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研究生:潘義鉦
研究生(外文):Yi-Cheng Pan
論文名稱:國籍航空公司維修資源管理(MRM)與安全態度及其相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):Correlation Study on Maintenance Resource Management and Safety Attitude of Domestic Civil Aviation Airlines
指導教授:王小娥王小娥引用關係陸鵬舉陸鵬舉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shaw-Er WangPong-Jeu Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:維修資源管理維修人為因素安全態度維修人員維修人為疏失
外文關鍵詞:Maintenance Resource ManagementAircraft MaintenanceHuman FactorSafety Attitude
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本研究以Taylor(1997)之MRM問卷及McDonald(2000)的安全態度問卷為基礎,針對國籍航空公司及航空維修廠進行MRM及安全態度之問卷調查,評量國內航空維修人員對MRM與安全態度的態度和觀點,並衡量是否有適應不良或文化上的差異之影響。本研究問卷之設計是透過拜訪航空公司及航空維修廠,瞭解MRM訓練實施之現況,並參考國外學者設計的問卷為主要依據,建立初步問卷,再經航空維修專家之審核,確保文詞用語及內容之適當性,以確認適合國內的MRM及安全態度之問卷。本研究以台灣地區的四家航空公司及三家航空維修廠為研究對象,有效回收率為87.3%,共篩取873人為研究樣本,經各種統計分析方法檢驗分析後結論如下:1. MRM訓練的確對國籍航空維修人員的工作行為有相當大改變,其中直接參與維修部門的維修人員的工作行為改變最大。2.國籍航空維修人員受MRM訓練影響而工作行為改變的比例顯著大於美國航空維修人員(Taylor, 1997),特別是有關溝通與團隊方面;由於文化習性之差異,國籍維修人員較缺乏主動、積極、責任分擔的觀念,而美國航空維修人員的果斷敢言、責任分擔之觀念與表現則顯著優於國籍維修人員;此外國籍航空維修人員的安全態度顯著優於歐洲航空維修人員(McDonald, 2000)。3. MRM與安全態度兩者呈高度正相關;當維修人員學習到良好的目標分享與溝通、改善溝通技巧、加強團隊合作能力以及瞭解公司對安全的重視程度,則其主動回報、遵守安全規範及安全第一的表現也就會愈好。4.國籍航空維修人員對於安全的態度是比較被動、不積極,較需依賴規則、罰則、規範及訓練來加強本身對安全的警覺性。5.不同的工作部門的主要工作壓力不同,直接參與維修部門的壓力來源是時間緊迫、人力不足及器材不足;而間接參與維修部門的來源則是知識不足、相關資訊的不足及人力不足。6.最常造成維修人為疏失與意外行為的人為因素肇因為缺乏專業知識、溝通不良、缺乏警覺、自滿大意、積非成是及疲勞等。
A questionnaire for studying the maintenance resource management (MRM) and safety attitude of domestic aviation maintenance technicians (ATM) is developed. This questionnaire is designed by modifying those of Taylor’s (1997) and McDonald’s (2000). The surveyed domestic units include four airlines and three repair stations. The objective of this research is two-fold, one aiming at understanding the AMTs’ perceptions toward MRM and safety attitude, and the other for finding whether there exists cultural problems in receiving the MRM training. Validation of questionnaire was first achieved by exposure to AMT experts. A formal survey was then conducted using the revised questionnaire. There are 1000 copies of questionnaire handed out with 873 copies returned and screened through effectiveness test. The results of this survey include: 1) MRM training is effective for domestic AMTs, in particular for those affiliated with direct maintenance divisions. 2) The effectiveness of MRM training on behavioral improvement for Taiwan AMTs is comparatively better than that of the North American AMTs. However, owing to cultural differences Taiwan AMTs lack positive attitudes such as proactiveness and sense of responsibility sharing. In contrast, the North American AMTs are more assertive and willing to share responsibility. In addition, Taiwan AMTs’ safety attitudes are comparatively better than those of the Europe AMTs. 3) MRM and safety attitude are positively correlated. As Taiwan AMTs improve their goal sharing attitudes, communication skill, teamwork ability and awareness of company’s safety commitment in safety upholding, the results will be shown in their proactive reporting of incidents, compliance with respect to safety regulations, and assertion of safety. 4) Taiwan AMTs show passive attitudes toward safety enforcement and require standards, codes and training to improve their safety alertness. 5) Environmental and working pressures that influence safety comes different origins for direct and indirect maintenance units. For direct units, urgency in time, lack of manpower and equipment are the main factors of pressure sources, whereas for indirect units, lack of professional knowledge and information, and lack of manpower constitute the major factors. 6) the most commonly seen human error committed in maintenance include lack of professional knowledge, ineffective communication skill, lack of awareness, complacency, and workplace norms as well as the fatigue during work.
