跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.27.215) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/20 08:47
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:林禮旺
論文名稱:原料肉處理與熟成溫度對中式乾香腸品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Raw Meat Treatment and Ripening Temperature on the Quality of Chinese Style Dry Sausage
指導教授:曾穎玉曾穎玉引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:原料肉處理熟成中式乾香腸
外文關鍵詞:raw meat treatmentRipeningChinese Style Dry Sausage
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:13
  • 點閱點閱:1442
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:218
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本試驗之目的在探討傳統中式乾香腸製作過程之處理,包括原料肉之冷藏、醃漬處理及熟成溫度對品質性狀及產品貯存期間成分安定性之影響。購自傳統市場屠宰當日之豬後腿肉,於冷藏與醃漬處理期間分析原料豬肉及香腸混合物之游離水、肌原纖維斷裂係數(MFI)、鹽溶性蛋白質(SSP)及游離胺基酸(FAA)之變化,熟成前後及貯存期間測定香腸之水分、水活性(aw)、非蛋白氮(NPN)、FAA、酸價、TBARs及微生物數。
結果顯示醃漬處理降低肌原纖維斷裂係數及鹽溶性蛋白的上升,提高游離氨基酸之含量。經24小時醃漬處理,對照組(不經醃漬處理)之MFI由74.90±3.30快速上升至115.80±4.00,醃漬組僅上升至83.0±4.60,兩組間呈顯著差異(P<0.05)。延長醃漬處理至10日,僅對照組之MFI微量上升至120.36±4.50,醃漬組則無上升的現象。鹽溶性蛋白質萃出量於第1日及第3日對照組分別為31.58±2.21及36.56±0.63 mg/ml,醃漬組則分別為21.70±2.49及31.65 ±2.90 mg/ml,於不同時間兩組間皆呈顯著差異。醃漬組游離氨基酸含量最初為42.83±1.91 mg tyrosine/100g,經24小時醃漬上升為63.95±3.03 mg tyrosine/100g,顯著高於對照組之40.41 ±2.12 mg tyrosine/100g。延長醃漬至第10日,醃漬組上升為65.28±2.32 mg;對照組上升為59.75 ±2.42 mg tyrosine/100g,兩組間亦呈顯著差異。原料肉經醃漬處理水分含量降低5%、游離水降低0.6~1%,醃漬當日醃漬組之游離水及紅色值(a 值)顯著低於對照組。紅色值於醃漬第二日則顯著上升,且維持整個醃漬期間。
熟成期間香腸之水分與水活性顯著降低,乾香腸經50℃乾燥8小時,再經10日熟成可將香腸水活性降為0.83 左右,使用12、16及20℃三種不同溫度,對水分與水活性降低沒有顯著差異,但第10日以16℃熟成之香腸水活性較低。20℃熟成者香腸表面於第7日有長黴的現象。香腸原料肉於加工前冷藏1或3日,對中式乾香腸熟成與貯存期間之品質性狀沒有顯著影響。無論冷藏1或3日之香腸於熟成期間其NPN及FAA酸價與TBARs都呈顯著上升。利用冷藏3日之原料肉製成之香腸,經10日熟成其NPN由3.01±0.19上升至3.84±0.36 mg/100g,增加幅度達27.57%,FAA由96.74±1.81顯著增加至124.28±3.09 mg tyrosine/100g(P<0.05),TBARs於熟成期由0.80±0.04上升至0.92 ±0.02 mg/kg。熟成後微生物之總生菌數,乳酸菌,細球菌與霉菌數則稍低於加熱乾燥後之熟成初期。乾香腸真空包裝後貯存於16℃,50日間,水分、水活性、pH、NPN與肉色皆無顯著變化,WSN、FAA貯存至50日有顯著上升現象,酸價與TBARs則隨貯存時間延長上升,酸價在各熟成與貯存之檢測階段都呈顯著增加。
中式乾香腸適當的加工方式,我們推薦選用屠後2日之冷藏豬肉,香腸混合料經醃漬1日,加熱乾燥後再以12或16℃熟成10日,水活性将降至0.83,可符合CNS之要求。
Effects of Raw Meat Treatment and Ripening Temperature on the Quality of Chinese Style Dry Sausage
Traditionally Chinese dry sausage manufactured proceeding involving raw meat cooling time; curing treatment and ripening temperature on quality characteristics was investigated. Pork is slaughter at the same day, hind legs and thighs purchased at the traditional market. To determine the effects of cooling time and curing treatment on free water, myofibrillar fragment index (MFI), salt soluble protein (SSP) and free amino acid (FAA) of raw meat and sausage mix; ripening and storage time on microbial, moisture %, water activity (aw), NPN (non protein nitrogen), FAA (free amino acid), acid value and thiobarbituric acid reaction substrate (TBARs) of sausage were also determined.
