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研究生:遲嫻儒
研究生(外文):Xien-Ru Chi
論文名稱:組織新進成員之上行形象管理策略運用與中國人Guanxi之相關性研究--以媒體組織從業人員為例
論文名稱(外文):An Examination on the Relationship between Guanxi and Newcomers'' Upward Impression Management Strategies in Media Organization
指導教授:李秀珠李秀珠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Chu Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:Guanxi上下司溝通領導部屬交換理論上行形象管理策略形象管理策略上行影響策略
外文關鍵詞:GuanxiSuperior-Subordinate CommunicationLMXUpward Impression Mnangement Influence StrategiesUpward Impression Management StrategiesUpward Influence Strategies
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東方儒家文化特有的Guanxi概念對東方文化成員人際溝通之影響甚鉅,Guanxi包含了人情、互惠、恩、報與義務的概念,根據相關文獻之論述均指出Guanxi在中國人人際溝通中扮演了一個相當重要的角色。全然移植西方既有理論架構(LMX理論)解釋中國文化組織溝通行為之推論適切性令人質疑,是故本研究認為建立一套屬於中國人的中國式上下司溝通理論與策略之重要性甚鉅。
有鑑於國內上下司溝通文獻之匱乏,本研究將焦點置於組織新進成員如何運用形象管理策略與直屬上司建立Guanxi,率先建構中國式上行形象管理影響策略。本研究深度訪談訪問25位媒體組織新進成員,以如何與上司建立Guanxi為本研究訪談主軸,研究結果建構出十一項具Guanxi特色的中國式上行形象管理影響策略,分別為:克盡職責、吃苦耐勞、自我表現、投其所好、順從、謙虛學習、表面工夫、語言親近策略、禮貌策略、送禮、逢迎策略。本研究結果發現Guanxi的確為造成東西方上行形象管理影響策略差異之重要變項、Guanxi於東方上下司溝通上扮了極重要的角色、LMX理論於本研究中受到部份修正。
最後,本研究亦對組織經理人或主管提出相關建議,並且提供組織新進成員上行形象管理影響策略之可用性評估與實行方式引導,希驥藉此先軀性研究為開創國內上下司溝通理論之建構風氣,以期發揮本研究最大之預期貢獻。
Guanxi is a prevalent phenomenon in the Chinese society, which affects almost every aspect of Chinese interpersonal relationships. This study attempts to understand how Guanxi is related to the use of upward impression management strategies by newcomers in media organizations. Twenty-five intensive interviews were conducted on newcomers of media organizations in Taiwan to examine what strategies these newcomers used to make a good impression before their superiors and how these strategies were affected by the Guanxi that these newcomers had with their superiors. The data analysis shows that Guanxi did affect subordinates'' selection of upward impression management strategies and that some strategies used by newcomers of this study were not found in the western literature. This study suggests that to construct a Chinese model of upward impression management strategies is very important to understand how upward impression management operates in Chinese organizations.
中文提要 ……………………………………………………………………i
英文提要 ………………………………………………………… ii
誌謝 ………………………………………………………… iii
目錄 ………………………………………………… iv
圖表目錄 …………………………………………………… v
一、 緒論…………………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究背景與緣起……………………………… 1
1.1.1 形象管理在組織中的重要性……………………… 1
1.1.2 中國人的Guanxi導向與組織內的形象管理……… 7
1.2 研究動機…………………………………………… 8
1.3 預期之貢獻………………………………………… 11
二、 文獻探討…………………………………………… 13
2.1 形象管理文獻檢閱…………………………………… 13
2.1.1 形象管理定義…………………………………… 13
2.1.2 形象管理文獻歷史回顧……………………………… 19
2.1.3 形象管理影響策略…………………………………… 21
2.2. 上下司溝通相關理論與研究………………………… 26
2.2.1 何謂領導部屬交換理論…………………………… 27
2.2.2 LMX理論建構歷史回顧………………………………… 30
2.2.3 LMX理論與相關研究…………………………………… 34
2.3 Guanxi與組織人際溝通、上下司溝通之關聯性…… 38
2.3.1 何謂Guanxi………………………………………… 39
2.3.2 Guanxi 的特色…………………………………… 41
2.3.3 Guanxi與中國差序格局之形成……………………… 43
2.3.4 Guanxi的類型別…………………………………… 44
2.3.5 Guanxi與組織的相關研究…………………………… 46
2.4 小結與問題提列……………………………………… 50
三、 研究方法……………………………………………… 53
3.1 研究架構……………………………………………… 53
3.2 資料蒐集……………………………………………… 55
3.2.1 資料蒐集方法………………………………………… 55
3.2.2 樣本選取限制………………………………………… 55
3.2.3 前測…………………………………………………… 56
3.2.4 樣本人口統計資料概述……………………………… 56
3.2.5 資料蒐集過程………………………………………… 56
3.3 訪談綱要設計………………………………………… 59
四、 資料分析……………………………………………… 62
4.1 組織新進成員上行形象管理影響行為動機與策略… 62
4.1.1 組織新進成員進行形象管理影響策略之動機……… 62
4.1.2 中國式上行形象管理影響策略……………………… 67
4.2 研究發現分析與討論………………………………… 82
4.2.1 Guanxi 為造成東西方上行形象管理影響策略差異之重要變
項............................................83
4.2.2 東西方上行形象管理影響策略之差異……………… 89
4.2.3 LMX相似性並非中國人建立Guanxi之主要因素……… 92
4.2.4 上行形象管理影響策略之成效評估………………… 94
4.2.5 既有實証研究結果與本研究結相異處之討論……… 95
4.3 其他次要研究發現與討論…………………………… 98
4.3.1 上司之專業能力與上下司關係之關聯性…………… 99
4.3.2 部屬對上司之好惡與上下司關係之關聯性………… 99
4.3.3 上司的回饋與上下司關係之關聯性………………… 100
4.3.4 自我檢查程度高低與形象管理策略行為運用之關聯性102
4.3.5 Guanxi與工作表現的衡量-以內團體與外團體之分野來說
明............................................102
五、 結論與建議…………………………………………… 104
5.1 研究結果……………………………………………… 104
5.1.1 意識與非意識的上行形象管理行為動機…………… 104
5.1.2 本研究建構之中國式上行形象管理影響策略應用… 105
5.1.3 東西方研究差異之研究省思………………………… 107
5.1.4 對主管與經理人之建議……………………………… 107
5.1.5 對組織新進成員之建議……………………………… 109
5.2 研究建議……………………………………………… 111
5.3 研究限制……………………………………………… 112
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 113
附錄一 ………………………………………………………… 123
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