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研究生:林心湄
研究生(外文):Hsin-Mei Lin
論文名稱:從科技匯流談普及服務到普及接取的政策轉變
論文名稱(外文):A Policy Transition from Universal Service to Universal Access: A Technology Convergence Perspective
指導教授:汪琪汪琪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Georgette Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:科技匯流電信政策普及服務普及接取數位落差
外文關鍵詞:Technology ConvergenceTelecommunication PolicyUUniversal ServiceUniversal AccessDigital Divide
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隨著電信與資訊產業匯流,網際網路等新科技在社會上的重要性日漸增加,使普及服務在理論與政策執行上都面臨重大的挑戰。本研究最主要的目的是從科技匯流的觀點,檢視普及服務政策的變遷,並了解新科技在電信管制架構中所扮演的角色,另外也探討在資訊社會中,普及服務與普及接取政策應該發揮什麼樣的功能。基於以上出發點,本研究欲探討的研究問題有:
1.普及接取概念的誕生對原先的普及服務政策有何重要性與意涵?
2.各國政府在政策上如何因應科技發展的變化?有哪些考量因素?
3.科技發展所造成的政策變遷對普及服務的終極目標有何影響?
在研究方法上,本研究採取個案分析的方式,選取美國、英國與南韓等三個國家作為研究對象,分析這三個國家在科技匯流的影響下,其普及服務政策轉變的過程,本研究將普及服務政策分成三個細項來討論,分別是普及服務「概念的轉變」、「服務的範圍」以及「方法與策略」。結果發現:在科技發展的影響下,各國政府以「普及接取」這個概念充實普及服務的意涵,普及接取政策也成為推動寬頻網路及其他新科技的最佳途徑;而各國的普及服務範圍也開始擴大,焦點逐漸從電話服務轉為網際網路,並在普及服務政策中保障學校、圖書館等教育機構連接網路。另外,雖然寬頻網路不在普及服務的範圍內,但各國還是運用產業政策或其他策略鼓勵寬頻網路的發展,其中以南韓最為積極。
綜合各國對於擴大普及服務範圍,或是以普及接取政策推行寬頻網路的看法,大多數國家認為新科技應該經由市場競爭達到普及,除非市場機制無法滿足民眾需求時,才是政策介入的時機,在方法上以設立「社區資訊中心」提供大眾共享的網路接取效果最佳,「公共接取」在有限的資源下,能將寬頻網路效益最大化。由於電信網路與資訊網路在本質上的不同,未來普及服務或普及接取在推行資訊服務時,政策制訂者必須考量硬體、軟體、資訊素養等每一個環節,才能有效率地推動新科技的普及。
As the boundaries of telecommunications and information sector have blurred and the Internet has been increasingly important in our society, universal service is facing challenges both in theory and practice. This thesis aims to examine several changes of universal service policy from a technology convergence view, and also to figure out the relation between technology development and telecommunication regulatory framework. Moreover, this paper explores how universal service and universal access function in the information society. Three research questions are raised below:
1.The concept of “universal access” is emerging. How does it affect the original universal service policy? And what is the significance of universal access in telecommunication regulation?
2.How telecommunication policies accommodate the technology development in policy-making process? What are its considerations?
3.How does the policy transition which is resulted from new technology impact the ultimate goal of universal service?
This paper adopted case study in methodology, and examined the policy transition of universal service in various countries including United States, United Kingdom, and South Korea. The case study model separated “universal service” into three parts to analyze. These dimensions are “change of the concept”, “categories of universal service”, and “executive strategies”. There are several findings in case study. First, under the pressure of new technology, policy-makers introduce the concept “universal access” to enhance universal service policy. Furthermore, sometimes universal access is the best route to promote the diffusion of broadband or other technologies. Second, the scope of universal service has been enlarged in the foregoing countries. Universal service policy focuses on Internet more than telephone nowadays. Most of these countries guarantee the priority of schools and libraries to connect with Internet through universal service obligation. Third, although broadband Internet access is not the object of universal service, more and more countries utilize industry policy or other alternatives to encourage the application of broadband. The high broadband penetration in South Korea is an excellent example.
In a word, most of nations think that new technology should be universal through market competition, whatever enlarging universal service or promoting advanced telecommunication service. When customer’s demand could not be fulfilled by market mechanism, universal service policy has a reason to intervene the market operation. To establish “community information center” has a great effect on providing Internet access to the masses. With the limited resources, public access points can maximize the benefit of broadband. It is important to consider the essential differences between telephone network and information network. If the government intends to promote Internet or other advanced telecommunication service via universal service/universal access, policy-maker should take account of several elements, including infrastructure, terminal devices, software, and information literacy. It may be one of efficient ways to universalize new technology in the future.
