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研究生:李政賢
研究生(外文):Cheng-Shyan Lee
論文名稱:Sn-Ag-xSb無鉛錫銲接點微結構與低週疲勞之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Microstructure and Low Cycle Fatigue of Sn-Ag-xSb Lead-Free Solder Joints
指導教授:李驊登李驊登引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwa-Teng Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:低週疲勞Sn-Ag-Sb無鉛銲料微結構剪切強度
外文關鍵詞:Sn-Ag-Sblead-free soldermicrostructurelow cycle fatigueshear strength
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本文研究目的在於Sn-Ag銲料系中添加不同比例的銻(Sb, 0~10 wt%),探討Sb的添加量對其熔點分佈與微結構組織之影響,並進行150˚C高溫熱儲存試驗以評估銲料等溫低週疲勞之可靠度表現。
本實驗以在Sn-3.5Ag銲料中添加1.73、3.85、5.12以及10.05 wt% Sb為實驗材料。試件設計採用接近實際銲接點的單剪試件,先行將銲料製作成直徑1.7mm錫球後以純銅片為基板進行迴銲銲接。銲接完成後進行150˚C高溫儲存試驗,儲存時間分別為225與625小時。研究結果顯示Sn-Ag-xSb銲料的熔點隨Sb添加量的增加而上升,由Sn-3.5Ag共晶銲料的221.3˚C上升至228.2˚C(添加10.05%),且固液相區間亦隨之擴大。添加Sb對Sn-Ag銲料微結構改變不大,都是β-Sn枝晶與枝晶間的網狀共晶組織所組成,當添加1.73% Sb時,Sb是以固溶在β-Sn的方式存在;而添加3.85與5.12% Sb時會有大小約數μm的SbSn化合物在β-Sn中生成;當Sb添加量到達10.05%時,銲料中進一步生成大小約20~30μm的立方體SbSn化合物。
機械測試方面,銲接點的剪切強度隨Sb添加量的增加而上升,由Sn-3.5Ag共晶銲料的89.3N上升為114.2N(1.73%)、129.0N(3.85%)、140.5N(5.12%)與183.2N(10.05%)。在±0.025mm固定位移量下,未經熱儲存之銲點疲勞壽命大致上隨Sb含量的增加而增加,以添加10.05%Sb有最佳疲勞壽命,原因在於銲接點的塑性應變量隨著Sb含量的增加而減少,愈少的塑性應變會有愈佳的疲勞壽命,此外最大荷重的下降速率則隨Sb含量的增加而增加;熱儲存過後銲料的軟化會使疲勞壽命增加,但界面層的成長將導致裂紋從界面處開裂,此時疲勞壽命會嚴重下降,因此熱儲存後的疲勞壽命為此兩因素影響下的結果。疲勞裂紋的生成初始位置在銲點界面層與漏斗頸之間,而破斷模式則隨著Sb添加量增加與熱儲存時間的增長,由銲料內部破斷模式演變成銲料與界面的混合模式,最後再轉變成界面破斷模式。
The goal of this research is to evaluate the effect of Sb additions (0~10 wt%) on the melting point and microstructure of Sn-Ag solder. The reliability of low cycle fatigue of the solder joint is evaluated by the thermal storage test for 150˚C.
The materials tested are Sn-3.5Ag with 1.73, 3.85, 5.12 and 10.05 wt% Sb additions respectively. Single-lap specimens were used to simulate real solder joints. Solder balls of 1.7mm in diameter were prepared in the lab, and re-flowed between two pure Cu substrates. The 150˚C thermal storage test is conducted after soldering, and the storage time is 225 and 625 hours respectively. Experimental result shows melting points of the Sn-Ag-xSb solder are increased with greater Sb additions. The melting points are 221.3˚C(Sn-3.5Ag) and 228.2˚C(adding 10.05%) respectively, and the solid-liquid regions also expand as the content of Sb increases. Microstructures of the Sn-Ag solder with different Sb additions are similar and can be characterized as consisting of β-Sn dendrite and interdenritic eutectic network. Sb atoms are solved in the β-Sn when adding 1.73 wt% Sb into the Sn-Ag solder, and SbSn compounds of several μm in size are formed in the β-Sn when adding 3.85 and 5.12 wt% Sb. As Sb addition reaches 10.08 wt%, cubic SbSn compounds of 20~30 μm in length form in the solder.
Shear strength of the as-soldered solder joints is increased with greater Sb additions. The shear strengths are 89.3N(Sn-3.5Ag), 114.2N(1.73%), 129.0N(3.85%), 140.5N(5.12%) and 183.2N(10.05%). In the condition with constant ±0.025mm displacement, fatigue life of the as-soldered joint is approximately increases with greater Sb additions. The reason is the plastic strain of the solder joint is decreases with greater Sb additions. The lesser plastic strain the better fatigue life and the rate of load-drop is increased with greater Sb additions. After 150˚C thermal storage, fatigue life will improve because of the softening of solder joints. While the creaks that propagate along the interface due to the increased thickness of the Intermetallic Compound (IMC) greatly reduce the fatigue life. Therefore, the fatigue life after thermal storage is influenced by two factors. Fatigue cracks initiate at the location between the IMC layers and the neck of hourglass-shaped specimens. The fracture mode transits from solder fracture mode to mixture mode then to IMC fracture mode with increasing Sb additions and longer storage time.
一、前言 1
二、文獻回顧 4
2-1無鉛銲料發展概況 5
2-1.1Sn-3.5Ag銲料 8
2-1.2Sn-Ag-X銲料 10
2-2Sn-Ag-Sb三元合金系 11
2-2.1Sn-Sb二元合金 11
2-2.2Sn-Ag-Sb三元銲料 13
2-3可靠度測試 15
2-4等溫低週疲勞 18
2-4.1 Coffin-Manson equation 18
2-4.2頻率對疲勞壽命的影響 21
2-4.3冷卻速率對疲勞壽命的影響 22
2-4.4界面層對疲勞強度影響 22
2-4.5銲點幾何形狀對疲勞壽命影響 23
三、實驗步驟與方法 26
3-1實驗規劃 26
3-2試件製備 29
3-3實驗內容 32
3-4疲勞測試參數設定 33
四、結果討論 37
4-1銲料成份檢測與熔點分析 37
4-2XRD分析與素材微結構 41
4-3錫球外觀與微結構 58
4-4銲接點剪切強度測試 60
4-5等溫低週疲勞測試 63
4-5.1Sn-3.5Ag等溫低週疲勞 64
4-5.2添加Sb對Sn-Ag銲點等溫低週疲勞之影響 67
4-5.3熱儲存對銲接點等溫低週疲勞之影響70
4-5.4疲勞裂紋生成探討 83
五、結論 92
六、建議與未來方向 94
七、參考文獻 95
授權書 103
著作權聲明 104
自述 105
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1. 16.梁元彰,"無鉛焊錫合金概論,"電腦與通訊, 第90期, 2000, pp. 45-49
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