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研究生:周柏琳
研究生(外文):Po-Lin Chou
論文名稱:台灣傳統建築土埆構造力學性能初探
論文名稱(外文):A Preliminary Study on the Structural Performance of Traditional Adobe Masonry in Taiwan
指導教授:徐明福徐明福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Fu Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:土造建築古蹟修復
外文關鍵詞:earthen architectureheritage retrofit
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  有關歷史性建物之耐震安全,在九二一地震後獲得相當之重視。本研究以土埆構造為對象做探討,在於土埆建物在台灣普遍可見,在震災中亦受損嚴重,故對其進行初步探討。探討過程乃先透過震害現場觀察紀錄,了解實際震害模式外,並蒐集國內外有關土埆構造的研究資料,之後再透過試驗了解土埆本身及小型土埆構體的力學特性。整個研究包括下列各項內容:(1)傳統土埆構造破壞模式,(2)台灣各地土埆強度比較,(3)土埆牆體灰縫抗剪能力。

  傳統土埆構造破壞主要討論震害,台灣土埆牆體細長比約在7-10,就耐震特性評價而言,在中大型規模的地震會不穩定。因為土埆與灰縫材料的均質性,面內的剪力破壞常會有裂縫直接穿過磚身的行為,而非如磚造牆體的階梯狀裂縫;在面外力作用下,常造成土埆牆體交接處的脫離而致傾倒,連帶易使屋頂塌落。

  從各地蒐集之土埆試體,排除非正常使用及新作乾燥中的土埆,含水率約在1﹪~3.1﹪之間,經由簡單的抗壓試驗得知強度分布在4kg/cm2-20.5kg/cm2,試體進行顆粒分析後,含砂量在8﹪~46﹪之間,沉泥+黏土含量在54﹪~92﹪之間,與英美國家相較,本地試體含砂量偏低,細小顆粒含量偏高。

  土埆牆體灰縫抗剪能力則經由足尺土埆所砌的八道70㎝×70㎝試體,進行對角張力試驗,由試驗結果得知(1)傳統利用竹篾水平補強法抗剪能力未必提高(2)適當的利用韌性構材如鋼纜與牆體結合,可提高砌體的極限強度,牆體不易崩塌(3)傳統牆體灰縫抗剪強度約0.022 kg/cm2,透過簡易而符合可逆性的策略,亦可提升至0.058 kg/cm2(4)試體主要破壞模式與調查所見有別,僅有少數裂縫穿過土埆本身,大部分亦呈階梯狀開裂。
  Aseismic safety of historic buildings was emphasized after 921 Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999. In addition to commonly be constructed, studying on adobe masonry lies in such kind of construction being seriously damaged during earthquake. Through the survey to damaged buildings firstly for understanding damage patterns, experiments, including compression strength of adobe and diagonal tension test on adobe masonry, were also applied to study on the structural performance of adobe block and adobe masonry.

  On damage patterns of traditional adobe buildings, the slenderness ratio of adobe wall is between 7 to 10, which is tend to make the wall unstable during middle to strong intensity of earthquake. The homogeneity of adobe block and mortar always results in the crack through the block itself when subject to in-plane force. The out-of-plane force breaks the intersection of walls, which made the wall overturn, then the roof might collapse afterwards.

  Except abnormal specimens, water content of adobe blocks distributed among 1﹪ and 3.1﹪, and compression strength among 4kg/cm2 and 20.5kg/cm2. By sieve analysis, sand content distributed among 8﹪ and 46﹪, silt plus clay among 54﹪ and 92﹪. The former is lower and the latter is much higher than USA or UK.

  Eight 70㎝×70㎝ specimens of adobe masonry for diagonal tension test were constructed. Testing results perform (a)traditional reinforcing method by putting bamboo strips in horizontal mortar is not exactly enhancing the shear strength. (b)properly applying ductile materials, such as steel cable or helix bars, to combine with adobe masonry will enhance the ultimate strength effectively. (c)shear strength of the unreinforced specimen is 0.022 kg/cm2, and the highest strength of reinforced specimen reaches 0.058 kg/cm2. (d)damage patterns of specimens are not exactly the same as those of damaged buildings, especially very few cracks cut through the block during test.
第一章 緒論 1-1

