跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.221.70.232) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/29 03:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:孫治華
研究生(外文):Zhi-Hua Sun
論文名稱:高屏海域海桶類之時空分布及其與水團相關性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Spatial and temporal distribution of Thaliacea in relation to water masses in the Kaoping coastal waters, southweatern Taiwan.
指導教授:羅文增
指導教授(外文):Wen-Tseng Lo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:高屏海域被囊動物水團分析海桶類黑潮
外文關鍵詞:ThaliaceaSalpadoliolidaKaoping coastal waters
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:304
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:21
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
本研究是在2001年6月至2002年10月期間於高屏海域針對海桶類進行週年且有系統的調查,以探討海桶類之種類組成、豐度分布、世代百分比及其與溫度、鹽度及葉綠素a濃度之相關性。根據採樣分析的結果,總共發現海桶類3科11屬16種,最優勢種為Doliolum denticulatum,佔總豐度的62.6%;其他主要優勢種包括︰Thalia orientalis(22.8%)、Thalia democratica(7.5%)、Thalia rhomboides(2.4%)和Dolioletta gegenbauri(2.3%)。
海桶類的,平均豐度為690.6 ±1601.4 ind./100m3,有明顯的季節變化,在2002年3月出現最高豐度,之後則逐季漸減,最低豐度則是出現在2001年11月。海桶類豐度一般以0~100公尺斜拖居多,但在2002年3月及10月時,表層(0~5公尺)海域則出現大量繁生的情況,其豐度遠大於其他月份10倍之巨。高屏海域海桶類群聚組成與數量在2001年各月各測站間變異程度相對較2002年小,其中尤以2001年8月及11月間之相似程度最高,2002年3月及7月各測站間的變異程度則相對最大。海桶類豐度一般和海域表水溫度有顯著負相關(p < 0.01),但和鹽度和葉綠素a濃度則呈顯著正相關(p < 0.05)。Doliolum denticulatum和Dolioletta gegenbauri,均是以有性世代個體居多,並佔全肌目海桶總豐度的99.2%;半肌目海桶類也是以有性世代居多,但僅佔半肌目海桶豐度的84.3%,其中Thalia rhomboides則是唯一以無性世代較多的種類,其有性世代僅佔40.1%。
Abstract
The species composition, distribution and generations of the thaliacea in relation to the sea surface temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a were studied in the Koaping coastal waters, southwestern Taiwan, from June 2001 to October 2002. In all, 16 species of the thaliacea belonging to 3 families and 11 genera were identified. Among these, Doliolum denticulatum was the most dominant species and comprised 62.2% of the numerical total of thaliacea, other common species including: Thalia orientalis (22.8%), Thalia democratica (7.5%), Thalia rhomboids (2.4%) and Dolioliletta gegenbauri (2.3%).
The mean numerical abundance of thaliacea was 690.6 1601.4 ind./100m3. Most species showed apparently seasonal changes, with the highest abundance in March 2002 and the lowest was in November 2001. Higher abundances of thaliacea were generally found in the 100m oblique tows when compared with the surface tows, except in March and October 2002 that bulk abundances were found in the surface waters. The variation of thaliacean species composition and abundance among stations and mouths was larger in 2002 than in 2001. Higher similarity in community structure of thaliacea was found between August and November 2001, while larger variations among stations were found in March and July 2002. In general, the abundance of thaliacea species showed significantly negative correlation with water temperature but significantly positive correlations with salinity and chlorophyll a. Blastozooid(phorozooids and gonozooids) of the Doliolum denticulatum and Dolioletta gegenburia dominated in the study area and comprised 99.2% of total doliolids. Blastozooid(gonozooids) was also dominated in Salpida species and comprised 84.3% of total Salpida, except Thalia rhomboids that blastozooid occupied only 40.1%.
目錄

章次………………………………………………………………… 頁數

壹、前言………………………………………………………………… 1

貳、材料與方法………………………………………………………... 11
採樣時間、地點及方法…………………………………………11
樣品保存及鑑種………………………………..........................11
海水水文資料………………………………………………......12
資料處理………………………………………………………..13

參、結果…………………………………………………………….…. 15
水文環境因子與水團變化之探討……………………………..15
海桶類種類組成及其時空分布………………………………..17
海桶類豐度之時空分布………………………………………..18
海桶類種歧異度之時空分布…………………………………..20
海桶類優勢種之時空分布……………………………………..21
海桶類有性世代百分比在月別上的變化……………………..25
海桶類豐度與環境因子相關性…………………..……….…...27
海桶類的群聚分析......................................................................28

