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研究生:劉從國
研究生(外文):Chung-Kuo Liu
論文名稱:運動員目標取向與自尊對歸因與情緒的影響
論文名稱(外文):Influence of Athletes’ Goal Orientation and Self-Esteem on Attributions and Emotions
指導教授:盧俊宏盧俊宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Frank Jing-Horng, Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立體育學院
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:競賽輸贏結果目標取向自尊歸因情緒
外文關鍵詞:goal orientationattributionaffectioncompetition outcomeself-esteem
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本研究主要是探討動員在不同目標取向、自尊對其歸因與情緒的影響。本研究係以參加九十二學年度的第九屆東方錶杯網球賽之網球選手,與第一屆南部大專院校撞球聯賽之撞球選手為研究對象。其中男生314位(佔全體人數67.5%),女生151位(佔全體人數32.5%),研究對象平均年齡為21.24(SD= ±2.88)歲,總人數為465人。本研究徵得受試者同意後,填寫運動目標取向量表、自尊量表、競賽結果第二代因果歸因量表與情緒反應量表。本研究資料處理以獨立樣本二因子變異數分析,進行運動選手在不同目標取向與自尊之比賽後的歸因與情緒反應,並以皮爾遜積差相關比較贏與輸的情境下,歸因與情緒的關係。研究結果如下:
一、在贏的情境下,目標取向與自尊對歸因的影響方面:
(一)目標取向與自尊在「因果根源」歸因交互作用未達顯著水準,但在目標取向與自尊有主要效果存在;特別是「高工作/高自我」組將「贏」歸因於「因果根源」高於「高工作/低自我」和「低工作/低自我」。其次高自尊者將「贏」歸因於「因果根源」高於低自尊者。
(二)目標取向與自尊對「穩定性」歸因的交互作用未達顯著水準;目標取向與自尊的主要效果亦未達顯著水準。
(三)目標取向與自尊對「外在控制」的歸因交互作用未達顯著水準,但在目標取向有主要效果存在;特別是「高工作/低自我」組將「贏」歸因於「外在控制」高於「低工作/低自我」組。
(四)目標取向與自尊對「個人控制」歸因交互作用達顯著水準;即高自尊時,「高工作/高自我」組,會將「贏」歸因於「個人控制」高於「高工作/低自我」組,也高於「低工作/低自我」組。除此之外,「低工作/高自我」組將「贏」歸因於「個人控制」高於「高工作/低自我」組,也高於「低工作/低自我」組。另外,在「高工作/高自我」和「低工作/低自我」組的高自尊者將「贏」歸因於「個人控制」高於低自尊者。其次,在目標取向有主要效果存在;特別是「高工作/高自我」將「贏」歸因於「個人控制」高於「高工作/低自我」,也高於「低工作/低自我」。
二、在贏的情境下,目標取向與自尊對情緒的影響方面:
(一)目標取向與自尊在「正向情緒」的交互作用未達顯著水準,但在目標取向與自尊分別主要效果存在;特別是「低工作/高自我」和「高工作/高自我」的「正向情緒」均高於「低工作/低自我」,另外在高自尊者的「正向情緒」顯著高於低自尊者。
(二)目標取向與自尊在「負向情緒」的交互作用未達顯著水準;在主要效果方面,各組之間的差異亦未達顯著水準。
三、在輸的情境下,目標取向與自尊對歸因的影響方面:
(一)目標取向與自尊對「因果根源」交互作用達顯著水準;即低自尊時,「高工作/高自我」組將「輸」歸因於「因果根源」高於「低工作/低自我」和「低工作/高自我」。另一方面,「高工作/低自我」組將「輸」歸因於「因果根源」高於「低工作/高自我」組,另外在「高工作/高自我」的低自尊者將「輸」歸因於「因果根源」高於高自尊者。
(二)目標取向與自尊對「穩定性」交互作用存達顯著水準;即低自尊時,「低工作/低自我」組將「輸」歸因於「穩定性」高於「低工作/高自我」和「高工作/高自我」。另一方面,在低自尊時,「高工作/低自我」組將「輸」歸因於「穩定性」高於「高工作/高自我」組。另外在「高工作/高自我」的高自尊者組將「輸」歸因於「穩定性」高於低自尊者。但在目標取向有主要效果存在;特別是「低工作/低自我」組將「輸」歸因於「穩定性」高於「低工作/高自我」組和「高工作/高自我」組。
(三)目標取向與自尊對「外在控制」交互作用達顯著水準;即在低自尊時,「低工作/低自我」、「低工作/高自我」和「高工作/低自我」組將「輸」歸因於「外在控制」均高於「高工作/高自我」組。另外,在「高工作/高自我」的高自尊者將「輸」歸因於「外在控制」高於低自尊者;而且,「低工作/低自我」的低自尊者組將「輸」歸因於「外在控制」高於高自尊者。
(四)目標取向與自尊對「個人控制」交互作用達顯著水準;即低自尊時,「高工作/高自我」組將「輸」歸因於「個人控制」均高於「高工作/低自我」、「低工作/高自我」和「低工作/低自我」組。另外,在「高工作/高自我」的低自尊者組將「輸」歸因於「個人控制」高於高自尊者。
四、在輸情境下,目標取向與自尊對情緒的影響方面:
(一)目標取向與自尊對「正向情緒」的交互作用未達顯著水準,但在目標取向與自尊有主要效果存在;特別是「高工作/高自我」組的「正向情緒」高於「低工作/高自我」組。其次,高自尊者的「正向情緒」高於低自尊者。
(二)目標取向與自尊對「負向情緒」交互作用達顯著水準;即高自尊時,「高工作/高自我」組,在「輸」時其「負向情緒」高於「低工作/高自我」組。其次,在低自尊時,「低工作/高自我」組,在「輸」時其「負向情緒」高於「低工作/低自我」組,也高於「高工作/高自我」組。另外在「低工作/高自我」的低自尊者,在「輸」時其「負向情緒」高於高自尊者。但自尊有主要效果存在;特別是低自尊者在「輸」時其「負向情緒」高於高自尊者。
五、在贏情境下,歸因與情緒的相關情形方面:
在贏的情境下,歸因與「正向情緒」的關係,即「因果根源」、「穩定性」和「個人控制」與「正向情緒」達正相關。另一方面,在贏的情境下,歸因與「負向情緒」的相關,只有「外在控制」與「負向情緒」達正相關;其次,「個人控制」與「負向情緒」達負相關。
六、在輸的情境下,歸因與情緒的相關情形方面:
在輸的情境下,歸因與「正向情緒」的關係,即「穩定性」與「正向情緒」有正相關,其次,「個人控制」與「正向情緒」有負相關。另 一方面,在輸的情境下,歸因四個向度與「負向情緒」均無相關。
本研究並且建議未來研究者可以研究受試者前置變項(如:性別、年齡、成就目標取向、自尊、自利偏誤以及主客觀的成就結果評估)觀察其在歸因上差異,以及這些差異對後續行為與情緒的影響。
關鍵詞:競賽輸贏結果、目標取向、自尊、歸因、情緒
