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研究生:吳欣達
研究生(外文):Wu, Hsin-da
論文名稱:漢語中的上移動詞
論文名稱(外文):Verbs of Upward Movement in Mandarin
指導教授:劉美君劉美君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Mei-chun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:語言與文化研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:詞彙語意近義詞區辨概念結構
外文關鍵詞:lexical-semanticsnear-synonym distinctionconceptual structure
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本文目的在調查漢語中的上移類動詞,並針對其提出詞彙語意方面的解釋。根據「知網(HowNet)」的分類,這一組動詞包括「懸、掛、吊、懸掛、懸吊、拔、抬、拎、提、提起、揭、舉」等共十一個詞項。」本文採用以語料庫為本的方法,由中研院平衡語料庫取得語料並加以分析。
我們的分析支持知網將上移類動詞細分為兩大次類的作法,分為懸掛類動詞與提昇類動詞。語料的分佈情形顯示懸掛類動詞傾向與表示狀態,而提昇類動詞傾向於表示動作。
根據湯(2000),完成事件是由活動(上位事象)加上狀態(下位事象)所構成的。語料的分佈情況正好和這樣的分析吻合。懸掛類動詞對應到下位事象,提昇類動詞對應到上位事象。
每個動詞各自的獨特性,則透過劉(1999)「事件焦點」的概念來加以解釋:上移類動詞其實背後的認知模型是相同的,不同的是每個動詞分別將這個模型的不同部分前景化。同一個模型上,焦點放在不同的部分,就產生了不同的動詞。
總而言之,上位事象與下位事象的區別,可以幫助我們解釋上移類動詞的複雜事件結構。另外,一組概念結構相同,但卻各自強調該結構中部同部分的動詞,也可以應用「事件焦點」的概念,來加以解釋。

This thesis aims to investigate verbs of upward movement in Mandarin and attempts to provide a lexical-semantic account for this class of verbs, which comprises of xuan (懸), gua (掛), diao (吊), xuangua (懸掛), xuandiao (懸吊), ba (拔), taI (抬), ling (拎), ti (提), tiqi (提起), jie (揭), and ju (舉). It takes a corpus-based approach, basing its analysis on the linguistic data extracted from the Sinica Corpus.
The analysis supports HowNet’s classification that this class of verbs be further divided into two subclasses: verbs of hanging and verbs of lifting. The distributional preference of the data shows that verbs of hanging tend to predicate a state reading while verbs of lifting tend to predicate an action reading.
According to Tang (2000), an accomplishment event is composed of an action (the superevent) and a state (a subevent). The corpus distribution of upward movement verbs conforms to this analysis. Verbs of hanging conforms to the subevent while verbs of lifting to the superevent. The individualities of each verb are explained in terms of the notion of “event focus”, by Liu (1999). Verbs of upward movement actually share one cognitive schema, but profiling different subparts of the schema. Different focuses on the shared schema result in the rising of different lexical items.
In conclusion, the distinction of superevent versus subevent helps to account for the complex event type for verbs of upward movement. Besides, the idea of event focus is applicable to distinguishing different verbs with different semantic profiles.

1 Introduction………………………………………… 1
1.1 Literature Review………………………………… 1
1.2 Verbs of Upward Movement……………………… 4
1.3 Why a Corpus-based Approach?…………………… 5
1.4 On-line References………………………………… 9
1.5 Organization……………………………………… 9
2 Existing Databases………………………………… 11
2.1 The FrameNet Approach…………………………… 11
2.1.1 Frame Semantics…………………………………… 11
2.1.2 Verbs of Upward Movement in FrameNet………… 13
2.2 The WordNet Approach…………………………… 14
2.2.1 A Sketch of WordNet……………………………… 14
2.2.2 Upward Movement Verbs in WordNet…………… 15
2.3 HowNet’s Approach……………………………… 17
2.3.1 HowNet — A Brief Introduction………………… 17
2.3.2 Verbs of Upward Movement in HowNet………… 17
2.4 Summary…………………………………………… 18
3 Verbs of Upward Movement in Mandarin………… 20
3.1 Description of the Data…………………………… 20
3.2 Verbs of Hanging………………………………… 21
3.2.1 Corpus Information………………………………… 21
3.2.2 Syntactic Descriptions…………………………… 22
3.3 Verbs of Lifting…………………………………… 26
3.3.1 Corpus Information………………………………… 26
3.3.2 Syntactic Descriptions…………………………… 26
4 An Event Structure Account……………………… 33
4.1 Conceptual Structure in Tang (2000)…………… 34
4.2 Event Focus in Liu (1999)………………………… 36
4.3 Explanation Principles…………………………… 38
4.4 Fine-grained Distinction………………………… 39
4.4.1 Conceptual Components…………………………… 40
4.4.2 Verbs of Hanging………………………………… 41
4.4.2.1 Three subtypes……………………………………… 42
4.4.2.2 Discrepancies — Evidence from Collocation… 43
4.4.2.3 Schematic Representation………………………… 47
4.4.3 Verbs of Lifting…………………………………… 51
4.4.3.1 Common Phenomena……………………………… 51
4.4.3.2 Schematic Representation………………………… 52
4.5 Summary…………………………………………… 57
5 Conclusion………………………………………… 59
Reference ……………………………………………………… 61

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