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研究生:林信吉
研究生(外文):Hsin-chi Lin
論文名稱:澎湖水道南端化學水文之季節變化
論文名稱(外文):Seasonal Variation of Chemical Hydrography in the Southern Penghu Channel
指導教授:許德惇許德惇引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:化學水文澎湖水道季節變化海水中溶解態無機碳穩定碳同位素
外文關鍵詞:Chemical HydrographySeasonal VariationPenghu Channeld13C-DIC
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摘 要
澎湖水道位於台灣海峽東南端,為南海與黑潮次表層水進入台灣海峽的主要通道。在過去的研究中主要著眼於物理海洋方面,在化學水文的量測部分未有完整的研究及報告。因此,本研究於2001年1月(冬)、3月(春)、7月(夏)、10月(秋)及2002年3月(春)分別出海進行有系統的採樣與分析,以助於澎湖水道南端四季與年際間化學水文的瞭解。
分析水樣時,出現一些不合常理的測值,因此,針對這些數據進行各項試驗,包括採水瓶比較、營養鹽的分析探討、真空製備系統的改進、國際間海水中d13CDIC測定之對比、不同樣品瓶與使用真空膠與否的比較、飽合氯化汞溶液添加量及儲存時間長短等,以供未來研究者參考,並增加分析結果的精確性與準確度。
由澎湖水道南端海水的溫鹽特徵得知,水深200 m以上應為黑潮與南海水混合之結果,但在200 m以下則以南海水為主。兩者進入澎湖水道南端的量,隨著季節與年際間變化而有所不同。在東北與西南季風盛行時以南海水所佔比例較多;在季風交替時期,則黑潮水所佔比例較多。
海水中d13CDIC與PO4-3值二者的關係斜率(水深0 ~ 100 m為-0.55;100 m以下為-0.30)顯示,澎湖水道南端海水中d13CDIC與PO4-3值的分佈,主要受到海氣交換或水團混合的影響。
Abstract
The Penghu Channel (PHC), situated in the southeastern Taiwan Strait (TS), is the major conduit for the South China Sea water (SCSW) and Kuroshio subsurface water flowing into the TS. However, the previous studies in this area were largely focused on the aspects of physical oceanography, with scant attention to the chemical hydrography is poorly studied, and therefore little understood. In order to better understand the seasonal variations of chemical hydrography in the southern PHC, we conducted a systematic survey of chemical hydrography aboard R/V Ocean Research III during cruises in January, March, July and October 2001 as well as March 2002.
The water above 200m in the southern PHC is characteristic of salinity and temperature between those of SCSW and Kuroshio water (KW), suggesting it is mixing between these two waters. Nonetheless, the salinity and temperature below 200m are dominated by the SCSW. The relative amount of SCSW and KW flowing into the PHC has varied seasonally and annually. During the transition period of monsoon, KW was more than SCSW, but SCSW had a larger quantity during the northeast and southwest monsoon.
The slope of the regression line between the d13CDIC and PO4-3 (0-100m, -0.55; below 100m, -0.30) indicates that the distributions of d13CDIC and PO4-3 in the study area may be controlled by the effect of air-sea exchange or the mixing of different water masses or both.
In addition, to evaluate the overall error in d13CDIC analysis, we have checked carefully whether the different storage bottles, the various duration of storage, and different amount of saturated HgCl2 solution added in the water samples would produce uncertainty on the d13CDIC analysis. Our results show no significant discrepancy among these the different treatments, suggesting that the water samples can be stored without measurable d13CDIC change at least for 3 months.
目錄
致謝……………………………………………………..….…………….…. I
中文摘要……………………………………………….…………..…….… II
英文摘要……………………………………………….………….……….III
目錄…………………………………….……………….……….……..…. IV
圖目錄……………………………………………….…………...………. VII
表目錄……………………………………………….………….….…..…..IX
壹、 緒論…………………………………………..…………….…………1
1-1研究區域………….……………………………………..…….…….1
1-2海水中溶解態無機碳穩定碳同位素…………………..….….…….1
1-3前人研究…….……………………………………….……..……….3
1-4研究目的…………………………………………………..…..…….5
貳、材料及方法..…………………………………………………..………..6
2-1採樣時間及位置…………………..……………………..…………6
2-2海水樣品之採集……….……………..………...…………..………7
2-2.1溶氧……………………….…………………………..……..7
2-2.2營養鹽…………………….…………………………..……..8
2-2.3海水中溶解態無機碳穩定碳同位素….………………..…..8
2-3海水樣品之分析………….…………………..……………..…..…9
2-3.1溶氧的分析……………….………………………..………..9
2-3.2營養鹽的分析…………….………………………..………..9
2-3.3 d13CDIC的分析……….…………..………….………..…….10
2-4海水樣品的收集與分析問題..….……………..….….…….……..14
2-4.1採水瓶…………………….………………………….…….14
2-4.2營養鹽分析……………….……………………….……….16
2-4.3海水中d13CDIC的分析………………….……………….….17
4-1.3.1穩定碳同位素製備系統的改進……………...…….18
4-1.3.2國際間海水中d13CDIC測定之對比……………...….19
4-1.3.3不同樣品瓶試驗……………………………...…….20
4-1.3.4飽合氯化汞溶液添加及儲存時間試驗………...….22