目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………iii
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………v
論文目錄……………………………………………………………………vi
表目錄………………………………………………………………………x
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………xi
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景…………………………………………………………2
1.1.1 電信自由化…………………………………………………………2
1.1.2 科技發展……………………………………………………………3
1.1.3 我國電信發展與普及服務現況……………………………………5
1.2 研究目的與問題意識………………………………………………6
1.2.1 研究目的……………………………………………………………6
1.2.2 問題意識……………………………………………………………6
第二章 普及服務的內涵與推行方式……………………………………8
2.1 普及服務的原理…………………………………………………8
2.1.1 電信網路擴張與普及服務………………………………………9
2.1.2 普及服務的基本考量……………………………………………12
2.2 普及服務目標的演變……………………………………………14
2.3 現階段普及服務政策的推行……………………………………19
2.3.1 普及服務的範圍…………………………………………………20
2.3.2 普及服務的財源機制……………………………………………26
第三章 從普及服務到普及接取…………………………………………29
3.1 普及接取的意義與目標…………………………………………29
3.1.1 普及接取概念的產生……………………………………………29
3.1.2 兩個世界:已開發國家與開發中國家…………………………32
3.2 網際網路普及接取(Universal Internet Access)………… 35
3.2.1 寬頻網路的普及接取……………………………………………37
3.2.2 網際網路接取的相關議題………………………………………40
3.3 接取彩虹(Access Rainbow) 理論模型……………………… 41
第四章 個案研究…………………………………………………………48
4.1 研究問題與研究架構……………………………………………48
4.1.1 研究問題…………………………………………………………48
4.1.2 研究方法與分析架構……………………………………………49
4.2 美國………………………………………………………………53
4.2.1 美國普及服務的政策背景………………………………………53
(一) 美國電信發展簡史………………………………………………53
(二) 普及服務的資金來源……………………………………………54
4.2.2 美國普及服務的範圍……………………………………………55
4.2.3 美國推行網路普及接取的策略…………………………………61
4.3 英國………………………………………………………………64
4.3.1 英國普及服務的政策背景………………………………………64
(一) 歐盟的指導原則…………………………………………………64
(二) 英國電信自由化的過程…………………………………………67
4.3.2 英國普及服務的範圍……………………………………………67
4.3.3 英國推行網路普及接取的策略…………………………………69
(一) 歐洲國家寬頻網路發展概況……………………………………70
(二) 英國促進寬頻接取的策略………………………………………71
4.4 南韓………………………………………………………………75
4.4.1 南韓普及服務的政策背景………………………………………75
(一) 第一階段:1980年代…………………………………………………75
(二) 第二階段:1990年代前期……………………………………………76
(三) 第三階段:1990年代後期至今…………………………………… 77
4.4.2 南韓普及服務的範圍……………………………………………78
4.4.3 南韓推行網路普及接取的策略…………………………………79
(一) 南韓寬頻網路發展概況…………………………………………79
(二) 南韓促進寬頻接取的策略………………………………………80
4.5 個案小結…………………………………………………………81
4.5.1 普及服務內容與範圍的改變……………………………………84
(一) 各國政府對擴張普及服務範圍的看法…………………………… 85
(二) 普及服務補助對象的改變………………………………………… 86
4.5.2 寬頻網路普及接取的策略………………………………………89
第五章 結論………………………………………………………………93
5.1 普及服務未來之展望……………………………………………93
5.1.1 科技發展對普及服務政策的影響………………………………94
5.1.2 各國政府在政策上的考量因素…………………………………96
5.1.3 科技發展對普及服務終極目標的影響…………………………99
5.2 研究限制……………………………………………………… 101
5.3 研究建議……………………………………………………… 102
5.3.1 對我國普及服務政策的建議………………………………… 102
5.3.2 後續研究建議………………………………………………… 105
參考文獻………………………………………………………………… 107
附錄
附錄A OECD國家寬頻普及現況……………………………………… 117
附錄B 歐洲各國寬頻普及率(2002年底)……………………………118
表目錄
表2.1 OECD國家對普及服務的定義……………………………………22
表2.2 開發中國家的普及服務範圍……………………………………24
表2.3 普及服務的資金來源與策略工具………………………………27
表3.1 寬頻普及前15名經濟體現況(2002年)…………………………39
表3.2 彩虹模型各層次的接取議題……………………………………47
表4.1 美國E-Rate補助學校之概況……………………………………60
表4.2 美國普及服務與普及接取政策總結……………………………64
表4.3 英國寬頻網路接取狀況…………………………………………72
表4.4 英國普及服務與普及接取政策總結……………………………74
表4.5 南韓主要電信市場開放時程表…………………………………77
表4.6 南韓普及服務與普及接取政策總結……………………………84
表4.7 美、英、韓三國普及服務與普及接取政策比較………………92
表5.1 對我國寬頻普及接取策略的建議…………………………… 105
圖目錄
圖1.1 科技與網路匯流…………………………………………………1
圖2.1 Noam的網路擴張模型……………………………………………9
圖3.1 資訊網路的結構……………………………………………… 36
圖3.2 接取彩虹模型………………………………………………… 42
圖4.1 個案分析架構………………………………………………… 51
圖4.2 美國網際網路人口與普及率成長圖………………………… 62
圖4.3 歐洲主要國家寬頻成長圖…………………………………… 71
圖4.4 南韓網際網路用戶與普及率成長圖………………………… 79
圖4.5 南韓寬頻/窄頻網路用戶成長趨勢圖……………………… 80
參考文獻
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Prieger, J. (1998). Universal Service and the Telecommunications Act of 1996: The Fact after the Act. Telecommunications Policy, 22(1), 57-71.
