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研究生:陳鴻杰
研究生(外文):Hung-Chieh Chen
論文名稱:焚化廠煙道廢氣對周界大氣中戴奧辛/呋喃影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Stack Flue Gases from Waste Incinerators on PCDD/Fs in Ambient Air
指導教授:李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:大氣都市垃圾焚化廠戴奧辛植物
外文關鍵詞:MSWIsatmosphereplantsPCDD/Fs
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多氯二聯苯戴奧辛及多氯二聯苯口夫喃(Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated dibenzofurans : PCDD/Fs,一般簡稱戴奧辛)為半揮發性有毒物質。其中PCDD/Fs為已知毒性最強化合物之一。根據美國環保署之報告證實PCDD/Fs為對人類致癌之物質。2,3,7,8-TCDD是PCDD/Fs中毒性最強者,國際癌症研究局已將其歸類為第一類之「已知人類致癌物」。根據1995年美國環保署的評估,環境中戴奧辛的來源以燃燒程序為最主要之來源,而在美國各種不同的燃燒行為,又以廢棄物焚化廠排放量最大,其中又以都市垃圾焚化廠為主要來源。以1987年之調查資料為例,都市垃圾焚化廠佔所有戴奧辛排放量之65.8%,加上醫療廢棄勿焚化廠則達到86.4%,可見焚化廠排放之戴奧辛對整體環境貢獻量之鉅。
本研究之目的,即為了解排放源對附近環境之影響,針對焚化廠煙道廢氣與其周界最大落點之大氣、土壤及植物進行戴奧辛分析,並評估都市垃圾焚化廠所排放PCDD/Fs對環境介質之影響,以期能持續更廣泛建立本土之PCDD/Fs排放源資料庫,以利PCDD/Fs排放源之鑑定。
目前TC焚化廠與CY焚化廠已運轉多年,但缺乏垃圾焚化廠附近戴奧辛相關數據,藉由本研究工作內容,可監測最大落點土壤及植物之戴奧辛濃度。TC焚化廠與CY焚化廠煙道廢氣中平均PCDD/Fs總I-TEQ濃度分別為 0.0213 和 0.0065 ng-I-TEQ/Nm3;其周界大氣中PCDD/Fs總I-TEQ平均濃度分別為0.0436和 0.173 pg-I-TEQ/Nm3;周界植物中PCDD/Fs總I-TEQ平均含量分別為3.72和2.24 pg-I-TEQ/g;土壤中PCDD/Fs總I-TEQ平均含量分別為1.85和15.7 pg-I-TEQ/g。由兩季之最大落地濃度點、上風處及下風處採樣點相比較,並藉由PCDD/Fs濃度之等位軌跡圖及主要成分分析與階層集群分析結果顯示,其對周界大氣、植物及土壤中PCDD/Fs含量之影響並不顯著。與國內外相關文獻比較可知,由於日本焚化廠較為普遍,所得之數據也較為齊全,而東京及橫濱濃度分別為0.45及0.54 pg-I-TEQ/g,故本研究周界大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度皆較日本東京與橫濱為低。至於周界土壤,由文獻可知附近有焚化廠運作中之土壤PCDD/Fs含量值之範圍相當大,為0.11~356 pg-I-TEQ/g,而國內各區土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量皆屬於在此範圍之較低值。由周界採樣點大氣、植物與土壤含量之線性回歸可知三者間相關性皆不高。其原因為本研究大氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度僅代表採樣期間三天之平均值,而植物與土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量有其持續性及累積性,故其所屬之時間尺度各不相同,且在不同環境介質中,PCDD/Fs衰減之速率亦不同。但由國內各地區大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度、植物葉片及土壤中PCDD/Fs含量來看,由於其代表之值為研究整年度之平均值,因此大氣中之PCDD/Fs濃度與植物葉片中PCDD/Fs含量有較高的相關性,但土壤與大氣和植物間之相關性仍不顯著,可能之原因為土壤之時間尺度較大之關係。建議建立本土之PCDD/Fs排放源資料庫及煙道廢氣特徵剖面,以利PCDD/Fs排放源之鑑定。由於本研究之執行時間未能涵蓋春夏秋冬四個季節,研究台灣地區大氣、植物、土壤與季節之關係,以求得影響其濃度與含量之因子。為能明確掌握PCDD/Fs可能污染之途徑,建議加以研究大氣中PCDD/Fs於氣固相與粒狀物各粒徑中之分佈及乾濕沈降,以瞭解PCDD/Fs在環境中之流佈。
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are semi-volatile toxic compounds. The US EPA has identified PCDD/Fs as potential human carcinogens. 2,3,7,8-TeCDD is the most toxic PCDD/Fs. Notably, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified 2,3,7,8-TCDD as “carcinogenic to humans”. The US EPA reported that combustion is the major source of PCDD/Fs, and moreover that municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are the significant contributor to the PCDD/Fs inventory. MSWIs contributed 65.8% of total PCDD/Fs emissions in 1987; moreover, the combined PCDD/Fs emissions of MSWIs and medical waste incinerators (MWIs) reached 86.4%. Consequently, the effect of stack flue gases from waste incinerators on PCDD/Fs in ambient air cannot be ignored.