肆、討論………………………………………………………………... 30
高屏海域之水文環境因子............................................................30
高屏海域之海桶類種類組成........................................................32
海桶類豐度的時空變化.....................................................34
海桶類與水文環境和生物間的相關性........................................36
海桶類世代比之變化.......................................................38

伍、結論………………………………………………………………... 41

參考資料………………………………………………………………..43

表…………….………………………………………………………….53

圖………………………………………………………………………. 80

附錄……..………………………………….....………………............ 100

表目錄

表次…………………………………………………………………..頁數

1. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站表水層之溫度、鹽度和葉綠素a之濃度..........................................................53

2. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域表水溫度、鹽度和葉綠素a濃度之變方分析及鄧肯式多變距檢定分析結果………. 54

3. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站所發現之海桶種類分類表……….……………………………………………… 55

4. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站表層與深層海桶的平均豐度、相對豐度、種歧異度及種類數…….……..….. 56

5. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各月A.表及深層、B.表層及C.深層海桶類的平均豐度、相對豐度、種歧異度及種類數……………………………..…..………………………………. 62

6. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各月A.近岸測站表層、B.遠岸測站表層和C.近岸測站深層、D.遠岸測站深層海桶的平均豐度、相對豐度、種歧異度及種類數之月別變化…………………………………………………………..………65

7. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域A.高雄港測線、B.高屏溪測線和C.枋山測線海桶的平均豐度、相對豐度、種歧異度及種類數之月別變化…………………………...…………….. 69

8. 高屏海域受A.南海水和B.黑潮水影響時海桶之平均豐度、相對豐度、種歧異度及種類數……………..……………..……………..72

9. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域Doliolum denticulatum之豐度不同世代百分比…………………………………..………74

10. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域Thalia orientalis之豐度不同世代百分比………………………………………..………75

11. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域Thalia democratica之豐度不同世代百分比………………………………….……….76

12. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域Thalia rhomboides之豐度不同世代百分比……………………………………………..77

13. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域Dolioletta gegenbauri之豐度不同世代百分比…………………………………………..78

14. 優勢海桶類各世代與水溫、鹽度和葉綠素a之複迴歸分析結果..79



圖目錄

圖次…………………………………………………………………..頁數

1. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域海桶類之採樣測站位置圖………………………………………………………………. 80

2. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站海表溫度、鹽度和葉綠素a濃度之季節變化……………….…………...………. 81

3. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站溫度和鹽度之垂直剖面圖……… 82

4. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站之溫鹽圖.. 84

5. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域海桶類之種類數、平均豐度、種歧異度、世代百分比和表深層豐度圖……..……… 85

6. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站Doliolum denticulatum之豐度變化……...……………………...….………. 86

7. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站 Thalia orientalis之豐度變化………………………………….….……..…………. 87

8. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站 Thalia democratica之豐度變化…………………………………………. 88

9. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站 Thalia rhomboides之豐度變化…..…………………………………….…89

10. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域各測站 Dolioletta gegenbauri之豐度變化……..……………….……………………90

11. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站Doliolum denticulatum之世代百分比..………………………….…………. 91

12. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站 Thalia orientalis之世代百分比…………………………………………. 92

13. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站 Thalia democratica之世代百分比………………………………………. 93

14. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站 Thalia rhomboides之世代百分比…..………………………………….…94

15. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間於高屏海域各測站 Dolioletta gegenbauri之世代百分比……..………………………….………95

