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研究生:尤瑟夫
研究生(外文):Yousuf Al-Wahaibi Sulaiman
論文名稱:應用聚合脢連鎖反應和限制片段長度多型性(PCR-RFLP)檢測豬霍亂沙氏桿菌和抗藥性之分析
論文名稱(外文):Detection of Salmonella choleraesuis in Taiwan Using PCR-RFLP and Antibiotics Resistant Analysis
指導教授:廖明輝廖明輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Huei Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:豬 霍 亂 沙氏桿菌抗藥 性圓 盤擴散法聚 合 酶連 鎖 反應-限 制片 段長 度 多 型性
外文關鍵詞:Salmonella choleraesuisAntibiotics resistanceDisk diffusion methodPCR-RFLP
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沙 氏桿 菌是 人 類 及 動 物 的 重 要 傳 染 性 病 原 菌, 經 由 食物 傳 播 引 起 胃 腸 道 疾病, 再 由 受 感 染的 動 物傳 染給 人 類。 在 台 灣 屏 東 地 區, 由 動物 分 離 出的 豬 霍 亂 沙 氏 桿 菌 (Salmonella choleraesuis) , 其 抗 藥 性 有 日益 增 加 的趨 勢。利用 National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard 建 議 之 圓 盤 擴 散 法進 行抗 藥性 敏 感 試 驗,於 塗 抹 豬 霍 亂 沙氏桿 菌 的 Mueller-Hinton agar 上 放 置 含 抗 生 素 之 圓 盤。結 果 發 現在 101分 離 株 中有 99% 對 carbenicillin,97% 對 apramycin,96% 對 oxytetracycline,87.1% 對 gentamycin,84.2% 對 neomycin,75.2% 對 chloramphenicol,59.4% 對 cefoperzone,8.9% 對 ceftiofur 具 有 抗 藥 性, 研 究 也 發 現 低於 5% 的 分 離 株 可 對 norofloxacin, trimethoprim 及 trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazol 產 生抗 藥 性 。 這 些 分 離 株 均 具 有 多 重抗 藥 性。在 所有 分 離 株 中 也 發 現 至 少 對 三 種 以 上 的 抗 生 素 產 生抗 藥 性。在所 記 錄 的 29種不同抗藥模式中,最普遍的 為 AmAprCfpCbCGmNT (n=39) ,其次為 AmAprCbCGmNT (n=17)。以 聚 合 酶 連 鎖 反 應和 限 制 片段 長 度 多 型性 (PCR-RFLP) 檢測 豬 霍 亂 沙氏桿 菌 的 分 析,在 101-株-豬-霍-亂 沙 氏 桿 菌 皆 對 具 有 特 異 性 的 iroB 與 invA 序列 引 子對 有反應 ,而 其 中 只 有 兩 株 具 有 特 異 性 的 integron 序 列 引 子 對 有 反 應。然 而 ,比 較 此 兩 株 與 其 它 菌 株 在 抗 藥 模 式 上的 差 異 ,顯 示 其 差 異 是 對 trimethoprim 與 trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazol 之 抗 藥 性。 由 研 究結 果 顯 示,對 29-種不-同-抗生素的抗藥模式與--iroB及 invA 引子對的PCR-RFLP 分 析結果,並 無關 聯性。
Salmonella species is an important zoonotic pathogen in humans and animals that frequently caused worldwide food-borne gastrointestinal diseases transmitted from animals to human. Antimicrobial drug resistance was found to be increasing among S. choleraesuis strains in Pingtung, Taiwan. Using disc diffusion methods as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) on Muellen—Hinton agar, tested antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 101 isolates, 99% of the isolates showed resistance to carbenicillin, 97% to apramycin, 96% to ampicillin, and 96% to oxytetracyclin. Additionally, 87.1% of the isolates were resistant to gentamycin, 84.2% to neomycin, and 75.2% to chloramphenicol. However, 59.4% of the isolates were resistant to cefoperzone, and 8.9% to ceftiofur. We found also less than 5% of the isolates were resistant to norofloxacin, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol. Multiple resistances were observed among all of the isolates. All of the isolates tested showed resistance to at least three antibacterial drugs. Twenty-nine different drug resistance patterns were recorded. The most common patterns of antibiotic resistance (n= 39 isolates) were AmAprCfpCbCGmNT, followed by AmAprCbCGmNT (n=17). Using the PCR assay to determine the specificity of the primer iroB and invA in detecting S. choleraesuis at the genus level showed that all of 101 S. choleraesuis samples gave positive results. Only two of 101 S. choleraesuis samples gave positive results with integron specific primer pairs. However, comparing these two samples with other sample, the results showed that the difference laid in item resistance with other sample against the antimicrobials drugs of trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol. This study demonstrated that there was no relationship between the 29 different drug resistance patterns and the results of RFLP analysis of the PCR products using the primers of iroB and invA.