  第一節 研究動機與目的 1-1
  第二節 文獻回顧 1-1
  第三節 研究課題與方法 1-12
  第四節 研究架構與內容 1-14

第二章 土埆特性 2-1

  第一節 土埆材料性質 2-1
  第二節 土埆牆體結構特性 2-5
  第三節 土埆建物常見破壞 2-7
  第四節 小結 2-13

第三章 土埆磚材料之基本性質試驗 3-1

  第一節 各地土埆基本性質 3-1
  第二節 抗壓試驗 3-7
  第三節 試驗用土埆基本性質試驗 3-15
  第四節 小結 3-17

第四章 土埆牆力學特性之研究 4-1

  第一節 試驗規劃 4-1
  第二節 試驗準備工作 4-3
  第三節 試驗過程及試體行為 4-6
  第四節 試驗結果討論 4-12
  第五節 小結 4-22

第五章 結論及後續研究 5-1

  第一節 檢討及建議 5-1
  第二節 結論及後續研究 5-2
一、中文部分

林會承
1986《傳統建築手冊--形式與作法篇》,藝術家出版社

徐明福
1990《台灣傳統民宅及其地方性史料之研究》,胡氏圖書

閻亞寧
1995《彰化縣草屯燉倫堂修護研究計劃》,漢光建築師事務所,1995

張國樑
1998《古蹟修復施工技術之調查研究—以台中張家祖廟、文昌廟為例》,國立雲林科技大學工業設計技術研究所碩士論文

漢光建築師事務所
1999《南投縣第三級古蹟藍田書院修護工程工作報告暨施工紀錄》,南投縣政府

張嘉祥,徐明福,陳嘉基,蘇妍文
2001〈砌體構造古蹟及歷史建築物耐震改善技術研究〉《台灣古蹟及歷史建築防震技術之研究—八十九學年度期末研究成果研討會論文集》,國科會工程處

邱上嘉,方鳯玉,周志明、李琦華,蘇南,賴明茂96
2001〈紅磚與土埆磚壁體之灰縫形式與材質調查研究〉《台灣古蹟及歷史建築防震技術之研究—八十九學年度期末研究成果研討會論文集》,國科會工程處

張嘉祥,徐明福,陳嘉基
2001《歷史建築震損及維護方式之研究(二)砌體構造》,行政院文化建設委員會

邱上嘉,周志明,王新衡
2002〈傳統磚砌建築灰縫劣化與破壞之研究〉,《台灣古蹟及歷史建築防震技術之研究—九十學年度期末研究成果研討會論文集》,國科會工程處

蘇彥豪
2002《建築物連牆出入口地震力破壞實驗探討》,國立成功大學建築研究所第三十三屆碩士論文


二、外文部分
(一)網站資料

Anonymous
n. d.“Index of /adobe/july97 Index of /adobe/july97”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://cerrollano.tripod.com/adobe/july97/(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

Anonymous
n. d.“Seismic reinforcenent of existing adobe housing in the Andean countries”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://sipan.inictel.gob.pe/ceresis/proyect/oadobe.htm(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

Balla Sidibe,Daniel Kuennen,Trinidad Martinez
n. d.“Understanding Adobe”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://idh.vita.org/pubs/docs/ua.html(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

Fred Webster
n. d.“research and code improvement—some thoughts on “adobe codes””, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://www.deatech.com/natural/cobinfo/adobe.html(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

Luis Zegarra, Angel San Bartolomé, Daniel Quiun, Gladys Villa Garcia
2000“Reinforcement of existing adobe houses”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln47/zegarra.html,May 2000(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

Regulation & Licensing Department, Construction Industries Division, General Construction Bureau
1991“New Mexico adobe and rammed earth building code”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://www.earthbuilding.com/nm-adobe-code.html(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

William S. Ginnell , E.Leroy Tolles
n. d.“Preserving Safety and History: The Getty Seismic Adobe Project at Work”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://www.getty.edu/gci/conservation/14_1/ news_in_conservation/News1_1.html(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

William S. Ginell
n.d“When the Earth Moves”, 全球資訊網頁,網址:http://www.getty.edu/gci/conservation/11_1/news_in_ conservation/News1_1.html(上網查詢時間:2000/10)

(二)期刊、會議記錄

Anonymous
1992“A summary of the development of earthquake damage reduction technology Peru from 1970 to date,and the IISEE/BRI impact on those activities”, Proceedings of the IDNDR International Symposium on Earthquake Disaster Reduction Technology : in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, December 15-17, 1992, Tsukuba, Japan

Bariola, J.; Sozen, M. A
1990“Seismic tests of adobe walls” , Earthquake Spectra, 6, 1, Feb. 1990, pages 37-56

Celal N. Kostem,Josephine A. Bronco
1978“Earthquake Response of Low-cost Adobe House”, Central American Conference on Earthquake Engineering,January 9-12,1978,San Salvador,El Salvador,C.A.