Curing treatment decreased the increasing of sausage mix on MFI and SSP , after curing 24 h, sausage mix with not curing treatment (control) treatment MFI quickly increased significantly from 74.90 ±3.30 up to 115.80 ±4.00, curing treatment samples up to 83.0 ±4.60 (p<0.05). Further extended curing to 10 days, MFI increasing was limited and only in control (120.36 ±4.50), but not increasing observed in pre-curing samples. The control samples had an initial SSP concentration 31.58 ±2.21 mg/ml, increased to 36.56 ±0.63 mg/ml at the third day after treatment; the curing samples from 21.7±2.49 mg/ml increased to 31.65 ±2.91 mg/ml, significantly different between treatment and similar curing time. FAA concentration in pre-curing samples increased rapidly than control, after 24 h in curing samples FAA from 42.83±1.91 mg tyrosine /100g increased to 63.95±3.03 mg %, increment was larger than control (40.41±2.12 mg tyrosine/100g). To extended curing to 10 days time, curing samples increased significantly to 65.28 mg tyrosine /100g , control up to 59.75 ±2.42 mg tyrosine/100g . Pre-curing reduced samples moisture, free water and a value (redness) at the first curing day, decreased 5% moisture and 0.6~1.0% in free water, redness then were raising at the second day and maintained in all curing period.
During ripening sausage lost water and water activity significantly, sausage heating at 50℃for 8 h, then were ripened by three temperature at 12,16 and 20℃, had similar tended losing on moisture and water activity, water activity decreased from 0.95 to 0.83 about for 10 days, but sausage ripening at 16℃ had lower water activity than 12 and 20℃at the 10 days curing, ripening at 20℃ mold growth were found on sausage surface at the 7 day. Raw meat utilized for sausage usage cooling for 1 or 3 days before processing, there were not significant affect on quality characteristics of Chinese dry sausage during ripening and storage period. NPN, FAA, acid value and TBARS increased significantly in both cooling time of sausage samples ripening at 16℃for 10 days. The sausage samples from raw meat cooling for 3 days, NPN raised from 3.01±0.199 to 3.84±0.36 mg/100g, the ratio of raising was 27.57%; FAA from 96.74±1.81 significantly increased up to 124.28 mg/100g; and the TBARS increased from 0.8 up to 0.92. Slight decreased microbial numerous of total plate counts, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus and mold at the end ripening day when compared with the day after dry heating. Dry sausage packing with vacuum and stored at 16℃ for 50days, there were not significant changed in moisture, water activity, pH and NPN of dry sausage products, but after 50days stored composition of SSN, FAA and acid value increased significantly with prolong storage time, and the TBARS increasing with each 10 day of storage determined.
Comprehensive from these result, an optimum processing for Chinese dry sausage was postulated that: pork meat cooling 2 days after post-mortem, sausage mix curing 1day, and after dry heating, sausage then ripening at 16℃or 12℃for 10 days.
目 錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅳ
目 錄……………………………………………………………Ⅷ
表次索引…………………………………………………………ⅩⅠ
圖次索引…………………………………………………………ⅩⅡ
壹、 前言……………………………………………………………1
貳、文獻探討…………………………………………………………4
一、中式香腸之特性……………………………………………4
(一)、中式香腸的起源…………………………………… 4
(二)、特性………………………………………………… 4
(三)、中式乾香腸與西式發酵乾香腸之差異…………… 5
