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研究生:廖秀真
研究生(外文):Xiu-Zhen Liao
論文名稱:結果狀態的研究、漢語動貌『過』的語意解釋及其相互關連
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Result States and the Aspectuo-Temporal Meaning of GUO in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:林若望林若望引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jo-Wang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:語言與文化研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:動貌自然終結點結果狀態詞彙內容述補式複合詞句法語意介面
外文關鍵詞:guoaspecttelicityresult statelexical contentresultative verb compoundsyntax-semantics interface
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此篇論文主要研究漢語動貌『過』的時間意義,除了探討其與各種辭彙內容(lexical contents) 的共存情況外,尤其特別處理『過』兩種語意解釋的起源─『中斷解釋』(discontinuity interpretation)及『經驗解釋』(experiential interpretation)。本文論辯上述兩種語意解釋的區別導因於邏輯部門(LF)裡結果狀態(result state)的存在(existence)與指明(specification)情況。此篇論文提出,具有自然終結點的情狀(situation),可能帶有句法上可取得(syntactically accessible)或不可取得(syntactically non-accessible)的結果狀態。前者包括了兩個次類:一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述(有定)主語的結果狀態,另一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述有定賓語的結果狀態。後者也包括了兩個次類:一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述無定賓語的結果狀態,另一為當情狀為組合性的完成述語(compositional accomplishment)。本文對於結果狀態的假設,主要奠基於Ramchand et al.的辭彙─句法途徑(lexical-syntactic approach) (發展於自1997至2003一系列的作品)來呈現句法表徵,並採Kratzer (2002)假設的自然終結點的結構及Tsai(1999, 2001)的『擴張的照應假設』(extended mapping hypothesis)。尤其提出兩個因素來論述結果狀態的取得情況。其一為自然終結點的衍生方法。自然終結點的衍生方法將用來論證與代表結果狀態的XP是否投射出來相關。另一因素則為結果狀態可能指明(specified)或未指明(underspecified),而其取決關鍵為主要語R可以陳述(be predicated of)強量化的名詞(strongly quantified NPs),而不可陳述弱量化的名詞(weakly quantified NPs)。
大致而言,本文總結漢語動貌『過』具有一致的的時間意義,其為主題時間(topic time)座落於詞彙內容所指明的時段之後,而『過』的各種時間解釋起於辭彙內容的差異。本文採用句法─語意的理論方法,顯示複雜的時間及動貌相關現象,可藉由語意的輔助,於句法上作介面處理,以探討情狀與動貌的互動情形。
This thesis studies the aspectuo-temporal meaning of GUO, with all kinds of lexical contents examined and with special attention paid to the rising of two interpretations of GUO─the “discontinuity” interpretation and the “experiential” interpretation. The contrast between these two is claimed to be relevant to the (non)existence or (under)specification of a result state in the LF component. This thesis proposes that two types of telic situations have syntactically accessible result states, and the other two have syntactically non-accessible result states. The former are inherently telic verbs with (definite) subject-oriented result states and inherently telic verbs with definite object-oriented result states; the latter are inherently telic verbs with indefinite object-oriented result states and compositional accomplishments. The assumption of result states in this paper is based on the lexical-syntactic approach of Ramchand et al. to syntactic representations (developed in a serial of works ranging from 1997 to 2003) and is leaned on the analysis of telicity’s structure proposed by Kratzer (2002) and the Extended Mapping Hypothesis (EMH) proposed by Tsai (1999, 2001). Particularly, two factors are pointed out to determine the accessibility of result states. The first factor is how telicity is derived. The ways of derivation are argued to be relevant to the projection of an XP denoting a result state. As to the second factor, result states may be specified or underspecified by the reasoning that the head R could be predicated of strongly quantified NPs but not of weakly quantified NPs in Mandarin Chinese.
Overall, this thesis concludes that GUO has a uniform aspectual-temporal meaning, i. e. T-T located in post-time of the time span specified by lexical contents, and various aspectual interpretations of GUO result form differences in lexical properties. The syntax-semantic approach in this thesis illustrates that with the help of semantic analyses, some complex aspectuo-temporal phenomena may be dealt with structurally with a thorough investigation of how situation types and aspect markers interact.
1.INTRODUCTION...............1
1.1.SOME OF THE PUZZLES ABOUT GUO...............1
1.2.METHODOLOGY...............2
2.THEORETICAL BACKGROUND...............5
2.1.TENSE AND ASPECT...............5
2.2.VIEWPOINT ASPECT AND TIME-RELATIONAL ASPECT...............7
2.3.TYPES OF LEXICAL CONTENT AND THEIR LINKING TO ASPECT...............8
2.3.1 Classifications of Situation Types...............8
2.3.2 Klein’s Lexical Contents...............10
2.3.3 The Decomposition Analysis of the Three Temporal Components...............11
3.LEXICAL PROPERTIES AND GUO...............15
3.1.THE GENERALIZATION...............15
3.2.TELIC SITUATIONS AND RESULT STATES...............18
3.2.1.Telic Situations...............18
3.2.1.1 Result States versus Resultant States...............18
3.2.1.2 Achievement Verbs...............19
3.2.1.3 Compositional Accomplishments...............20
3.2.1.4 Resultative Verb Compounds...............22
3.2.2.The Existence of an XP Denoting a Result State 26
3.2.3.Subject-Oriented versus Object-Oriented Result States...............31
3.2.3.1 Previous Studies...............32
3.2.3.2 The Test of BA-Construction...............35
3.2.3.3 Animates' Sensation and Result States...............46
3.2.3.4 Verb-Noun Compound Predicates...............50
3.2.4.The Co-occurrence Restriction of GUO...............57
4. THE ASSUMPTION OF RESULT STATES AND ITS EFFECT ON GUO...............67
4.1 THE SYNTAX OF RESULTATIVES...............67
4.1.1 The Formation of RVCs...............67
4.1.2. The Lexical-Syntactic Approach to Resultatives...............71
4.2. EXTENDED MAPPING HYPOTHESIS AND THE (UNDER)SPECIFICATION OF RESULT STATES...............83
4.2.1. Introduction to Extended Mapping Hypothesis...............83
4.2.2. The (under)specification of Result States under the Mechanism of EMH...............86
4.3. THE (UNDER)SPECIFICATION OF RESULT STATES AND THE INTERPRETATIONS OF GUO’S DATA...............90
5.CONCLUSION...............93
REFERENCES...............94
APPENDIX I. CITED EXAMPLES IN CHINESE CHARACTERS...............100

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