This study investigates how PCDD/Fs from stack flue gases of MSWIs affect the atmosphere, soil and plants. Two MSWIs (TC and CY) are examined. The stack flue gases of MSWIs, ambient air, soil and plants of maximum ground concentration are sampled and measured for PCDD/Fs to determine the influence of MSWIs and establish a native PCDD/Fs database.
Mean PCDD/Fs concentration in the stack flue gases of TC and CY were 0.0213 and 0.0065 ng-I-TEQ/Nm3, respectively; mean PCDD/Fs concentration in the atmosphere of TC and CY was 0.0436 and 0.173 pg-I-TEQ/Nm3, respectively; mean PCDD/Fs content in the plants of TC and CY was 3.72 and 2.24 pg-I-TEQ/g, respectively, and mean PCDD/Fs content in the soils of TC and CY was 1.85 and 15.7 pg-I-TEQ/g, respectively. By comparing maximum ground concentration for upwind and downwind sampling sites, and using PCA and cluster analyses, the effect of PCDD/Fs from the stack flue gases of TC and CY on the atmosphere, soil and plants is unclear.
The PCDD/Fs concentrations in the atmosphere in this study are lower than in Tokyo and Yokohama. According to various studies, soil PCDD/Fs content around MSWIs ranges between 0.11 and 356 pg-I-TEQ/g, and the PCDD/Fs content of Taiwanese soil falls at the low-end of this range. By linear regression, the connections among atmosphere, plants and soils are not apparent. The reason for this phenomenon may be that the atmospheric PCDD/Fs concentrations are based on the mean over three days, while the PCDD/Fs contents in plants or soil are based on a longer exposure time and the decomposition rates of PCDD/Fs differ among these media. Suggested future research directions include investigating the PCDD/Fs gas/particulate partition in the atmosphere and the PCDD/Fs content in different particulate size to better understand the fate of PCDD/Fs in the environment.
總目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
總目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 戴奧辛 3
2-1-1 戴奧辛之特性 3
2-1-2 各環境介質中之戴奧辛 4
2-2 都市垃圾焚化廠 9
2-2-1 都市垃圾焚化廠煙道廢氣戴奧辛之排放係數 9
2-2-2 都市垃圾焚化廠煙道廢氣戴奧辛之濃度9
2-2-3 都市垃圾焚化廠煙道廢氣戴奧辛之特徵剖面 9
2-2-4 焚化廠附近土壤與植物中所含戴奧辛之特徵剖面 10
第三章 實驗方法 12
3-1 採樣規劃方式 12
3-1-1 敏感區域選定 12
3-1-1-1 TC焚化廠採樣點選定 12
3-1-1-2 CY焚化廠採樣點選定 12
3-1-1-3 研究架構 15
3-2 採樣設備及分析方法 16
3-2-1 煙道中戴奧辛採樣方法 16
3-2-2 大氣中戴奧辛採樣方法 17
3-2-3 植物中戴奧辛採樣方法 18
3-2-4 土壤中戴奧辛採樣方法 23
3-3 戴奧辛樣品之前處理 27
3-3-1 大氣中戴奧辛樣品前處理 27
3-3-2 植物及土壤中戴奧辛樣品前處理步驟 30
第四章 結果與討論 33
4-1 煙道廢氣中之PCDD/Fs 33
4-2 周界大氣中之PCDD/Fs 40
4-2-1 TC焚化廠周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵 40
4-2-2 CY焚化廠周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵 50
4-2-3 與國內外相關周界大氣執行研究結果之比較 60
4-3 周界植物中之PCDD/Fs 64
4-3-1 TC焚化廠周界植物中PCDD/Fs之特徵 64
4-3-2 CY焚化廠周界植物中PCDD/Fs之特徵 71
4-3-3 與國內外相關植物葉片執行研究結果之比較 74
4-4 周界土壤中之PCDD/Fs 80
4-4-1 TC焚化廠周界土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵 80
4-4-2 CY焚化廠周界土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵 87
4-4-3 與國內外相關土壤執行研究結果之比較 92
4-5 比較各介質中PCDD/Fs含量之相關性 96
第五章 結論與建議 100
5-1 結論 100
5-2 建議 102
參考文獻 103
自述 110
表目錄
表2-1 距焚化廠不同距離之土壤與植被樣品中戴奧辛之濃度 8
表3-1 TC焚化廠基本資料 13
表3-2 CY焚化廠基本資料 14
表4-1 TC焚化廠煙道排氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 34
表4-2 CY焚化廠煙道排氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 35
表4-3 TC焚化廠第一季各採樣點大氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 41
表4-4 TC焚化廠第二季各採樣點大氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 42
