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研究生:楊岳達
研究生(外文):Yueh-Ta Yang
論文名稱:未飽和層一維入滲解析之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of One-Dimensional Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils
指導教授:李振誥李振誥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Haw Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資源工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:數值模式解析模式入滲未飽和層
外文關鍵詞:infiltrationnumerical solutionunsaturated zoneanalytical solution
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本研究主要目的在比較Srivastava and Yeh、Babajimopoulos及陳建謀之三種未飽和層一維入滲理論模式之適用性,同時選定一試驗場址,收集其現地相關資料,並且進行現地及室內試驗以求取理論模式所需之土壤特性參數,代入適合理論模式中,配合敏感度分析結果及現場毛細壓力觀測資料進行現場參數模式率定,以作為往後預測試驗場址土壤入滲行為及相關研究之依據。
於試驗場址進行現地及室內試驗,並長期觀測地下水位、土壤毛細壓力及體積含水量變化,搭配日降雨量資料,以求取理論模式所需參數,其中包括飽和透水係數、土壤孔隙分佈參數、地下水位深度、初始入滲率、時間大於零之入滲率、飽和含水量、殘餘含水量。將所得之參數進行敏感度分析,發現飽和透水係數、土壤孔隙分佈參數、地下水位深度、初始入滲率、時間大於零之入滲率對理論模式影響最為顯著,飽和含水量及殘餘含水量對理論模式影響較小。
模式比較部分,Srivastava and Yeh所推導之解析模式及Babajimopoulos所提出之數值模式,其模擬之初始土壤剖面可依現場土壤狀況進行調整,而陳建謀所提出之解析模式,其模擬之初始土壤剖面為地表為殘餘含水量時所形成之穩態剖面,其理論模式模擬之初始土壤剖面無法依照現場土壤狀況調整,因此若模擬事件之入滲率為定值且未產生積水時,Babajimopoulos之理論模式適用性最廣,Srivastava and Yeh之理論模式次之,陳建謀之理論模式較差。而三種理論模式中,僅陳建謀之理論模式考慮積水狀況且其入滲率可為時間之函數,因此若模擬事件發生積水現象或其入滲率為時間函數時,則僅陳建謀之理論模式適用。
利用Srivastava and Yeh及Babajimopoulos之理論模式配合現場毛細壓力觀測值進行現場參數模式之率定,率定所得參數為飽和透水係數為0.30 、土壤孔隙分佈參數為0.0032 、飽和含水量為0.4、殘餘含水量為0.138,將此參數進行預測驗證,發現在模擬出現場之初始土壤剖面後,兩種理論模式之模擬結果其趨勢與現地觀測資料之趨勢符合。
Three models of one-dimensional transient infiltration, the Srivastava and Yeh model, the Babajimoupos model, and Chen model, were provided to analyze in-situ hydraulic data of unsaturated soils in NCKU-RE study site in order to find the most appropriate model and calibrate the effective parameters. Several hydraulic parameters of soil grain size, saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil pore-size distribution parameter, related volumetric water content, daily rainfall data, water-table altitude, saturated water content, and residual water content were investigated in field observation and lab experiment. In the case of field observations systems, soil pressure head and soil volumetric water content were set up to collect the series data in different depths from ground surface in study site. Then we do sensitivity analysis of the parameters of model. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the effect of saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil pore-size distribution parameter, water-table altitude, initial flux, and prescribed flux for time which is greater than zero were more significant while saturated and residual water contents were less significant.
As compared sensitivity results of three models, it indicated that the Srivastava and Yeh model and Babajimpoulos model are comparable under the similarly initial in-situ soil condition. In the case that infiltration rate is constant and without ponding, the Babajimpoulos model is the most predictive model. But in the case that infiltration rate is a function of time or the ponding is occurred, Chen model is the most appropriate model.
In NCKU-RE study site, we used Srivastava and Yeh model and Babajimpoulos model to calibrate field data, results indicated that the value of saturated hydraulic conductivity is 0.30 , soil pore-size distribution parameter is 0.0032 , saturated water content is 0.4 and residual water content is 0.138. Meanwhile, these two models can use to simulate the trend of pressure head in terms of depth in site observations.
目錄
摘要 I
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
符號表 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機及目的 1
1.2前人研究 1
1.3研究方法及流程 5
第二章理論模式 8
2.1理論模式(一) 8
2.2理論模式(二) 12
2.2.1降雨完全入滲之解 13
2.2.2降雨部分入滲之解 16
2.3理論模式(三) 18
第三章實驗場址之參數推求 22
3.1實驗場址概述 22
3.2土壤特性分析 24
3.3土壤之飽和透水係數 27
3.3.1定水頭試驗 27
3.3.2雙環實驗 29
3.4飽和含水量、殘餘含水量及土壤孔隙分佈參數 31
3.4.1抽真空飽和皿 31
3.4.2壓力鍋實驗 32
3.4.3電子式張力計之率定 35
3.4.4TDR之設定 39
第四章模式比較及模式之敏感度分析 43
4.1理論模式之比較 43
4.1.1理論模式(一)與理論模式(三)之比較 43
4.1.2理論模式(一)、理論模式(二)及理論模式(三)之比較45
4.2敏感度分析 47
4.2.1地下水位深度 49
4.2.2飽和透水係數 52
4.2.3土壤孔隙分佈參數 54
4.2.4初始入滲率 56
4.2.5時間大於零之入滲率 58
4.2.6飽和含水量 61
4.2.7殘餘含水量 63
第五章案例分析 65
5.1前言 65
5.2實驗場址長期觀測資料結果 65
5.2.1地下水位深度長期觀測結果 65
5.2.2土壤剖面毛細壓力長期觀測結果 66
5.2.3土壤剖面體積含水量長期觀測結果 67
5.3現場參數模式率定及驗證 68
5.3.1模式率定 69
5.3.2模式驗證(一) 73
5.3.3模式驗證(二) 76
5.4討論 79
第六章結論與建議 81
6.1結論 81
6.2建議 82
參考文獻 83
自述 88
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