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研究生:許瑛玿
研究生(外文):Yin-Shao Hsu
論文名稱:紅龍果種籽成份分析
論文名稱(外文):Compositional Studies of Seed from Hylocereus Poyrhizus
指導教授:黃福永
指導教授(外文):Fu-Yung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:化學系專班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:礦物質必需氨基酸生育醇亞麻油酸飽和脂肪酸不飽和脂肪酸紅龍果油酸棕櫚油
外文關鍵詞:Hylocereus polyrhizus seedLinoleic acidsaturated and unsaturated fatty acidsoleic acidessential amino acidmineral.palmitic acidvitamin Etocopherol
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  三角柱屬仙人掌果是食物的重要來源。因此,其營養成份實有研究探討的必要。在本篇論文中主要研究紅龍果(Hylocereus polyrhizus)種子的蛋白質、油脂、維生素E及礦物質組成。利用索氏及冷靜置二種不同的裝置,使用不同有機溶劑,進行紅龍果種子之萃取發現其油脂重量百分比從14.06﹪至19.84﹪。亞麻油酸(48-52﹪)及油酸(26-28﹪)為兩個重要的不飽和脂肪酸;棕櫚油酸(16-18﹪)是重要的飽和脂肪酸;不飽和脂肪酸係為果實種子中之重要脂肪酸來源。以HPLC進行籽油分析發現其α-﹐β–﹐γ– 和 δ-生育醇其含量各為1.40﹐0.12﹐0.46及0.01 mg/100g;紅龍果種子蛋白質含量為17.15﹪;必需氨基酸佔有48﹪且其蛋白質中主要氨基酸成份為麩胺酸(16.33mg/100g),微量氨基酸成份為甲硫氨酸(1.5 mg/100g)。礦物質含量分析發現種子含有下列成份:鉀、鎂、鈣、鈉、鐵、鋅、錳及銅其含量各為1208、165、108、25.7、7.5、6.1、1.9、1.3(毫克 /100克乾物重)。這研究顯示紅龍果種子具有極高營養素,可以提供一個的完全食物來源。
  Hylocereus cacti fruit is one of important food resources. It is thus interesting to study its nutritional composition. In this paper, seeds of Hylocereus polyrhizus were studied by analyzing its components of protein, oil, vitamin E, and mineral. Soxhlet and sonication methods with different organic solvents were used to extract the oil. The oil content of Hylocereus polyrhizus are from 14.06﹪to 19.84﹪by dry weight. Linoleic acid (48-52%) and oleic acid (26-28%) are the two major unsaturated fatty acids, while palmitic acid (16-18%) is the major saturated fatty acid, indicating unsaturated fatty acids are the important fatty acids in this fruit seeds. Further analysis of extracted oil by HPLC found that there areα-﹐β-﹐γ- and δ-tocopherol with the level up to 1.40, 0.12, 0.46, and 0.01 mg per 100g oil﹐respectively. Protein content analysis showed that there is 17.15% of protein by dry weight. Amino acid analysis showed 48% of the amino acids are essential amino acids and glutamic acid is the major amino acid (16.33mg per 100g of proteins), while methionine is the minor amino acid (1.5mg per 100g of proteins). Mineral element analysis showed that there are 1208mg of potassium, 165mg of magnesium, 108mg of calcium, 25.7mg of sodium, 7.5mg of iron, 6.1mg of zinc, 1.9 mg of manganese and 1.3mg of copper, respectively for per 100g of dry weight. This study shows that H. polyrhizus seeds do provide a complete food source in terms of essential nutrients.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………Ⅱ
致謝………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表目錄……………………………………………………………Ⅷ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………1
 一、紅龍果簡介………………………………………………3
 二、蛋白質與氨基酸…………………………………………7
   2-1 胺基酸基本構造……………………………………7
   2-2 胺基酸的構造依支鏈的不同區分…………………8
 三、油脂與脂肪酸之物理及化學性質………………………10
   3-1 油脂的成份…………………………………………10
   3-2 油脂與脂肪酸之性質………………………………12
   3-3 脂肪酸的分類………………………………………13
   3-4 分析物介紹…………………………………………15
 四、維生素 E…………………………………………………20
   4-1 維生素 E的來源……………………………………20
   4-2 維生素 E的特性……………………………………20
   4-3 維生素 E結構式……………………………………21
   4-4 維生素 E的功能……………………………………23
 五、礦物質……………………………………………………28
   5-1 礦物質的功能………………………………………28
   5-2 本實驗檢測出的礦物質元素功能介紹……………28
 六、膳食纖維…………………………………………………33
   6-1 膳食纖維的功能……………………………………33
 七、實驗儀器原理與應用……………………………………34
   7-1 凱氏(kjeldahl)蛋白質………………………………34
   7-2 Beckman胺基酸分析儀……………………………36
   7-3 油脂萃取及GC與GC-MASS脂肪酸分析……………38
   7-4 感應偶合式電漿……………………………………43
   7-5 元素分析儀…………………………………………46

第二章 材料與方法……………………………………………47
 一、實驗材料…………………………………………………47
 二、實驗分析試劑與溶劑……………………………………47
 三、實驗儀器設備……………………………………………49
 四、實驗方法…………………………………………………51
   4-1、各成份分析流程 …………………………………51
   4-2、水份分析 …………………………………………51
   4-3、粗纖維分析法 ……………………………………53
   4-4、凱氏(kjeldahl)蛋白質定量 ………………………55
   4-5、胺基酸組成成分分析 ……………………………56
   4-6、灰分(Ash)…………………………………………58
   4-7、礦物質分析 ………………………………………59
   4-8、粗脂肪(Crude Fat)的定量…………………………60
   4-9、折射率(Refractive Index)…………………………62
   4-10、維生素E(vitamin E)…………………………63
   4-11、脂肪酸組成………………………………………64
   4-12、氮元素分析………………………………………68

第三章 結果與討論……………………………………………69
 一、紅龍果果實各組成及物性………………………………69
 二、紅龍果種籽組成成份分析………………………………69
 三、紅龍果種籽氨基酸組成成份之分析……………………71
 四、紅龍果種籽油之萃取……………………………………78
 五、索式萃取法萃取紅龍果種籽油脂肪酸之分析…………80
 六、冷靜置萃取法萃取紅龍果種籽油脂肪酸之分析………82
 七、比較紅龍果種籽與各種不同種籽籽油之脂肪酸組成…88
 八、紅龍果種籽油中生育醇之含量…………………………90
 九、紅龍果種籽礦物質成份之分析…………………………93
第四章 結論……………………………………………………94

第五章 參考文獻………………………………………………95
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