
3.1 RBI系統說明 ----------------------------------- 29
3.2 RBI定性與RBI定量間的相互關係 ------------------ 30
3.3 RBI定性評估分析之解說 -------------------------- 32
3.4 RBI定量評估系統之解說 -------------------------- 39
第四章 分析結果與討論 ----------------------------------- 43
4.1 製程說明---------------------------------------- 43
4.2 初步危害分析------------------------------------ 45
4.2.1 潛在危害源分析------------------------------ 47
4.2.2 初步危害定性評估---------------------------- 48
4.3 HAZOP分析-------------------------------------- 53
4.3.1 重大危害製程分級結果------------------------ 53
4.3.2 重大危害製程分級改善結果-------------------- 56
4.4 風險檢測RBI分析 -------------------------------- 60
4.4.1 烯烴製程RBI定性分析 ------------------------ 60
4.4.2 烯烴製程關鍵區域RBI定量分析 ---------------- 65
4.4.3 烯烴製程關鍵設備可靠度分析------------------ 75
4.5 降低裂解爐風險之非破壞檢測與規劃---------------- 84
4.5.1 爐管損害機制探討---------------------------- 84
4.5.2 碳化檢測原理與量測分析---------------------- 85
4.5.3 裂解爐操作中之非破壞量測-------------------- 87
4.6 效益分析---------------------------------------- 94
4.6.1 設備可靠度---------------------------------- 96
4.6.2 災害發生率/非計劃停爐次數------------------- 98
4.6.3 損失防阻與投資分析成本---------------------- 99
4.6.4 法律符合度----------------------------------101
第五章 結論與建議 ---------------------------------------103
5.1 結論 -------------------------------------------103
5.2 建議 -------------------------------------------104
參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------106
附錄一 --------------------------------------------------109
附錄二 --------------------------------------------------123
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