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研究生:沈聰益
研究生(外文):Shen, Tsung-Yi
論文名稱:人格五因素模式預測保險業務員銷售績效的效度─NEO-PI-R量表之跨文化檢驗與人際特質架構之實證探討
論文名稱(外文):Validity of the Five-Factor Model of Personality in Predicting Sales Performance of Life Insurance Salespeople: Cross-cultural Inspection of the NEO-PI-R and Empirical Exploration of Interpersonal Traits
指導教授:黃仁宏黃仁宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Jen-Hung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:人格五因素模式銷售績效保險業權力距離個人主義跨文化
外文關鍵詞:PersonalityFive-Factor modelNEO-PI-RBig FiveSales PerformanceLife InsurancePower DistanceProcrustes Rotation
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人格五因素模式近年來獲得許多研究的支持,跨文化的檢驗也初步證實普遍適用性。NEO-PI-R人格量表即量測此五因素:神經質、外向性、開放性、友善性及嚴謹性。然而部分亞洲樣本的研究結果,卻呈現外向性和友善性兩個有關人際互動的維度,有混雜交錯的情形。本文針對保險業務員進行實證研究,發現人格結構的因素分析型態,重現了這種混雜交錯的情形。進一步從人格特質與銷售績效的相關分析中,發現以「支配性」和「愛」命名的人際特質建構方式,具備較佳的準則相關效度與收斂效度。有關人格五因素模式在跨文化檢驗中,人際特質層面的歧異及其文化意涵,有必要進行審慎的研究與探查,在實證應用直接擷取人格五因素做為預測變數時,更需要注意此方面細緻的差異。
從本研究中發現,有效能的銷售業務員具備高嚴謹性與高支配性的特質。如果以原量表設計的外向性做為預測變數,則外向性與銷售績效的關係薄弱。我們以上述實證結果的差異,詮釋人際特質的簡單結構模式和圓平面結構模式的關係。此外,西方國家與亞洲國家的跨文化差異,也提供對上述結果的解釋,尤其是文化維度中的權力距離分數和個人主義分數差異。
Five-factor model of personality had gain supports from many studies in recent years. Preliminary evidences in cross-cultural inspection also confirmed its generalizability. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory was designed to measure the Big Five: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. However, in some studies of Asian samples, there was a commingling problem between Extraversion and Agreeableness, the two interpersonal dimensions. The present study of life insurance salespeople did replicate such commingling problem in the pattern of factor structure. Further analyses of correlations between personality and sales performance show that they are more valid in both criterion-related validity and convergent validity when interpersonal factors were structured and labeled as Dominance and Love instead of Extraversion and Agreeableness. The differences in interpersonal dimensions of the five-factor model of personality that had been explored under cross-cultural circumstances should be examined prudently, especially when using the Big Five as predictors in empirical research.
According to this research, effective salespeople score high in both Conscientiousness and Dominance. While Extraversion as a predictor as its original design, there is a weak relationship with sales performance. The results were taking into consideration in interpreting simple structure model and circumplex model of interpersonal traits. Moreover, cross-cultural differences between western countries and Asian countries also offer an explanation on the results, especially those culture differences about Power Distance and Individualism.
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
壹、緒論 1
1.1釐清人力資源的決策準則 2
1.2尋找有效的預測變數 6
1.3以人格特質預測銷售績效 9
1.4研究架構 11
貳、文獻探討 12
2.1銷售工作與銷售績效的特性 12
2.2人格特質理論的發展 13
2.2.1特質論的相關假設 14
2.2.2人格特質五因素模式 15
2.2.3對人格五因素論的批評與討論 20
2.2.4跨文化研究發現的問題 21
2.3人際特質的深入探究 24
2.3.1東西方研究結果仍有差異 24
2.3.2Wiggins的人際特質圓平面 25
2.3.3簡單結構模式與圓平面模式之對比 28
2.4人格特質與績效 29
2.4.1 嚴謹性與績效 32
2.4.2 外向性與績效 32
2.4.3 友善性與績效 32
2.4.4 開放性與績效 33
2.4.5 神經質與績效 33
2.5影響績效表現的其他變數 34
參、研究方法 38
3.1樣本與量測程序 38
3.2量測變數與量測工具 39
3.2.1 人格特質 40
3.2.2 績效指標 40
3.2.3 個人背景變數 41
3.3資料篩檢 41
3.4統計方法 42
3.4.1 量表信度 42
3.4.2 因素分析 42
3.4.3 Procrustes 轉軸 42
3.4.3 其他分析程序 43
肆、結果與討論 44
4.1信度分析 44
4.2因素分析 48
4.2.1 外向性和友善性因素的糾結 49
4.2.2 未能清晰界定的刻面 51
4.3 Procrustes轉軸 51
4.4人格特質預測銷售績效的準則相關效度(Criterion-related Validity) 54
4.4.1 因素領域(Domains)層次 54
4.4.2 刻面(Facets)變數層次 54
4.4.3 兩種人際維度建構方式的比較 58
4.5人格特質預測銷售績效的迴歸分析 61
4.5.1 原量表五因素架構預測銷售績效 61
4.5.2 轉軸後五因素架構預測銷售績效 62
伍、結論與建議 63
5.1工作價值觀與人際特質結構 63
5.1.1「支配性」反應文化差異 66
5.1.2「外向性」定義仍有待探究 68
5.2預測銷售績效的關鍵人格特質 69
5.2.1嚴謹性 70
5.2.2支配性 70
5.3人格特質研究的限制與展望 71
陸、參考文獻 74
附錄一:本研究所使用之問卷完整版本 82
附錄二:台灣樣本對美國範本研究之Procrustes目標轉軸SAS程式設計 94
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