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研究生:陳柏村
研究生(外文):Bo-Tsuen Chen
論文名稱:溫度及應變速率在304L不鏽鋼銲接件抗拉性質與顯微結構上的效應分析
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Tensile Properties and Microstructural Evolutions of 304L Stainless Steel Welded Joints
指導教授:李偉賢李偉賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Woei-Shyan Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:顯微結構拉伸性質應變速率不鏽鋼溫度
外文關鍵詞:microstructuralStainless SteelTensile PropertiesStrain RateTemperature
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本研究目的主要在探討304L不□鋼遮蔽金屬電弧銲(SMAW)及惰氣鎢極電弧銲(GTAW)銲接件在不同環境溫度及應變速率下的拉伸塑變行為與微觀組織變化。測試條件分別為環境溫度-100℃、-50℃、25℃、300℃、500℃及應變速率10-1s-1,10-2s-1,10-3s-1。
實驗結果顯示,304L不□鋼銲接件的機械性質受溫度及應變速率的影響非常顯著。在溫度影響方面,隨著溫度上升銲接件的降伏強度、塑流應力、抗拉強度、伸長量、加工硬化率、應變速率敏感性會隨之下降,而熱活化體積則有相反的趨勢。在應變速率影響方面,隨著應變速率上升銲接件的降伏強度及應變速率敏感性會隨之上升,而伸長量則有下降的趨勢。比較兩組銲接件得知,GTAW銲接件有較高的塑流應力,較高的加工硬化率,較高的應變速率敏感性係數,及較小的熱活化體積。利用Zerilli-Armstrong 構成方程式以及實驗所得材料參數可以描述304L不□鋼GTAW與SMAW銲接件在拉伸荷載下之塑性行為,作為工程分析與模擬之用。
破壞形貌觀察發現,兩組銲接件在低溫-100℃及-50℃下斷裂於銲道;高溫300℃及500℃下斷裂於母材。另外室溫25℃下,低應變速率10-3s-1及10-2s-1斷裂於銲道;高應變速率10-1s-1斷裂於母材。磁性量測結果顯示隨著溫度及應變速率的降低,麻田散鐵相變態量有增加的趨勢,並且母材的麻田散鐵相變態量又會明顯大於銲道。硬度測試結果顯示在固定應變量0.4下,-100℃、-50℃及25℃母材的硬度明顯大於銲道,而300℃和500℃則有相反的趨勢。TEM觀察發現差排密度會隨著溫度上升而下降;隨應變速率增加而增加,另外麻田散鐵相變態量會隨著溫度上升及應變速率增加而下降,而300℃和500℃下銲接件內部已經沒有麻田散鐵組織存在。
This study investigates the effect of temperature and strain rate on the tensile properties and microstructural evolution of 304L stainless steel GTAW and SMAW joints. Tensile tests are performed at temperatures of -100℃, -50℃, 25℃, 300℃ and 500℃, and strain rates of 10-1s-1, 10-2s-1and 10-3s-1.Experimental results indicate that temperature and strain rate significantly influence mechanical properties. As temperature increases, activation volume increases but yield strength, flow stress, tensile strength, fracture strain, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity decrease. As strain rate increases, yield strength and strain rate sensitivity increase, but fracture strain decreases. Flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity are greater for GTAW welds than for SMAW welds. The Zerrilli-Armstrong constitutive equation with the experimentally determined specific material parameters successfully describes the flow of the tested weldments for the range of test conditions. For both weldments, joints fracture in the weld metal at test temperatures between -100℃ and -50℃, but fracture in the base metal at temperatures from 300℃ to 500℃. At 25℃, joints fracture in the weld metal at strain rates of 10-3s-1 and 10-2s-1,but fracture in the base metal at a 10-1s-1 strain rate. Magnetic measurement reveals martensite decreases with increasing temperature and strain rate, and that martensite transformation is greater in base than in weld metal. For 0.4 strain, microhardness measurement reveals base metal is harder at -100℃、-50℃、25℃, while weld metal is harder at 300℃ and 500℃. Microstructural observations show that dislocation density decreases with increasing temperature but increases with increasing strain rate. Martensite decreases with temperature and strain rate increase.
中文摘要I
ABSTRACTII
總目錄IV
表目錄IX
圖目錄X
符號說明XVII
第一章緒論1
1-1研究背景與動機1
1-2研究目的3
1-3研究範疇3
第二章 文獻探討4
2-1 沃斯田鐵不□鋼銲接理論4
2-1-1 沃斯田鐵不□鋼銲接特性4
2-1-2 沃斯田鐵不□鋼銲接凝固行為5
2-1-3 肥粒相組織對沃斯田鐵不□鋼之影響7
2-1-4 肥粒相含量之影響因素8
2-1-5 肥粒相含量之估算9
2-2 惰性氣體鎢極電弧銲之簡介10
2-3 遮蔽金屬電弧銲之簡介11
2-4 銲接參數對銲道結構之影響11
2-5 母材熱影響區與強度之關係13
2-6 沃斯田鐵不□鋼變形過程之相變態13
2-6-1麻田散鐵相變態14
2-6-2影響麻田散鐵相變態量之因素15
2-7應變速率敏感性與變形機構16
2-8應變速率敏感性的測試方法19
2-9材料變形構成方程式20
第三章 實驗方法與設備36
3-1實驗流程36
3-2實驗材料36
3-2-1母材36
3-3-2銲材37
3-3實驗設備37
3-3-1銲接設備37
3-3-2萬能材料試驗機38
3-3-3微小硬度試驗機38
3-3-4磁性量測設備38
3-3-5光學顯微鏡(OM)39
3-3-6掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)39
3-3-7穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM)39
3-3-8雙噴射式電解拋光機39
3-4銲接試驗40
3-4-1銲接參數設定40
3-4-2惰性氣體鎢棒電弧銲(GTAW)40
3-4-3遮蔽金屬棒電弧銲(SMAW)40
3-4-4銲接件檢驗41
3-5實驗方法與步驟41
3-5-1拉伸試驗41
3-5-2微硬度試驗42
3-5-3肥粒鐵相量測42
3-5-4麻鐵散鐵之量測42
3-5-5試件金相之觀察(OM)43
3-5-6破斷面之觀察(SEM)43
3-5-7化學成分分析(EDS)43
3-5-8穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM)43
第四章 結果與討論52
4-1拉伸前銲接件基本性質分析52
4-1-1母材與熱影響區金相組織52
4-1-2銲道金相組織52
4-1-4肥粒鐵含量分析54
4-1-4微硬度值分析55
4-2應力應變曲線之討論56
4-3加工硬化率之討論57
4-4應變速率敏感性58
4-5熱活化體積59
4-6溫度敏感性60
4-7變形昇溫量量測61
4-8材料變形構成方程式61
4-9拉伸後銲接件微觀組織分析62
4-9-1麻田散鐵相變態量62
4-9-2銲接件斷裂位置63
4-9-3銲道破斷面形貌65
4-9-4母材破斷面形貌67
4-9-5拉伸後金相組織67
4-9-6 拉伸後微硬度68
4-10 TEM顯微結構分析68
4-10-1差排69
4-10-2麻田散鐵70
第五章 結論148
參考文獻150
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