16. 2001年6月至2002年10月期間於高屏海域海桶類之群聚分析圖…………………………………………………………………..96

17. 2001年6月到2002年10月期間高屏海域海桶類之種群分析圖………………………………………..…………………………97

18. 高屏海域之海桶類第一種群之季節及測站分布圖………....…...98

19. 高屏海域之海桶類第二種群之季節及測站分布圖…...…….…...99

附錄

附錄次……………………………………………………………… 頁數

1.A.全肌目海桶與B.半肌目海桶生活史…………………...……. 100

2.高屏海域之海桶類檢索表…………………………………….....101

3.2001年到2002年中央氣象局逐月逐日氣象資料…………...…104

4.2002年3月到2002年10月台灣周邊海域葉綠素a濃度圖……106

5.台灣沿近海域海桶類出現之文獻記錄……………………….…109

6.不同世代之海桶與橈足類之直線迴歸…………………….……110
參考資料
千原光雄和村野正昭。1997。日本產海洋浮游生物檢索圖說(下)。東海大學出版會。東京都。1351-1392頁。
中央氣象局,2001。高雄氣象站逐日降雨量表。交通部中央氣象局。台北。
中央氣象局,2002。高雄氣象站逐日降雨量表。交通部中央氣象局。台北。
王冑和陳慶生。1987。南海北部暖心渦流。台灣海洋學刊。18:92-133。
吳德泰。1996。高屏峽谷水文特性之調查及研究。國立中山大學海洋資源研究所碩士論文。79頁。
國科會海洋科學研究中心衛星遙測資料庫。2002。http://www.ncor.ntu.edu.tw/nrsst/。
國科會海洋科學研究中心海洋資料庫水文展示資料。2002。http://duck2.oc.ntu.edu.tw/odbcht.html。
詹森。1995。台灣海峽流場季節變化之研究。國立台灣大學海洋研究所博士論文。139頁。
詹森。2002。二十一世紀海洋台灣。國家海洋科學研究中心。34頁。
張桂祥。1999。台灣西南海域半肌目和全肌目海桶之時空分布。國立中山大學海洋資源研究所碩士論文。80頁。
張育嘉。2000。利用船碇式ADCP觀察高屏峽谷之流場特性。國立中山大學海洋資源研究所碩士論文。91頁。
黃祥豪。2002。高屏海域浮游橈足類時空分布及攝食研究。國立中山大學海洋資源研究所碩士論文。113頁。
郭南榮。2002。台灣海峽水色觀測。2002年海洋科學成果發表會論文摘要集。台東知本。58頁。

Alexis, K., Herwig, S., Ulrich, S. and Thomas, H. 2002. Changes in the phytoplankton community and microbial food web of Blanes Bay (Catalan Sea, NW Mediterranean) under prolonged grazing pressure by doliolids (Tunicata), cladocerans or copepods (Crustacea). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 234, 55-66.

Andersen, V. and Sardou, J. 1994. Pryosoma atlanticum (Tunicata, Thaliacea), diel migration and vertical distribution as a function of colony size. J. Plankton Res., 16, 337-349.

Angel, M.V. 1989. Vertical profiles of pelagic communities in the vicinity of the Azores Frint and their implications to deep ocean ecology. Prog. Oceanogr., 22,1-46.

Atkinson, L.P., Paffenhofer, G.A. and Dunstan,W.M. 1978. The chemical and biological effect of a Gulf Stream intrusion off St. Augustine, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci., 28, 667-679.

Baker, A.N. 1971. Pryosoma spinosum Herdman, a giant pelagic Tunicate new to New Zealand waters. Rec. Dominion Mus., 7, 107-117.

Barconnot, J.C. 1970. Contribution a l’etude des stades successifs dans le cycle des Tuniciers pelagiques Doliolides 1. Les stades larvaire, oozoide, nourrice et gastrozoide. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen., 112, 5-32.

Barconnot, J.C. 1971. Contribution a l’etude des stades successifs dans le cycle des Tuniciers pelagiques Doliolides 2. Les stades phorozoide et gonozoide des Doliolides. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen., 112, 5-31.

Bary, B.M. 1960. Notes on ecology, distribution and systematics of the pelagic Tunicata from New Zealand. Pacific Sci., 14, 101-121.

Berner, L.D. 1967. Distribution atlas of Thaliacea in the California Current region. CalCOFI Atlas., 8, 1-322.

Berrill, N.J. 1950. The Tunicata, with an account of the British species. Ray Soc. Publ. 4, London, 1-354.

Binet, D. 1976. Contribution a l’ecologie de quelques taxons du zooplancton de Cote d’Ivoire 2. Dolioles, salpes, appendiculaires. Docum. Scient. Cent. Rech. Oceanogr, Abidjan., 7, 45-61.
Bone, Q., Braconnot, J.C., Carre, C. and Ryan, K.P. 1997. On the filter- feeding of Doliolum (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 179, 179-193

Bone, Q., Carre, C. and Ryan, K.P. 2000. The endostyle and the feeding filter in salps (Tunicata). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 80, 523-534.

Brien, P. 1948. Embranchmenet des Tuniciers. In “Traite de Zoologie”, 11(P.P. Grasse, ed.), Masson, Paris, 553-930.

Chaolum, L., Song, S., Guangtao. and Z., Peng, J. 2001. Summer feeding activities of zooplankton in Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Polar Biol., 24, 892-900.

Chen, C.T.A. and Huang, M.H. 1996. A mid-depth front separating the south Chima Sea water and the Philippine Sea water. J. Oceanogr., 52, 17-25.