Rawson, S. (2001). Broadband Britain: How Universal Should It Be? Available at: http://www.dentonwildesapte.com/PDF/BroadbandBritain_HowUniversal_Oct2001.pdf
Sawhney, H. & Jayakar, K. (1996). Universal Service: Migration of Metaphors. Paper presented at Twenty-Fourth Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Solomons, MD.
Schorr, S. (2002). Regulatory Approaches to Universal Service and Universal Access around the World. TRASA, ITU and CTO Universal Access and Rural Connectivity Regional Workshop for Southern and Eastern Africa. Available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/2002/Tanzania/Documents/Susan_TanzaniaUS_Presentation.pdf
Shement, J. R. & Forbes, S. C. (1999). Expanding the Menu: An Informed Choice Model of Universal Service for an Integrated Digital Environment. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference in Arlington.
Skogerbø, E. & Storsul T. (2000). Prospects for Expanded Universal Service in Europe: The Cases of Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. The Information Society, 16, 135-146.
South Africa Government Information (1998). Discussion paper on Definition of Universal Service and Universal Access in Telecommunications in South Africa. Published in the Government Gazette (400), No.19397. Available at: http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/discuss/usa.html
Tambini, D. (2000). Universal Internet Access: A Realistic View. Available at Institute for Public Policy Research [IPPR] website: http://www.ippr.org.uk/publications/covers/Universal%20Internet%20Access%20in%20.pdf
Taylor, L. D. (1994). Telecommunications Demand in Theory and Practice. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Universal Service Administrative Company [USAC] (2001). 2001 Annual Report., Washington, DC: USAC.
World Information Technology and Services Alliance [WITSA] (2000). Universal Access to the Internet: Challenges and Strategies. Available at: http://www.witsa.org/ga2000/internetuaccess.htm
Xavier, P. (1997). Universal Service and Public Access in the Networked Society. Telecommunications Policy, 21(9/10), 829-843.
中文部分:
Focus on Internet News and Data [FIND] (2001)。韓國寬頻網路發展。見FIND網站:http://www.find.org.tw/trend_disp.asp?trend_id=1164
FIND(2003)。韓國寬頻網路政策。見FIND網站http://www.find.org.tw/trend_disp.asp?trend_id=1224
如意淼(2001)。電信普及服務的發展,通訊雜誌,87,46-50。
柯慧貞(1999)。電信自由化下普及服務之推行方式。國立中正大學電訊傳播所碩士論文,嘉義。
高凱聲(1998年1月)。論電信普及服務制度之設立。經社法制論叢,21,105-121。
陳建文、林心湄(2002)。檢視電信自由化下台灣普及服務新制度的推行,電訊政策與傳播。論文發表於中華傳播學會2002年會,台北:深坑。
資策會電子商務應用推廣中心(2003)。2002全球主要國家網際網路推動政策與應用指標分析報告。台北市:財團法人資訊工業策進會,電子商務應用推廣中心。
劉崇堅、莊懿妃(1996)。電信產業普及服務,經社法制論叢,17/18,1-23。
顏嵩源(2000)。我國電信普及服務制度規劃之研究。國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,台北。
網路資源:
美國
1. FCC
http://www.fcc.gov/
2. Government Technology
http://www.govtech.net/
3. USAC
http://www.universalservice.org/default.asp
4.
英國及其他歐洲國家
1. European Universal Service Atlas
http://www.uso-atlas.org/NOSCRIPT/UK0.ASP
2. NITA
http://www.itst.dk/mainpage.asp
3. Oftel
http://www.oftel.gov.uk/
南韓
1. Information Note: South Korea — Overseas Duty Visit by the Panel on Information, Technology and Broadcasting.
http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr01-02/english/sec/library/0102in20e.pdf
2. Korea Information Strategy Development Institute(KISDI)
http://www.kisdi.re.kr/
3. Korea Telecom(KT)
http://www.kt.co.kr/
4. MIC
http://www.mic.go.kr/eng/jsp/main.jsp
綜合資源
1. Broadband Stakeholder Group
http://www.broadbanduk.org/
2. FIND
http://www.find.org.tw
3. ITU
http://www.itu.int/home/index.html
4. NUA Internet Surveys
http://www.nua.ie/surveys/
5. OECD
http://www.oecd.org/home/
6. 交通部電信總局
http://www.dgt.gov.tw/flash/index.shtml
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