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研究生:王至誠
研究生(外文):Chih-Cheng Wang
論文名稱:畜牧污泥同時好養消化及重金屬溶出程序之研究
論文名稱(外文):Simultameous digestion and metal leaching process of livestock sludge
指導教授:林志高林志高引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jih-Gaw Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:環境工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:好氧消化生物溶出法重金屬畜牧污泥
外文關鍵詞:aerobic digestionbioleachingheavy metallivestock sludgesulfur
相關次數:
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畜牧業污泥含有大量有機物質及氮磷等營養成分,可利用為農地肥料或為土壤改良劑,除可達到資源回收之目的,且亦有畜牧場減廢之功效。然而,畜牧業污泥的再利用,受限於含有高量重金屬,本研究中將利用同時好氧消化及重金屬溶出程序,建立不同硫粉添加量,對畜牧污泥中重金屬溶出的效果,發現硫粉添加量越高,pH 值下降的越迅速。金屬溶出效率依硫粉添加量 (1-5 g/L) 不同而有不同的溶出效率,分別是, Cu:2-61%;Zn:1-51%;Mn:10-65%;Cr:44-99% 及 Ni:27-65%。
另一方面,本研究中將改變不同固體物含量,對畜牧業污泥中重金屬溶出效果作一番比較,亦發現固體物濃度越低,pH 值下降的越迅速。金屬溶出效率依固體物濃度 (5-60 g/L) 不同而有不同的溶出效率,分別是, Cu:29-99%;Zn:96-99%;Mn:88-99%;Cr:4-99%;Ni:99% 及 Pb:0-99%。
硫粉添加量越高及固體物濃度越低,重金屬溶出的效果越佳。而有機物的消化部分,在不同硫粉添加量的實驗中,可達到 25-32%;在不同固體物濃度的實驗中,可達到 1-38%。硫粉添加量越低及固體物濃度越高,有機物的降解越不佳。
The application of livestock sludges on agricultural lands as soil conditioners or fertilizers has the benefits of resource recycling and waste minimization of livestock farm. High concentrations of heavy metal in livestock sludge limit the land application of livestock sludges.
A simultaneous metal leaching and aerobic digestion process of livestock sludge was developed and the effects of sulfur concentration on this process were investigated in this study. It was found that the rate of pH reduction increased with increasing sulfur concentration. For different sulfur concentration (1-5 g/L), 2-61% of Cu; 1-51% of Zn; 10-65% of Mn; 44-99% of Cr and 27-65% of Ni were leached from livestock sludge in this study.
On the other hand, the simultaneous metal leaching and aerobic digestion process of livestock was investigated into the effect of solid concentration. It was found that the rate of pH reduction decreased with increasing solid concentration. For different solid concentration (5-60 g/L), 29-99% of Cu; 96-99% of Zn; 88-99% of Mn; 4-99% of Cr and 99% of Ni; 0-99% of Pb were leached from livestock sludge in this study.
The process with more sulfur concentration and lower solid concentration had higher rate and efficiency of metal solubilization. On the other hand, 25-32% of organic matters in livestock sludge were reduced for different sulfur concentration and 1-38% for different solid concentration. There was a decrease in organic matter reduction as the sulfur concentration increased and solid concentration decreased.