Chiba, S., Ishimaru, T., Hosie, G.W. and Wright, S.W., 1999. Population structure change of Salpa thompsoni from austral mid-summer to autumn. Polar Biol., 22, 341-349.

Deibel, D. 1985. Blooms of the pelagic tunicate, Dolioletta gegenbauri, are they associated with Gulf Stream frontal eddies? J. Mar. Res., 43, 211-236.

Deibel, D. 1998. The abundance, distribution and ecological impact of doliolids. In Bone Q. (ed.), The Biology of Pelagic Tunicates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 180.

Drits, A.V., Arashkevich. and E.G., Semenova, T.N. 1992. Pryosoma atlanticum (Tunicata, Taliacea), grazing impact on phytoplankton standing stock and role in organic carbon flux. J. Plankton Res., 14, 799-809.

Dubischar, C.D. and Bathmann, U.V. 1997. Grazing impact of copepods and salps on phytoplankton in the Altantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep- Sea Res., 16, 809-839.

Fan, K.L. 1982. A study of water masses in Taiwan Strait. Acta Oceanogr. Taiwan., 13, 140-153.

Fan, K.L. and Yu, C.Y. 1981. A study of water masses in the seas of southernmost Taiwan. Acta Oceanogr. Taiwan., 35, 1631-1637.

Garstang, W. 1933. Report on the Tunicata. 1. Doliolida. Rep. British Ant. Terra Nova Exp., Nat. Hist., Zool., 4, 195-251.

Gibson, D.M. and Paffenhofer, G.A. 1999. Determination of generation time and asexual fecundity of doliolids (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 21, 1183-1189.

Gibson, D.M. and Paffenhofer, G.A. 2000. Feeding and growth rates of the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 22, 1485-1500.

Gibson, D.M. and Paffenhofer, G.A. 2002. Asexual reproduction of the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 24, 703-712.

Godeaux, W. 1990. Urochordata-Thaliacea. In “Reproductive biology of invertebrates” (Adiyodi K.G., Adiyodi R.G., eds.), Oxdford and IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi, 453-469.

Godeaux, J. 1996. Systematics of the Doliolida. Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege., 65, 83-85.

Godeaux, J. 1998a. On the anatomical structure of the trophozooid of Doliolum denticulatum. Mar. Biol., 131, 41-44.

Godeaux, J. 1998b. The relationships and systematics of the Thaliacea, with keys for identification. Peges 273-294. in Q. Bone, ed. The biology of pelagic tunicates. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goy, J. 1977. Migrations verticals du Zooplancton. Resultats de Camp- agnes a la Mer, CNEXO., 13, 71-73.

Graciela, B.E. and Maria C.D. 1999. Doliolida. Peges 1409-1421. in D. Boltovskoy, ed. South atlantic zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
He, D., Yang, G., Fang, S., Shen, W., Liu, H., Gao, A. and Huang, S. 1988. Study of zooplankton ecology in Zhejiang coastal upwelling system- zooplankton biomass and abundance of major groups. Acta Oceanologica Sinica., 7, 607-620.
Heron, A.C. 1973. A specialized predator-prey relationship between the copepod Sapphirina angusta and the pelagic tunicate Thalia democratica. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 53, 429-435.
Heron, A.C. and Benham, E.E. 1985. Life history parameters as indicators of growth rate in three salp populations. J. Plankton. Res., 7, 365-379.
Heron, A.C., McWilliam, P.S. and Dal Pont, G. 1988. Length-weight relation in the salp Thalia democratica and potential of salps as a source of food. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 42, 125-132.

Hopkins, T.L. and Torres, J.J. 1988. The zooplankton community in the vicinity of the ice edge, western Weddell Sea, March 1986. Polar Biol., 9, 79-87.

Huntley, M.E., Sykes, P.F. and Marin, V. 1989. Biometry and tropho- dynamics of Salpa thompsoni Foxton (Tunicata, Thaliacea) near the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summer, 1983-1984. Polar Biol., 10, 59-70.

Kashkina, A.A. 1978. Areas of the concertration and abundance of salpas in the Atlantic Ocean. Biol. Morya., 3, 11-16.
Kashkina, A.A. 1986. Feeding of fishes on salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Icthyol., 26, 57-64

Kawaguchi, S. and Takahashi, Y. 1996. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) eat salps. Polar Biol., 16,479-481.

Kenneth, M.C., Alice, L.A. and Deborah, K.S. 1991. Feeding rates of the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri, on diatoms and bacterial. J. Plankton Res., 13, 77-82.

Koga, F. 1986. The occurrence and production of zooplankton in Suonada, western Seto Inland Sea. Bull. Nansei Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 20, 91-113.