Christof Ziegert
2000“Analysis of Material, construction and damage in historical cob buildings in central Germany”, 8th International Conference on the study and conservation of earthen structure: terra 2000 preprints, TORQUAY, DEVON, UK, May 2000; pp182-186

Clifton, James R
1977“Preservation of historic adobe structures : a status report”, Washington : Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Institute for Applied Technology : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977

Dr. Bülent Baradan
1990“A New Restoration Material for Adobe Structures”, 6th International Conference on the Conservation of Earthen Architecture : adobe 90 preprints,The Institute, Los Angeles, 1990,pages 149-152

Dr. Ertan Ozkan , Mohammed S. Al-Herbish
1995“An experimental study of the critical properities of pressed and stabilized earth bricks”, Architectural Science Review: Volume 38,pp59-73, June 1995

Essel Ben Hagan
1997“The Use of Stabilized soil to enhance rural housing”,Building Research and Information, 1997

Euscatigue Asencios, M.; et al.
1993“Advances in seismic research of adobe houses”, Bulletin of the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 27, 1993, pages 41-52

Gavrilovic P., Sendova P., W. S. Ginell, L.Tolles
1998“Behaviour of adobe structures during shaking table tests and earthquakes”, Proceedings of the Eleventh European Conference on Earthquake Engineering [computer file], A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1998

Julio Vargas Neumann;Juan Bariola Barnales
1990“Construcciones de Tierra, en el Peru de Hoy”, 6th International Conference on the Conservation of Earthen Architecture : adobe 90 preprints,The Institute, Los Angeles, 1990, pages 188-193

Nels Roselund;Kariotis &Associates
1990“Repair of Cracked Adobe Walls by Injection of Modified Mud”,6th International Conference on the Conservation of Earthen Architecture : adobe 90 preprints,The Institute, Los Angeles, 1990, pages 336-341

Raul Vera, Angel Albiter, Sandra Miranda
2000“Seismic capacity evaluation and retrofitting of adobe constructions”, 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering [Proceedings] [computer file], New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Upper Hutt, New Zealand, 2000, Paper No. 1981

Razani, R.
1979“Criteria for seismic design of low-rise brittle buildings in developing countries”, Proceedings of the 2nd U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Earthquake Engineering Research Inst., Berkeley, California, 1979, pages 813-822

Robert M. Koerner,Ivan J. Becica,Kevin Clark,Jonathan S. Reif, Jose D.Sagel
1978“Bamboo reinforcement of model adobe walls subjected to lateral loads”, Central American Conference on Earthquake Engineering,January 9-12,1978, San Salvador,El Salvador,C.A., pages551-558

Tolles, E. L.; et al.
1994“Advances in the seismic retrofitting of adobe buildings”, Fifth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Proceedings, Earthquake Engineering Research Inst., Oakland, California, Vol. III, 1994, pages 717-726

Wasti, S. T.; et al.
1998“Studies on the strengthening of rural structures damaged in the 1995 Dinar earthquake”, Proceedings of the Eleventh European Conference on Earthquake Engineering [computer file], A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1998

Webster, Frederick A.; Tolles, E. Leroy
2000“Earthquake damage to historic and older adobe buildings during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake”, 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering [Proceedings] [computer file], New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Upper Hutt, New Zealand, 2000, Paper No. 0628


(三)書籍

E. Leory Tolles, Edna E. Kimbro, Fredric A. Webster, William S. Ginell
2000“Seismic Stabilization of Historic Adobe Structures-- Final Report of Getty Seismic Adobe Project” , The Getty Conservation Institute, 2000

E. Leory Tolles, Fredric A. Webster, Anthony Crosby, Edna E. Kimbro
1996Survey of Damage to Historic Adobe Buildings after the January 1994 Northridge Earthquake

Jerome Iowa
1985“Ageless Adobe:history and preservation in southwestern architecture”, Sunstone Press,1985

John Norton
1986“Building with Earth—A Handbook”, Intermediate Technology Development Group Limited,Printed by Salvo Print, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, U.K.,1986

John & Nicola Ashurst
1990“Practical Building conservation,English Heritage Technical Handbook,Volume 2:Brick,Terracotta & Earth”, Gower Technical Press,1990

John Warren
1999Conservation of Earth Structures,Butterworth-Heinemann Handcover, April 1999

Juan J. Bariola Bernales, Ph. D.
1986“Dynamic Stability of Adobe Walls”, Department of Civil Engineering,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,1986

Paul Graham McHenry
1984“Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings : Design and Construction”, A Wiley-Interscience Publication,1984

Poul Beckmann
1995“Structural Aspects of Building Conservation”, Published by McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe,1995

Tolles, Edwin Lerry, Ⅲ, Ph.D.
1989“Seismic Studies on Small-Scale Models of Adobe Houses”, Standford University,1989
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