表4-5 CY焚化廠第一季各採樣點大氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 51
表4-6 CY焚化廠第二季各採樣點大氣中PCDD/Fs之濃度 52
表4-7 本研究和國內不同地區大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度比較表 61
表4-8 本研究和國外大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度比較表 63
表4-9 TC焚化廠第一季植物中PCDD/Fs之濃度 65
表4-10 TC焚化廠第二季植物中PCDD/Fs之濃度 66
表4-11 CY焚化廠第一季植物中PCDD/Fs之含量 72
表4-12 CY焚化廠第二季植物中PCDD/Fs之含量 73
表4-13 本研究和國內不同地區植物葉片中PCDD/Fs濃度比較表 79
表4-14 國外過去研究中植物中PCDD/Fs之含量 79
表4-15 TC焚化廠第一季周界土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量 81
表4-16 TC焚化廠第二季周界土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量 82
表4-17 CY焚化廠第一季土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量 88
表4-18 CY焚化廠第二季土壤中PCDD/Fs之含量 89
表4-19 本研究和國內不同地區土壤中PCDD/Fs濃度比較表 95
表4-20 國外過去研究中土壤之PCDD/Fs含量 95
圖目錄
圖2-1 PCDDs/PCDFs之結構 3
圖2-2 土壤與植被樣品中各族對總PCDD/PCDFs之百分比貢獻度 8
圖3-1 研究架構流程圖 15
圖3-2 大氣採樣設備 19
圖3-3 植物採樣作業程序 24
圖3-4 大氣樣品前處理程序 27
圖3-5 植物、土壤前處理程序 30
圖4-1 TC焚化廠煙道廢氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 36
圖4-2 CY焚化廠煙道廢氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 37
圖4-3 其他國內外垃圾焚化廠煙道廢氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 38
圖4-4 PT及MC焚化廠煙道廢氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 39
圖4-5 TC焚化廠第一季周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 43
圖4-6 TC焚化廠第二季周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 44
圖4-7 TC焚化廠第一季周界大氣採樣點之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 45
圖4-8 TC焚化廠第二季周界大氣採樣點之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 46
圖4-9 TC焚化廠第一季之主要成份分析與階層集群分析 48
圖4-10 TC焚化廠第二季之主要成份分析與階層集群分析 49
圖4-11 CY焚化廠第一季周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 53
圖4-12 CY焚化廠第二季周界大氣中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 54
圖4-13 CY焚化廠第一季周界大氣之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 56
圖4-14 CY焚化廠第二季周界大氣之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 57
圖4-15 CY焚化廠第一季之主要成份分析與階層集群分析 58
圖4-16 CY焚化廠第二季之主要成份分析與階層集群分析 59
圖4-17 背景地區、郊區、住宅區、都會區、工業區及火葬場周界大氣樣品之PCDD/Fs特徵剖
面 62
圖4-18 TC焚化廠第一季周界採樣點植物葉片中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 67
圖4-19 TC焚化廠第二季周界採樣點植物葉片中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 68
圖4-20 TC焚化廠第一季周界植物葉片採樣點之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡與風瑰圖 69
圖4-21 TC焚化廠第二季周界植物葉片採樣點之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡與風瑰圖 70
圖4-22 CY焚化廠第一季周界採樣點植物葉片中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 75
圖4-23 CY焚化廠第二季周界採樣點植物葉片中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 76
圖4-24 CY焚化廠第一季周界採樣點植物葉片中之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 77
圖4-25 CY焚化廠第二季周界採樣點植物葉片中之PCDD/Fs等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 78
圖4-26 TC焚化廠第一季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 83
圖4-27 TC焚化廠第二季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 84
圖4-28 TC焚化廠第一季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 85
圖4-29 TC焚化廠第二季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 86
圖4-30 CY焚化廠第一季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 90
圖4-31 CY焚化廠第二季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之特徵剖面 91
圖4-32 CY焚化廠第一季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 93
圖4-33 CY焚化廠第二季周界採樣點土壤中PCDD/Fs之等位軌跡圖與風瑰圖 94
圖4-34 TC焚化廠周界大氣、植物與土壤之PCDD/Fs含量相關性 97
圖4-35 CY焚化廠周界大氣、植物與土壤之PCDD/Fs含量相關性 98
圖4-36 國內各地區大氣中PCDD/Fs濃度、植物葉片及土壤中PCDD/Fs含量 99
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