二、中式香腸之生產…………………………………………… 9
(一)、原料肉選用時需要考慮的因素…………………… 9
1、瘦肉…………………………………………………9
2、脂肪………………………………………………10
3、不適用於香腸的原料肉…………………………10
(1)、僵直期的畜肉………………………………10
(2)、水樣肉………………………………………11
(3)、暗乾肉………………………………………12
4、食肉的熟成………………………………………12
(二)、原料肉的處理………………………………………14
1、溫體肉……………………………………………14
2、冷藏肉……………………………………………14
3、冷凍肉……………………………………………14
(三)、中式香腸製作流程…………………………………15
1、绞切………………………………………………15
2、醃漬或預拌………………………………………16
3、充填………………………………………………17
4、乾燥………………………………………………17
5、包裝………………………………………………18
(四)、香腸的添加物………………………………………19
1、食鹽………………………………………………19
2、糖…………………………………………………20
3、磷酸鹽……………………………………………20
4、硝酸鹽與亞硝酸鹽………………………………21
5、抗壞血酸鹽………………………………………22
6、香辛料……………………………………………22
三、香腸之發酵與熟成………………………………………23
四、香腸成分的變化…………………………………………24
(一)、水分與水活性之變化………………………………24
(二)、蛋白質之變化………………………………………25
(三)、脂肪之變化…………………………………………26
(四)、碳水化合物之變化………………………………26
參、材料與方法…………………………………………………27
一、原料肉…………………………………………………27
二、處理…………………………………………………27
三、測定項目與方法………………………………………30
1、水分………………………………………………30
2、游離水……………………………………………30
3、微生物數…………………………………………31
4、pH值………………………………………………31
5、肌原纖維斷裂係數(MFI)………………………31
6、水溶性氮…………………………………………33
7、非蛋白態氮………………………………………35
8、游離氨基酸………………………………………35
9、原料肉色(Hunter L, a, b值)的測定……………36
10、水活性……………………………………………36
11、TBARs……………………………………………36
12、酸價………………………………………………37
四、統計分析…………………………………………………38
肆、結果與討論……………………………………………………39
一、原料肉醃漬處理…………………………………………39
(一)、醃漬期間水分、pH值與游離水之變化……………………………………………39
(二)、醃漬期間微生物之變化…………………………43
(三)、醃漬期間MFI之變化…………………………44
(四)、醃漬期間鹽溶性蛋白萃出量之變化……………47
(五)、醃漬期間WSN、NPN與FAA之變化………………49
(六)、醃漬期間肉色之變化………………………51
二、乾香腸熟成期間水分與水活性之變化…………………55
三、乾香腸貯存期間之變化…………………………………58
(一)、水分、水活性及pH值之變化………………………58
(二)、含氮化合物之變化…………………………………62
(三)、微生物數之變化…………………………………67
(四)、脂質之變化…………………………………………70
(五)、肉色之變化…………………………………………75
伍、結論………………………………………………………79
陸、參考文獻………………………………………………………81
柒、附件………………………………………………………100
陸、參考文獻
王逢興。1999。最新肉品科學與技術,p.3-22、157-142,藝軒圖書出版社,台北市 。
朱慶誠、吳勇初、陳義雄。1993。食鹽、磷酸鹽濃度與預混處理對熱狗品質及保存性之影響。中畜會誌22(1):97-108。
李 秀、賴茲漢。1992。食品分析與檢驗,p.161、178、216 ,富林出版社,台中市 。
周仲光、曾再富、林高塚。1999。半乾式中式香腸醃漬及乾燥期間不同部位豬脂對製品品質之影響。嘉義技術學院學報63:53-62.
周武田、郭俊欽。1996。熟成對鷄胸肉生化及物理特性之影響。東海學報37(6):1-15。
周榮吉、陳明造、林慶文。1993。食肉的低溫熟成。科學農業41(9,10):203-208。
周榮吉、吳淑美、林高塚。1996。豬背最長肌之低溫熟成變化。食品科學23(2):236-243。
周繼發、黃瓊慧。1997。利用豬皮漿與稻米混合物作為中式乾香腸可見脂肪替代物之研究。中畜會誌26(1):77-86。
林志城、孫璐西。2002。食品添加物,p318-p342,張為憲等著,“食品化學”,國立編譯館,台北市。
林慶文。2002。肌肉組織之特性,p392-420,張為憲等著,“食品化學”,國立編譯館,台北市。
紀學斌。1999。不同腸衣、乾燥方式及充氣包裝對中式香腸品質之影響。食品科學26(6):641-650。
張為憲、李敏雄。2002。水,p20-25,張為憲等著,“食品化學”,國立編譯館,台北市。
郭秀蘭。1989。台灣地區中式香腸細菌生態及生化特性之研究。國立中興大學畜牧學研究所碩士論文。
陳明造。1986。肉品加工理論與應用,p. 143-170、238、425-433、569-571,藝軒圖書出版社。台北市。
陳明造。1992。台灣肉品工業之現況與展望。食品資訊83:23。
陳昭雄、孫璐西。2002。脂質,p72-105,張為憲等著,“食品化學”,國立編譯館,台北市。
黃文瑛。1993a。中式香腸之衛生品質。屏東技術學院學報2:49-56。
黃加成、何慶民。1981。中式香腸之醃漬與貯藏對品質影響之研究。畜產研究14(2):65-79。
黃加成。1993b。應用乳酸菌於中式香腸之研究。台灣大學畜牧學研究所博士論文。
黃珠芳。1987。豬胰臟酵素對豬皮脫毛效果之初步研究。國立中興大學畜牧學研究所碩士論文。
楊季青、丁建凱、林頎生、郭俊德。1994。豬肉中食鹽與亞硝酸鹽滲透模型之探討。食品科學21(6):431-442.
楊瑩蓉、劉登城、陳明造、郭秀蘭。1997。中式肉品加工常用香辛料之微生物品質調查。中畜會誌26(2):223-232。
楊瑩蓉、劉登城、陳明造。1998。中式香腸之不同香辛料其抗氧化性及抗菌性之探討。中畜會誌27(1):117-128。
經濟部中央標準局。1987。中式香腸(臘腸),中國國家標準,CNS 2102 N5037 經濟部中央標準局。
蔣見美、游淑媛、黃菜鳳。1990。不同包裝方式對中式香腸貯藏品質之影響 Ⅱ:油脂及官能性質的變化。食品科學17(1):23-36。
駱秋英、吳欽澤。1996。中式香腸製程中影響金黃色葡萄球菌殘存量的加工因子。中畜會誌25(1):97-106。
蘇和平、林文淵、紀學斌。1998a。調氣環境與醃漬溫度對中式香腸醃漬瘦肉理化學性質之影響。食品科學25(6):667-678。
蘇和平、林文淵、劉益忠、紀學斌。1998b。調氣環境與醃漬溫度對中式香腸醃漬絞瘦肉微生物生長之影響。食品科學27(4):553-566。
A.O.A.C. 1984. Official Method of Analysis, 14th ed. Association of Offical Analytical Chemists. Washington.