第一章 緒 論......................................1
1-1維修資源管理之背景及重要性.....................1
1-2研究動機與目的.................................4
1-3工作項目.......................................7
1-4預期困難與解決途徑.............................8
1-5研究流程.......................................9
1-6執行進度......................................11
第二章 國內民用航空發展現況......................12
2-1國內民航市場發展沿革之演變....................12
2-2航空相關人力供輸與維修需求....................13
2-3國籍航空公司維修人員之現況....................15
2-4飛航安全概況..................................16
第三章 文獻整理..................................18
3-1維修資源管理訓練..............................18
3-2安全態度相關理論與研究........................30
第四章 研究設計..................................33
4-1研究架構......................................33
4-2構面因素之操作性定義與衡量....................34
4-3研究假設......................................36
4-4資料處理及統計分析方法........................39
4-5研究範圍與對象................................41
4-6研究問卷之設計與衡量..........................43
4-7研究構面之建立................................53
第五章 研究結果..................................61
5-1基本資料分析..................................61
5-2研究構面之敘述性統計分析......................65
5-3不同人口統計變項之維修人員於各構面之差異性分析75
5-4維修資源管理與安全態度構面之關聯性分析........93
5-5開放式問題勾選答題情況簡述....................98
5-6檢視假設支持與否及探討.......................111
第六章 結論與建議...............................116
6-1結論.........................................116
6-2建議.........................................120
參考文獻........................................124
附錄一 專家效度問卷
附錄二 研究問卷
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[1.]交通部民用航空局網站http://www.caa.gov.tw/
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二、英文部份
[8.]ATA ,“Maintenance Human Factors Program Guidelines,” Washington DC: Air Transport Association of America, SP-113 (Available electronically at http://www.airlines.org/public/publications/ display1.asp? id=42), 1999.
[9.]Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Aircraft Accident-Worldwide Operations 1991-2001, 2002.
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[11.]Cohen, A., Smith, M., and Cohen, H. H., “Safety Program Practices in High vs. Low Accident Rate Companies-An Interim Report,” U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Publication, Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1975, pp. 75-185.
[12.]Cox, S., and Cox, T., ”The Structure of Employee Attitudes to Safety: An European Example,” The Journal of Work and Stress, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1991, pp. 96-106.
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[14.]Donald, I. and Canter, D., “Psychological Factors and the Accident Plateau,” Health and Safety Information Bulletin, SP-215, 1993, pp. 5-12.
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[16.]Fotos, S. S., “The Cloze Test as an Integrative Measure of EFL Proficiency: A Substitute for Essays on College Entrance Examinations?” The Journal of Language Learning, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1991, pp. 313-336.
[17.]Hair, J. F., Anderson R. E., Tatham, R. L., and Black, W. C., Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, Macmillan, New York, 1995.
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[23.]Krispin, J. V., “The Construction and Validation of a Measure of Safety Climate: Exploring the Link Between Attitudes and Perceptions Around Safety and Safe Performance,” Doctoral Dissertation, AAC9838558, Temple University, 1997.
[24.]McDonald, N., Corrigan, S., Daly, C., and Cromie, S., “Safety Management Systems and Safety Culture in Aircraft Maintenance Organizations,” The Journal of Safety Science, Vol. 34, 2000, pp. 151-176.
[25.]Mearns, K. J. and Flin, R., ”Assessing the State of Organizational Safety — Culture or Climate,” Current Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1999, pp. 5-17.
[26.]Overall, J. E. and Klett, C. J., Allpied Multivariate Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.
[27.]Patankar, M. S. and Taylor, J. C., “Analyses of Organizational and Individual Factors Leading to Maintenance Errors,” Society of Automotive Engineers,SAE Paper 2001-01-3005, 2001.
[28.]Ramsey, C. E. and Rickson, R. E., “Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes,” The Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1976, pp. 10-18.
[29.]Swanson, J., “Second thoughts on knowledge and attitude effect upon behavior,” Journal of School Health, Vol. 42, 1972, pp. 363-365.
[30.]Taylor, J. C., ”Effects of Communication & Participation in Aviation Maintenance,” Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1995, pp. 472-477.
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[32.]Taylor, J. C., “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM),“ Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection, Gatwick, UK, 1998, pp. 85-99.
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[34.]Thurstone, L. L. and Chave, E. J., The Measurement of Attitude, Chicago University, Chicago, Pressing, 1929.
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