ABSTRACT (English)…………………………………………i
ABSTRACT (Chinese)……………………………………….iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………vi
LIST OF TABLE.………………………………………………xi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATION.……………………………………xii
I-INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………1
II-LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………5
2.1Structure, classification, and serotypes……5
2.2Pathogenesis…………………………………………7
2.2.1Sources of infection……………………………8
2.2.2Transmission, shedding, and carrier state…9
2.2.3Clinical signs, and pathological findings…11 2.2.4Septicemic salmonellosis…………………………11
a.Clinical signs…………………………………12
b.Gross lesion…………………………………12
c.Microscopical lesion…………………………12
2.3Antibiotic resistant……………………………………13
2.3.1Antibacterial activity………………………………14
2.3.2Sites of action of antibacterial drugs…………15
a.Interference in metabolic pathways…………15
b.Binding to the cytoplasmic membrane………16
c.Inhibition of protein biosynthesis……………17
d.Inhibition of nucleic acid biosynthesis………18
e.Disruption of cell wall biosynthesis…………19
2.3.3Bacterial resistance to antibiotics……………… 20
a.Types of resistances…………………………22
A)Intrinsic resistance (Constitutive resistance)………22
B)Acquired resistance……………………22
a)Chromosomal mutation…………23
b)Transferable drug resistance……… 23
i)R Plasmids…………………24
ii)Transposons……………… 25
iii)Integrons……………………25
b.Mechanisms of acquired resistance…………26
A)Modification of the target site or enzyme……………………26
B)Prevention of access for the antibiotics…………………………27
C) Prevention of enzymes that destroy or inactivate bythe antibiotic 27
2.4 PCR — RFLP…………………………………………….... 27
2.5 Public Health Aspects……………………………………. 31
III- MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………… 34
3.1 Bacterial samples…………………………………… 34
3.2 Isolation, and identification ………………… 34
3.2.1 Isolation ………………………………………… 34
3.2.2 Identification …………………………………… 35
3.3 Disk diffusion assay…………………………… 35
3.4 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)……………… 38
3.4.1 Genomic DNA extraction………………………… 38
3.4.2 Oligonucleotide primers………………………… 38
3.4.3 DNA amplification……………………………… 40
3.4.4 Detection of amplified DNAs…………………… 40
3.4.5 DNA purification…………………………… 41
3.5 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)… 41
IV- RESULTS ……………………………………………… 43
4.1 Isolation, and identification…………………… 43
4.2 Disk diffusion assay……………………………… 49
4.3 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)………………… 55
4.4 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 59
V- DISCUSSION…………………………………………… 65
5.1 Multidrug resistant………………………………… 65
5.2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)………………… 68
5.3 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 69
VI- CONCLUSION.…………………………………………… 75
VII- REFERENCES…………………………………………… 76
VIII- BIOSKETCH OF AUTHOR………………………………… 87
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