Acton, j. C., M. A. Hanna and L. D. Satterlee. 1980. Heat-induced gelation and protein-protein interaction of actomyosin. J. Food Biochem. 5:101-113.
Alley,G., D. Cours and D. Demeyer. 1992. Effect of nitrate, nitrite and ascorbate on colour and colour stability of dry, fermented sausage prepared using back sloping. Meat Sci. 32:279-287.
Astiasaran, I., R. Villanueva and J. Bello. 1990. Analysis of proteolysis and protein insolubility during the manufacture of some varieties of dry sausage. Meat Sci. 28:111-117.
Autio, K. and F. Mietsch. 1990. Heat-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins and sausages: effect of blood plasma and globin. Food Sci. 55(6):1494-1496.
Bakers, B. D. and T. N. Blumer. 1975. Effect of nitrate on color and flavor of country style Hams. J. Food Sci. 40:973
Baldini, P., E. Cantoni, F. Colla, C. Diaferia, L. Gabba, E. Spotti, R. Marchelli, A. Dossena, E. Virgili, S. Sforza, P. Tenca, A. Mangia, R. Jordano, M. C. Lopez, L. Medina, S. Coudurier, S. Oddou and G. Solignat. 2000. Dry sausages ripening :influence of thermohygrometric conditions on microbiological, chemical and physico-chemical characteristics. Food Res. Int. 33:161-170.
Banon, S., J. M. Cayuela, M. V. Granados and M.D. Garrido. 1999. Pre-cure freezing affects proteolysis in dry-cured hams. Meat Sci. 51:11-16.
Barbut, S. and G. S. Mittal. 1989. Effect of salt reduction on the rheological and gelation properties of beef, pork and poultry meat batter. Meat Sci. 26:177-191.
Bendall, J. R. and H. J. Swatland. 1989. A review of the relationship of pH with physical aspects of pork quality. Meat Sci. 25:85-123.
Berdague, J.L., P. Monteil, M.C. Montel and R. Talon. 1993. Effects of starter cultures on the formation of flavor compounds in dry sausage. Meat Sci. 35:275-287.
Bloukas, J. G., I. S. Arvanitoyannis and A. A. Siopi. 1999. Effect of natural colorants and nitrites on colour attributes of frankfurters. Meat Sci. 52:257-265.
Boakye, K. and G. S. Mittal. 1996. Change in colour of beef M. longissimus dorsi muscle during ripening. Meat Sci. 42(3):347-354.
Boehm, M. L., T. L. Kendall, V. F. Thompson and D. E. Goll. 1998. Change in the calpains and calpastatin during postmortem stored of bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2415-2423.
Boyer-Berri, C. and M. L. Greaser. 1998. Effect of postmortem stored on Z-line region of titin in bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1034-1044.
Carmen, S., M. Gil, J. Arnau and J.M.Monfort. 1989. Effect of curing salt and phosphate on activity of porcine muscle proteases. Meat Sci. 25:241-249.
Chasco, J., M. J. Beriain and J. Bello. 1993. A study of changes in the fat content of some varieties of dry sausages during the curing process. Meat Sci. 34:191-204.
Chasco, J., G. Lizaso and M. J. Beriain. 1996. Cured colour development during sausage processing. Meat Sci. 44(3):203-211.
Church, F. C., H.E. Swaisgood, D. H. Porter and G. L. Catignani. 1983. Spectrophotometric assay using O-phthaldialdehyde for determination of proteolysis in milk and isolate milk proteins. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1219-1227.
Claeys, E., L. Uytterhaegen, B. Buts and D. Demeyer. 1995. Quantification of beef myofibrillar proteins by SDS-PAGE. Meat Sci. 39:177-193.
Craig, J. A., J. A. Bowers, X. Y. Wang and P. A. Seib. 1996. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in meat by inorganic phosphate and ascorbate salts. J. Food Sci. 61(5):1062-1066.
Crouse, J. D. and M. Koohmaraie. 1990. Effect of time of sampling postmortem on myofibril fragmentation index of meat. J. Food Sci.55(1):254.
Culler, R. D., F. C. Parrish, G. C. Smith and H. R. Cross. 1978. Relationship of myofibrillar fragmentation index to certain chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of bovine longissimus muscle. J. Food Sci. 43.1177-1180.
Dellaglio, S., E. Casiraghi and C. Pompei. 1996. Chemical, physical and sensory attributes for the characterization of an Italian dry-cured sausages. Meat Sci. 42:25-35.
Demos, B. P. and R. W. Mandigo. 1996. Colour of fresh, frozen and cooked ground beef patties manufactured with mechanically recovered neck bone lean. Meat Sci. 42:415-429.