目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………...…..…………I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………….II
目錄…………………………………………………………………………III
表目錄……………………………………………………………………….. VI
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………VIII
第一章 序論…………………………………………………………………...1
1.1 研究緣起…………………………………………………………….1
1.2 研究內容與目的…………………………………………………….2
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………...3
2.1 台灣養豬事業概況……………………………………………...…..3
2.2 台灣養豬業污染特性分析……………………………………….....6
2.2.1 台灣養豬廢水之特性…………………………………………6
2.2.2 養豬廢水所造成之公害問題…………………………………9
2.3 生物溶出法中微生物之種類及生理特性………………………...11
2.4 重金屬溶出之機制………………………………………………...13
2.5 硫氧化菌吸附於硫粉上之機制…………………………………...15
2.6 同時好氧消化及重金屬溶出程序 (SSDML process)……….....17
2.7 螢光原位雜交技術………………………………………………...18
2.7.1 螢光原位雜交法原理………………………………………..19
2.7.2 16S rRNA…………………………………………………….20
2.7.3 螢光原位雜交優點…………………………………………..21
2.7.3 螢光原位雜交之步驟………………………..………………23
2.7.4.1 固定……………..………………………………………..23
2.7.4.2 雜交 (Hybridization)…………………………..………..23
2.7.2.3 清洗 (Washing)……………….………………………..24
2.7.2.4 顯像 (Visualization)……………………………………25
2.7.2.5 FISH 與 DAPI 染色…………………………………...25
2.7.2.6 螢光原位雜交法限制因子………………….…………..26
2.7.2.7 螢光原位雜交法於環境工程之應用…………….……..27
2.7.2.8 寡核苷酸的選擇………………………………….….….28
2.8 污泥中重金屬之五相萃取………………………………….……..29
2.8.1 五相萃取在環境工程上的意義………….…………….……29
2.8.2 污泥金屬之連續萃取法………………………………...…..30
第三章 實驗設備與方法…………………………………………..……34
3.1 實驗設備與器材………………………………………….....…….34
3.2 馴養實驗…………………………………………………………...35
3.3 同時好氧消化及重金屬溶出實驗………………………………...36
3.3.1 改變硫元素添加量………………..…………………………37
3.3.2 改變固體物濃度………..……………………………………37
3.4 菌種之鑑定………………………………………………………...38
3.4.1 採樣及保存………………………………..…………………39
3.5.2 螢光原位雜交法步驟…………………………..……………39
3.5 污泥重金屬之連續萃取實驗 (Tessier et al., 1979)…………….42
第四章 結果與討論………………………………………………………….44
4.1 畜牧污泥基本性質………………………………………..……….44
4.2 馴養實驗……………………………….…………..……………...48
4.3 不同硫粉添加量對同時好氧消化及重金屬溶出之影響……......49
4.3.1 不同硫粉添加量在SSDML程序中對pH值與氧化還原電位 (ORP) 之影響……………………………………………….49
4.3.2 不同硫粉添加量在 SSDML 程序中對硫酸根產生量之影響……………………………..………………….…………..52
4.3.3 不同硫粉添加量在SSDML程序中對有機物降解之影響……………………………………………………………..53
4.3.4 不同硫粉添加量在SSDML程序中對重金屬溶出之影響…………………………………………………………..…56
4.3.5 重金屬溶出動力模式探討………..…………………………62
4.3.6 不同硫粉添加量經 SSDML 程序處理後污泥重金屬結合型態之分佈……………..………………………………...……63
4.4不同固體物濃度對同時好氧消化及重金屬溶出之影響……...….70
4.4.1 不同固體物濃度在SSDMAL程序中對pH值與氧化還原電位 (ORP) 之影響…………….………….…………………70
4.4.2 不同固體物濃度對硫酸根產生量之影響……………..……73
4.4.3 不同固體物濃度在SSDML程序中對有機物降解之影響……………………..……………………………………...74
4.4.4 不同固體物濃度在SSDML程序中對重金屬溶出之影響…………………………………………………………….77
4.4.5 重金屬溶出動力模式探討………………..…………………81
4.4.6 不同固體物濃度經 SSDML 程序處理後污泥重金屬結合型態之分佈……………………………………………..………82
4.5 SSDML process 中菌相的變化…………………..……….……..88
4.5.1 不同硫粉添加量中菌相的變化…………………..…………88
4.5.2 不同固體物濃度中菌相的變化………………………….….93
第五章 結論………………………………………………………………….97
參考文獻…………………………..………………………………………….99
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