The purpose of this present study was to examine the influences of goal orientations and self-esteem on causal attributions and emotions under winning or losing situation. This study recruited 465 athletes (314 males and 151 females; with mean age of 21.24{±2.88}) from the Ninth Annual Eastern Watch Cup tennis tournament and the First Annual Pool Tournament of Southern Universities as participants. Participants completed Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, Rosenberg''s Self-Esteem Scale, Causal Dimension Scale-Ⅱ(CDS-II), Affective Reactive Scale after competition. Independent two-way ANOVA, Pearson analyses were conducted to examine the influences of athletes’ goal orientations and self-esteem on attributions and emotions. This study found the following results:
1.Under winning condition, the influences of achievement goals and self-esteem on four dimensions of causal attribution:
i.Locus of causality: There’s no interaction effect of achievement goals and self-esteem on attribution only main effects were found. Specifically, participants with higher high-task/ high-ego tended to attribute their winning more on “locus of causality” than participants with high-task/ low-ego and low-task/ low-ego. Also, participants with high self-esteem tended to attribute their winning more on “locus of causality” than participants with low self-esteem.
ii.Stability: It was found no interaction and main effects of achievement goals and self-esteem on causal attributions.
iii.External control: It was found no interaction effect of achievement goals and self-esteem on causal attributions, but only found participants with high-task/low ego attributed their winning more on external control than participants with low-task/low-low ego.
iv.Personal control: It was found that there’s an interaction between goal orientation and self-esteem on attribution. Specifically, under high self-esteem, participants with high-task/high-ego attributed their winning to personal control than high-task/ low-ego and low-task/ low-ego. In addition, under high self-esteem, participants with low-task/ high-ego attributed their winning to personal control than high-task/ low-ego and low-task/ low-ego. Further, participants with high self-esteem but also with high-task/high-ego and low-task/low ego attributed their winning to personal control than participants with low self-esteem. Moreover, there’s main effect on participants with high-task/high-ego who attributed their winning on personal control more than participants with high-task/low-ego and low-task/low-ego.
2. Under winning condition, the influences of achievement goals and self-esteem on emotions:
i.Positive affect: There’s no interaction effect of orientation and self-esteem on positive affective responses, however, some main effects were found. Specifically, participants with low-task/ high-ego and high-task/ high-ego exhibited higher affective responses than participants with low-task/ low-ego. Also, participants with high self-esteem exhibited higher affective responses than low self-esteem.
ii.Negative affect: There’s neither interaction nor main effects of orientation and self-esteem on negative affective under winning condition.