Dominguez Fernandez, M. C. and J. M. Zumalacarregui Rodriguez. 1991. Lipolytic and oxidative change in Chorizo during ripening. Meat Sci. 29:99-107.
FDA. 1984. Bacteriological Analytical Manual for Food. 6th ed. Food and Drug Administration Bureau of Food. U. S. A.
Feidt, C., A. Petit, F. Bruas-Reignier and J. Brun-Bellut. 1996. Release of free-acids during ripen in bovine meat. Meat Sci. 44:19-25.
Feidt, C., J. Brun-Bellut and E. Dransfield. 1998. Liberation of peptides during meat stored and their interaction with proteinases activity. Meat Sci. 49:223-231.
Feldhusen, F., A. Warnatz, R. Erdmann and S. Wenzel. 1995. Influence of stored time on parameters of colour stability of beef. Meat Sci. 40:235-243.
Fereidoor, S. L., J. Rubin and D. F. Wood. 1988. Stabilization of meat lipids with nitrite-free curing mixtures. Meat Sci. 25:73-80.
Fernandez-Martin, F., S. Cofrades, J. Carballo and F. Jimenez- Colmemero. 2002. Salt and phosphate effects on the gelling process of pressure/heat treated pork batters. Meat Sci. 61:15-23.
Freybler, L. A., J. I. Gray, A. Asghar, A. M. Booren, A. M. Pearson and D. J. Buckley. 1993. Nitrite stabilization of lipids in cured pork. Meat Sci. 33:85-96.
Garcia, I., V. Diez and J. M. Zumalacarregui. 1997. Change in proteins during the ripening of Spanish dried beef “Cecina”. Meat Sci. 46(4):379-385.
Garcia-garrido, J.A., R. Quiles-Zafra, J. Tapiador and M. D. Luque de Castro. 2000. Activity of cathepsin B, D, H and L in Spanish dry-cured ham of normal and defective texture. Meat Sci. 25:1-6.
Gimenno, O., I. Astiassaran and J. Bello. 2001. Calcium ascorbate as a potential partial substitute for NaCl in dry fermented sausages: effect on colour, texture and hygienic quality at different concentrations. Meat Sci. 57:23-29.
Hand, L. W., R. W. Mandigo and C. R. Calkins. 1992. The effects of preblending time on physical and textural properties of course ground sausage. Meat Sci. 31:13-24.
Honkavaara, M. 1988. Influence of PSE pork on the quality and economics of cooked, cured ham and fermented dry sausage manufacture. Meat Sci. 24:201-207.
Hopkins, D. L., P.J. Littlefield and J.M. Thompson. 2000. A research note factors affecting the determination of myofibrillar fragmentation. Meat Sci. 56:19-22.
Huang, C. C. and C. W. Lin. 1993. Drying temperature and time affect quality of Chinese-style sausage inoculated with lactic acid bacteria. J. Food Sci. 58(2):249-253.
Hughes, M. C., J. P. Kerry, E. K. Arendt, P. M. kenneally, P. L. H. McSweeney and E. E. O’Neill. 2002. Characterization of proteolysis during of semi-dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 62:205-216.
Jo, C., J. I. Lee and D. U. Ahn. 1999. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packing during stored. Meat Sci. 51:355-361.
Johansson, G., J. L. Berdague, W. Larsson, N. Tran and E. Borch. 1994. Lipolysis, proteolysis and formation of volatile components during ripening of a fermented sausage with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus as starter cultures. Meat Sci. 38:203-218.
Katsaras, K. 1992. Microstructure of fermented sausage. Meat Sci. 31:121-134.
Kauffman, R. G.. 1986. The use of filter paper to estimate drip loss of porcine musculature. Meat Sci. 18:191-200.
Kenneth, J. P. and J. A. Bowers. 1984. Protein extraction from frozen, thawed turkey muscle with sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, and selected sodium phosphate salts. J. Food Sci. 709-713,720.
Kenney, P. B. and M. C. Hunt. 1990. Effect of water and salt content on protein solubility and water retention of meat preblends. Meat Sci. 27:173-180.
Kim, B. C. 1995. Measuring water-holding capacity in pork musculature with a tensiometer. Meat Sci. 39:363-374.
Koohmaraie, M., G. Whipple, D. H. Kretchmar, J. D. Crouse and H. J. Mersmann. 1991. Postmortem proteolysis in longissimus muscle from beef, lamb and pork carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 69:617-624.
Koohmaraie, M. 1996. Biochemical factor regulating the toughening and tenderization processes of meat. Meat Sci. 43:S193-S201.
Krystyna, P. and H. Daun. 1999. Change in texture, cooking losses, and myofibrillar structure of bovine M. Semitendinosus during heating. Meat Sci. 51:237-243.
Kuo, J. C. and H. W. Ockerman. 1985. Effect of salt, sugar and stored time on microbiological chemical and sensory properties of Chinese style dried pork. J. Food Sci. 50:1384-1387.
Lan, Y. H., J. Novakofski, T. R. Carr and F. K. Mckeith. 1993. Assay and stored conditions affect yield of salt soluble protein from muscle. J. Food Sci. 58(5):963-967.