參、結果…………………….……………………………….……..………26
3-1冬季航次水文資料描述..….………………..…….………..……..26
3-2春季(2001年)航次水文資料描述………….…………..…….…..27
3-3夏季航次水文資料描述………….….……..………….……...…..27
3-4秋季航次水文資料描述………….…….…..……….….……..…..28
3-5春季(2002年)航次水文資料描述………….……………...……..28
肆、討論………………………………..……………………..……………30
4-1各航次討論………………………………….……………...…….29
4-1.1溫鹽曲線……………………………….…………….…….30
4-1.1.1冬季…………………………………………...…….30
4-1.1.2春季(2001年)…………………….…………..….….31
4-1.1.3夏季……………………………………….…..…….32
4-2.1.4秋季…………………………………………...…….33
4-2.1.5春季(2002年)…………………………….…..…….34
4-1.2化學水文參數………………………….………….……….35
4-1.2.1冬季…………………………………………...…….36
4-1.2.2春季(2001年)…………………….………….….….36
4-1.2.3夏季……………………………………….…..…….37
4-1.2.4秋季…………………………………….……..…….37
4-1.2.5春季(2002年)………………………………...…….38
4-2海水中d13CDIC值與前人之比較……….…..……………….……..39
4-3 d13CDIC與PO4-3值的關係…………………..……….……...……..40
伍、結論…………………………..………………………………..………41
陸、參考文獻………………………..………………………………..……43
附錄一、本研究中各航次水文資料及測量數據………………….………80

圖目錄
圖一、台灣周圍海域海底地形圖………..…………………………..……48
圖二、本研究採樣區域及水文測站位置圖….…………………….……..49
圖三、真空製備系統全圖…………………..……………………….…….50
圖四、冬季航次所得各項水文參數隨深度變化圖….……………….…..51
圖五、春季航次(2001年)所得各項水文參數隨深度變化圖………….…52
圖六、夏季航次所得各項水文參數隨深度變化圖………………….…...53
圖七、秋季航次所得各項水文參數隨深度變化圖………………………54
圖八、春季航次(2002年)所得各項水文參數隨深度變化圖……………55
圖九、730航次,測站8'',Go-Flo與Niskin採水瓶交叉使用結果…....56
圖十、730航次,測站10,Go-Flo與Niskin採水瓶同時使用結果…..57
圖十一、不同樣品瓶試驗結果…………………….………………….…..58
圖十二、飽合氯化汞溶液添加量及儲存時間試驗結果……………..…..59
圖十三、冬季航次溫鹽圖……….…………………………………….…..60
圖十四、春季航次(2001年)溫鹽圖………….…………………..………..61
圖十五、夏季航次溫鹽圖……………………………..…………….…….62
圖十六、秋季航次溫鹽圖………………………………………….….…..63
圖十七、春季航次(2001年)溫鹽圖…………….…………………….…..64
圖十八、冬季航次期間海洋表水溫度衛星影像圖………….……….…..65
圖十九、春季航次(2001年)期間海洋表水溫度衛星影像圖………….....66
圖二十、夏季航次期間海洋表水溫度衛星影像圖…….………….……..67
圖二十一、秋季航次期間海洋表水溫度衛星影像圖.……………….…..68
圖二十二、春季航次(2002年)期間海洋表水溫度衛星影像圖………….69
圖二十三、相關區域之d13CDIC值比較………………………….……..….70
圖二十四、海水中d13CDIC對PO4-3關係圖………………………...……....71

表目錄
表一、水文測站經緯度列表…………………………………...…..………72
表二、海研三號各航次水文測站完成日期與分析項目……….…....……73
表三A、二氧化碳氣體標本之d13C與d18O值分析4次結果……..…..…74
表三B、5個二氧化碳氣體標本之d13C與d18O值分析結果……….……74
表四A、海水樣品之d13CDIC值分析4次結果…………………..…..……75
表四B、4個海水樣品之d13CDIC值分析結果………………………….…75
表五、NARCIS發表各實驗室所得d13C與d18O測值一覽表…………...76
表六、不同樣品瓶試驗所得d13CDIC值結果………..……………….……77
表七、飽合氯化汞溶液添加及儲存時間試驗所得d13CDIC值結果………78
表八、典型南海水與黑潮水採樣位置經緯度列表……………….………79
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