3.Under losing condition, the influences of achievement goals and self-esteem on four dimensions of causal attribution:
i. Locus of causality: There’s an interaction effect of achievement goals and self-esteem on attribution. Specifically, under low self-esteem, participants with high-task/ high-ego attributed their losing more on “locus of causality” than participants with low-task/ low-ego and low-task/high-ego. Also, participants with high-task/ low-ego attributed their losing more on “locus of causality” than participants with low-task/high-ego. Furthermore, participants with high-task/high-ego but low self-esteem attributed their losing more on “locus of causality” than participants with low self-esteem.
ii. Stability: There’s an interaction effect of achievement goals and self-esteem on attribution. Specifically, under low self-esteem, participants with low-task/ low -ego attributed their losing more on “stability” than participants with low-task/high-ego and high-task/high-ego. Also, under low self-esteem, participants with high-task/ low-ego attributed their losing more on “stability” than participants with high-task/high-ego. Furthermore, participants with high-task/high-ego but high self-esteem attributed their losing more on “stability” than participants with low self-esteem. Furthermore, main effects showed participants with low-task/ low-ego attributed their losing more on “stability” than participants with low-task/high-ego and high-task/high-ego.
iii.External control: There’s an interaction effect of achievement goals and self-esteem on attribution. Specifically, under low self-esteem, participants with low-task/ low-ego, low-task/high-ego and high-task/low-ego attributed their losing more on “external control” than participants with high-task/high-ego. Also, participants with high-task/high-ego but high self-esteem attributed their losing more on “external control” than participants with low self-esteem. Moreover, participants with low-task/low-ego and low self-esteem attributed their losing more on “external control” than participants with high self-esteem.
iv.Personal control: It was found that there’s an interaction between goal orientation and self-esteem on attribution. Specifically, under low self-esteem, participants with high-task/high-ego attributed their losing to personal control than high-task/ low-ego, low-task/ high-ego and low-task/low-ego. In addition, participants with high-task/ high-ego and low self-esteem attributed their losing to personal control than participants with high self-esteem.
4. Under losing condition, the influences of achievement goals and self-esteem on emotions:
i. Positive affect: There’s no interaction effect of orientation and self-esteem on positive affective responses, however, some main effects were found. Specifically, participants with high-task/ high-ego exhibited higher affective responses more than those participants with low-task/ low-ego. Also, participants with high self-esteem exhibited higher affective responses than low self-esteem.
ii.Negative affect: It was found that there’s an interaction between goal orientation and self-esteem on negative affect. Specifically, under high self-esteem, participants with high-task/high-ego exhibited higher negative affective responses than high-task/ low-ego. Under low self-esteem, participants with low-task/high-ego exhibited higher negative affective responses than low-task/low-ego high-task/ high-ego. In addition, participants with low-task/high-ego and low self-esteem exhibited higher negative affective responses than participants with high self-esteem. Also, main effect revealed that participants with low self-esteem exhibited higher negative affective responses than participants with high self-esteem.
5. Correlation between attributions and emotions under winning condition: Stability positively and personal control positively correlated with positive affective responses, while external control and personal control negatively correlated with positive affective.
6. Correlation between attributions and emotions under losing condition: Stability positively correlated with positive affective responses, while personal control negatively correlated with positive affective. No attributions correlated with negative affective responses under losing condition.
This study concluded that future study may examine the influence of attributional antecedents (gender, age, achievement goals, self-esteem, self-serving bias, objective versus subjective outcome), competition outcome and emotion responses on attributions and motivation. Future study may extend this study and explore which personality factors moderate competition outcome and emotional responses.
第一章 緒 論--------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機------------------------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的-------------------------------------------------------6
第三節 研究問題--------------------------------------------------------6
第四節 名詞解釋--------------------------------------------------------8
第二章 文獻探討------------------------------------------12
第一節 目標取向理論與其相關研究-----------------------------------12
第二節 自尊理論與其相關研究---------------------------------------19
第三節 歸因理論與其相關研究----------------------------------------36
第四節 情緒理論與其相關研究-----------------------------------------54
第五節 文獻整理與推論------------------------------------------------62
第六節 研究假設--------------------------------------------------------64
第三章 研究方法------------------------------------------66
第一節 研究架構--------------------------------------------------------66
第二節 研究對象--------------------------------------------------------67
第三節 研究工具-------------------------------------------------------67
第四節 研究步驟--------------------------------------------------------73
第五節 資料處理-------------------------------------------------------76
第四章 結果與討論-----------------------------------------------------
77
第一節 在贏的情境下,目標取向與自尊對歸因的影響----------77
第二節 在贏的情境下,目標取向與自尊對情緒的影響----------90
第三節 在輸的情境下,目標取向與自尊對歸因的影響-------95
第四節 在輸的情境下,目標取向與自尊對情緒的影響-------113
第五節 在贏的情境下,歸因與情緒的相關情形-------------120
第六節 在輸的情境下,歸因與情緒的相關情形-------------122
第七節 研究限制-------------------------------------124
第五章 結論與建議------------------------------------------------------126
第一節 結論---------------------------------------126
第二節 建議----------------------------------------132
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------134
附錄------------------------------------------------------------162
附錄一 受試者同意書--------------------------------------162
附錄二 運動勝負原因調查表----------------------------------163
附錄三 情緒反應量表-------------------------------------------165
附錄四 自我感受調查表------------------------------------------166
附錄五 運動目標取向量表-----------------------------------------167
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