Lan, Y. H., J. Novakofski, R. H. Mucusker, M. S. Brewer, T. R. Carr and F. K. Mckeith. 1995. Thermal gelation of pork, beef, fish, chicken and turkey muscles as affected by heating rate and pH. J. Food Sci. 60(5):936-940.
Legarreta, I. G., W. R. Usbone and G. C. ashton. 1987. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage. Meat Sci. 301-317.
Leiske, B. and G. Konrad. 1994. Protein hydrolysis:The key to meat flavoring system. Food Rev. Int. 10(3):287-312.
Lin, K. J., N. Dhanapati, M. Ishioroshi and K. Samejima. 1999. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of Chinese-style semi-dry sausage as affected by curing time and sugar concentrations. Food Sci. Agr. Chem. 1:34-39.
Lois, A. L., L. M. Gutierrez, J. M. Zumalacrregui and A . Lopez. 1987. Chang in several constituents during the ripening of 〝Chorizo〞-A Spanish dry sausage. Meat Sci. 19:169-177.
Lucke, F. K. 1994. Fermented meat product. Food Res. Int. 27:299-307.
Lucke, F. K. 2000. Utilization of microbes to process and preserve meat. Meat Sci. 56:105-115.
Macdonald, B., J. I. Gray and L. D. Gibbins. 1980. Role of nitrite in cured meat flavor: Antioxidant role of nitrite. J. Food Sci. 45:893.
Maijala, R., S. Eerolo, S. Lievonen, P. Hill and T. Hirvi. 1995. Formation of biogenic amines during ripening of dry sausages as affected by starter culture and thawing time of row materials. J. Food Sci. 60(6):1187-1191.
Maribo, H., P. Ertbjerg, M. Andersson, P. Barton-Gade and A. J. Moller. 1999. Electrical stimulation of pig -effect on pH fall, meat quality and cathepsin B+L activity. Meat Sci. 52:179-187.
Martin, L., J. J. Cordoba, T. Antequrea, M. L. Timon and J. Ventanas. 1998. Effect of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian Ham. Meat Sci. 49(2):145-153.
Mateo, J., M. C. Maria M. Dominguez and A. J. Maria. 1996. Taste compounds in Chorizo and their change during ripening. Meat Sci. 44(4):245-254.
Matlock, R. G., R. N. Terrell, J. W. Savell, K.S. Rhee and T. R. Dutson. 1984. Factors affecting properties of raw-frozen pork sausage patties made with various NaCl/phosphate combinations. J. Food Sci. 49:1363-1367.
McDonagh, M. B., V. H. Fernandez and V. H. Oddy. 1999. Hind-limb protein metabolism and calpain system activity influence post-mortem change in meat quality in lamb. Meat Sci. 52:9-18.
Mestre Prates, J. A., F. J. S. Garciae Costa, A. M. R. Ribeiro and A. A. Dias Correia. 2002. Contribution of major structural changes in myofibrils to rabbit meat tenderization during ripen. Meat Sci. 61:103-113.
Moore, T. M., G. C. Skelley, D. W. Pilkington, E. Halpin, J. C. Acton and L. W. Grimes. 1992. Composition and palatability of country cured hams comparing hot boning, cold boning and intact hams. J. Food Sci. 57(1):1-5.
Motzer, E. A., J. A. Carpenter, A. E. Reynolds and C. E. Lyon. 1998. Quality of restructured hams manufactured with PSE pork as affected by water binders. J. Food Sci. 63(6):1007-1011.
Moya, V. T., M. Flores, M. C. Aristoy and F. Toldra. 2001. Pork meat quality affects peptide and amino acid profiles during the ageing process. Meat Sci. 58:197-206.
Nayak, R., P. B. Kenney, S. Slider, M. K. Head and J. Killefer. 1998. Myofibrillar protein solubility of model beef batters as affected by low levels of calcium, magnesium and zinc chloride. J. Food Sci. 63(6):951-954.
Nielsen, R. G. and G. M. Pigott. 1994. Gel strength increased in low-grade heat-set surimi with blended phosphates. J. Food Sci. 59(2):246-250.
Noel, P., E. Briand and J.P. Duoont. 1990. Role of nitrite in flavor development in uncooked cured meat products:sensory assessment. Meat Sci. 28:1-8.
O’Neill, E., P. A. Moiissey and D. M. Mulvihill. 1993. Heat-induced gelation of actomyosin. Meat Sci. 33:61-74.
Ockerman, H. W. 1982. Quality control of post-mortem muscle tissure. Dept. of Animal Science. The Ohio State University.
Ockerman, H. W. and Y. C. Wu. 1990. Hot-boning, tumbling, salt and chopping temperature effects on cooking yield and acceptability of emulsion-type pork sausage. J. Food Sci. 55(5):1255-1257.
Offer, G. and J. Trinick. 1983. On the mechanism of water holding in meat:the swelling and shrinking of myofibrils. Meat Sci. 8:245-281.
Okayama, T., M. Fujii and M. Yamanoue. 1991. Effect of cooking temperature on the percentage color formation, nitrite decomposition and sarcoplasmic protein denaturation in processed meat products. Meat Sci. 30:49-57.
Olesen, P. T. and L. H. Stahnke. 2000. The influence of Debarymyces hansenii and candida utilis on the aroma formation in garlic spiced fermented sausages and model minces. Meat Sci. 56:357-368.
Palka, K. and H. Daun. 1999. Change in texture, cooking losses, and myofibrillar structure of bovine M. semitendinosus during heating. Meat Sci. 51:237-243.
Palombo, R. 1990. Characterization of changes in psychometric colour attributes of comminuted porcine lean meat during processing. Meat Sci. 28:61-67.
Palombo, R., p. S. van Roon, A. Prins, P. A. Koolmees and B. Krol. 1994. Change in lightness of porcine lean meat batter during processing. Meat Sci. 38:453-476.
Papadima, S. N. and J. G. Bloukas. 1999. Effect of fat level and stored conditions on quality characteristics of traditional Greek sausages. Meat Sci. 51:103-113.
Park, S., M. S. BreWer, F. K. Mckeith, P. J. Bechtel and J. Novakofski. 1996. Salt, cryoprotectants and preheating temperature effects on surimi-like material from beef or pork. J. Food Sci. 61(4):790-795.
Perez-Alvarez, J. A., M. E. Sayas-Barbera, J. Fernandez-Lopez and V. Aranda-Catala. 1999. Physicochamical characteristics of Spanish-type dry-cured sausage. Meat Sci. 32:599-607.
Pexara, E. S., J. Metaxopoulos and E. H. Drosinos. 2002. Evaluation of shelf of cured cooked, sliced turkey fillets and cooked pork sausages-’Piroski’-stored under vacuum and modified atmospheres at +4 and +10℃. Meat Sci. 62:33-43.
Plimpton JR, R. F., C. L. Perkins, T. L. Sefton, V. R. Cahill and H. W. Ockerman. 1991. Rigor condition, tumbling and salt level influence on physical, chemical and characteristics of cured, boneless hams. J. Food Sci. 56(6):1514-1518.
Pourazrang, H., A. A. Moazzami and B. S. Frazly Bazzaz. 2002. Inhibition of mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation in sausage samples by using L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Meat Sci. 62:479-483.
Prusa, K. J. and J. A. Bowers. 1984. Protein extraction from frozen, thawed turkey muscle with sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, and selected sodium phosphate salts. J. Food Sci. 49:709-713,720.
Puolanne, E. J., M. H. Ruusunen and J. I. Vainionpaa. 2001. Combined effects of NaCl and raw meat pH on water holding in cooked sausage with and without added phosphate. Meat Sci. 58:1-7.
Rao, N. D. 1997. Intermediate moisture foods based on meats- a review. Food. Rev. Int. 13(4):519-551.
Reagan, J. O., F. H. Liou, A. E. Reynolds and J. A. Carpenter. 1983 Effect of processing variables on the microbial, physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausage. J. Food Sci. 48:146-149.
Rees, M. P. , G. H. Trout and R. D. Warner. 2002. Tenderness, ageing rate and meat quality of pork M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum after accelerated boning. Meat Sci. 60:113-124.
Rhia, N. E. and M. Solberg. 1975. Clostridium perfringens inhibition by sodium nitrite as a function of pH, inoculum size and heat. J. Food Sci. 40:439-440.
Roberts, T. A. 1975. The microbiological role of nitrite and nitrate. J. Sci. Food Agr. 26:1755-1760.
Roseiro, L. C., C. Santos and R. S. Melo. 1994. Muscle pH60, colour(L, a, b)and water-holding capacity and the influence of post-mortem meat temperature. Meat Sci. 38:353-359.
Salih, A. M., D.M. Smith, J. F. Price and E. Dawson. 1987. Modified extract action 2-thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid oxidation in poultry. J. poultry Sci. 35:1483-1488.
Samelis, J., G. Aggelis and J. Metaxopoulos. 1993. Lipolytic and microbial changes during the natural fermentation and ripening of Greek dry sausages. Meat Sci. 35:371-385.
Sarraga, C., M. Gil, J. Arnau and J. M. monfort. 1989. Effect of curing salt and phosphate on the activity of porcine muscle proteases. Meat Sci. 25:241-249.
Savic’, Z., Z. K. Sheng and I. Savic’. 1988. Chinese-style sausage:A special class of meat products. Fleisch. 68:612-617.
Sebranek, J. G. and J. B. Fox. 1985. A review of nitrate and chloride chemistry: Interactions and implications for cured meats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:1169-1182.
Sunesen, L.O., V. Dorigoni, E. Zanardi and L. Stahnke. 2001. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage. Meat Sci. 58:93-97.
Sylvia, S. F., J. R. Claus, N. G. Marriott and W. N. Eigel. 1994. Low-fat, high-moisture frankfurters:effects of temperature and water during extended mixing. J. Food Sci. 59(5):937-940.
Takahashi, K. 1996. Structural weakening of skeletal muscle tissue during post-mortem ripen of meat:the non-enzymatic mechanism of meat tenderization. Meat Sci. 43. S67-S80.
Taylor, R. G., G. H. Geesink, V. F. Thompson, M. Koohmaraie and D. E. Goll. 1995. Is Z-disk degradation responsible for postmortem tenderization ? J. Anim. Sci. 73:1351:1367.
Terrell, R. N. 1983. Reducing the sodium content of processed meat. Food Tech. July:66-71.
Thomsen, H. H. and P. Zeuthen. 1988. The influence of mechanically deboned meat and pH on the water-holding capacity and texture of emulsion type meat products. Meat Sci. 189-201.
Toldra’, F. and D. J. Etherington. 1988. Examination of cathepsins B, D, H and L activities in dry-cured ham. Meat Sci. 23:1-7.
Toldra’, F., M. Cervero and C. Part. 1993. Porcine aminopeptidase activity as affected by curing agents. J. Food Sci. 58(4):724-726、747.
Toorop, R.M., S. J. Murch and R. O. Ball. 1997. Development of a rapid and accurate method for separation and quantification of myofibrillar proteins in meat. Food Research International. 30(8):619-627.
Torley, P. J., Bruce R. D’Arcy and G. R. Trout. 2000. The effect of ionic strength, polyphosphates type, pH, cooking temperature and preblending on the functional properties of normal and pale, soft, exudative(PSE)pork. Meat Sci. 55:451-462.
Torres, E., A. M. Pearson, J. I. Gray, A. M. Booren and M. Shimkomaki. 1988. Effect of salt oxidative changes in pre- and post- rigor ground beef. Meat Sci. 26:151-163.
Trout, G. R. 1990. The rate of metmyoglobin formation in beef, pork, and turkey meat as influenced by pH, sodium chloride, and sodium tripolyphosphate. Meat Sci. 28:203-210.
Van Laack, R. L. J. M., R. G. Kauffman, W. Sybesma, F. J. M. Smulders, G. Eikelenboom and J. C. Pinheiro. 1994. Is colour brightness (L-Value)a reliable indicator of water-holding capacity in porcine muscle ? Meat Sci. 38:193-201.
Verma, M. M., A. D. Alarcon Rojo, D. A. Ledward and R. A. Lawrie. 1985. Effect of frozen stored of minced meats on the quality of row meat and sausages prepared from them. Meat Sci. 12:125-129.
Viallon, C., J. L. Berdague, M. C. Montel, R. Talon, J.F. Martin, N. Kondjovan and C. Denoyer. 1996. The effect of stage of ripening and packaging on volatile content and flavor of dry sausage. Food Res. Int. 29(7):667-674.
Wagnor, J. R. and M. C. Anon. 1986. Effect of frozen stored on protein denaturation in bovine muscle.Ⅰ. Myofibrillar ATPase activity and differential scanning calorimetric study. J. Food. Tech. 21:9-21.
Waldman, R. C., D. O. Westerberg and S. S. Simon. 1974. Influence of curing ingredients and stored time on the quality of preblended sausage meats and frankfurters. J. Food Sci. 39:718-722.
Wang, F. S., Y. N. Jiang and C. W. Lin. 1995. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation in Chinese-style sausage using vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging. Meat Sci. 40:93-101.
Wang, F. S. 2001. Lipolytic and proteolytic properties of dry-cured boneless hams ripened modified atmospheres. Meat Sci. 59:15-22.
Warner, R. D., R. G. Kauggman and M. L. Greaser. 1997. Muscle protein changes post mortem in relation to pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 45:339-352.
Watanabe, A., C. C. Daly and C. E. Devine. 1996. The effects of ultimate pH of meat on tenderness changes during ripen. Meat Sci. 42:67-78.
Wheeler,T. L., S. D. Shackelford and M. Koohmaraie. 2000. Variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 78:958-965.
Whipple, G., M. Koohmaraie, M. E. Dikeman, J. D. Crouse, M. C. Hunt and R. D. Klemm. 1990. Evaluation of attributes that affect longissimus muscle tenderness in Bos Taurus and Bos indicus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2716-2728.
Xiong, Y. L., X. Lou, C. Wang, W. G. Moddy and R. J. Harmon. 2000. Protein extraction from chicken myofibrils irrigated with various polyphosphate and NaCl solutions. J. Food Sci. 65:96-99.
Youling, L. x. and S. P. Blanchard. 1994. Myofibrillar protein gelation :viscoelastic changes related to heating procedures. J. Food Sci. 59(4):734-738.
Zapelena, M. J., I. Astiasaran and J. Bello. 1999. Dry fermented sausages made with a protease from Aspergillus oryzae and / or a starter culture. Meat Sci. 52:403-409.
Zhu, L. G. and M. S. Brewer. 1998. Discoloration of fresh pork as related to muscle and display conditions. J. Food Sci. 63(5):763-767.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top