Kruger, H. 1939. Die Thaliaceen der “Meteor” Expedition. Wiss. Erg. Deutsch. Atlant. Exp. “Meteor” 1925-1927, 13, 111-152.

Larson, R.J., Mills, C.E. and Harbison, G.R. 1989. In situ foraging and feeding behaviour of Narcomedusae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 69, 785-794.

Le Fever, J., Legendre. and L., Rivkin, R.B. 1998. Fluxes of biogenic carbon in the Southern Ocean, role of large microphagous zooplankton. J. Mar. Syst., 17, 325-345.

Lindley, J.A., Hernandez, F., Scatllar, J. and Docoito, J. 2001. Funchalia sp. (Crustacea, Penaeidae) associated with Pryosoma atlanticum (Tunicata, Pyrosomidae) off the Canary Island. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 81, 173-174.

Madin, L.P. and Harbison, G.R. 1978. Salps of the genus Pegea Savigny, 1816 (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Bull. Mar. Sci., 28, 335-344.

Menard, F., Dallot, S., Thomas, G. and Braconnot, J.C. 1994. Temporal fluctuations of two Mediterranean salp populations from 1967 to 1990. Analysis of the influence of environmental variables using a Markov chain model. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 104, 139-152.

Menard, F., Fromentin, J.M., Goy, J. and Dallot, S. 1997. Temporal fluctuations of doliolid abundance in the bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) from 1967 to 1990. Oceanogr Acta., 20(5), 733-742

Mianzan, H. 2001. Feeding on survival-food, gelatinous plankton as a source of food for anchovies. Hydrobiologia, 451, 45-53.

Naqvi, S.W.A., Sarma, V.V.S.S., Jayakumar, D.A. 2002. Carbon cycling in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon, significance of salps. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 226, 35-44.

Neumann, G. 1913. Die Pryosomen der Deutschen Tiefsee Expedition. Wiss. Erg. Deutschen. Tiefsee-Exp. Dampfer “Valdivia” 1898-1899, 12, 291-421.

Nishikawa, J., Naganobu, M., Ichii, H., Terazaki, M., and Kawaguchi, K. 1995. Distribution of salps near the South Shetland Islands during austral summer, 1990-1991 with special reference to krill distribution. Polar Biol., 15, 31-39.

Ohman, M.D., Forst, B.W. and Cohen, E.B. 1983. Recerse diel vertical migration: an escape from invertebrate predators. Sci., 220, 1404-1407.

Paffenhofer, G.A., Sherman, B.K., and Lee, T.N. 1987. Abundance, distribution and patch formation of zooplankton. Progr. Oceanogr., 19, 403-409.

Paffenhofer, G.A., Strewart, T.B., Youngbluth, M.J. and Bailey, T.G. 1991. High-resolution vertical profiles of pelagic tunicates. J. Plankton Res., 13, 971-981.

Paffenhofer, G.A., Atkinson, L.P., Lee, T.N., Verity, P.G. and Bulluck, L.R. 1995. Distribution and abundance of Thliaceans and copepods off the southeastern U.S.A. during winter. Cont. Shelf Res., 15, 255-280.

Paffenhofer, G.A. and Gibson, D.M. 1999. Determination of generation time and asexual fecundity of doliolids (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 21, 1183-1189.

Pakhomov, E.A., Froneman, P.W., Perissintto, R. 2002. Salp/krill interactions in the Southern Ocean, spatial segregation and implications for the carbon flux. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 1881-1907.

Perissintto, R. and Pakhomov, E.A. 1997. Feeding association of the copepod Rhincalanus gigas with the tunicate salp Salpa Thompsoni in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Biol., 127, 479-483.

Perissintto, R. and Pakhomov, E.A. 1998. Contribution of salps to carbon flux of marginal ice zone of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean. Mar. Biol. 131, 25-32.
Pieper, R.E. and Holliday, D.V. 1984. Acoustic measurements of zooplankton distributions in the sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mar., 41, 226-238.

Quoy, J.R.C. and Gaimard J.P. 1834. Voyage de la corvette l’Astrolabe pendant les ann’ees 1826-1829. Zoologie. 4. Tastu, Paris, 1-390.

Roger, C. 1982. Macroplancton et micronecton de l’Atlantique tropical. 1. Biomasses et composition taxonomique. Oceanogr. Trop., 17, 85-96.

Russell, F.S. and Columan, J.S. 1935. The zooplankton . The occurrence and seasonal distribution of the Tunicata, Mollusca and Coelenterata (Siphonophora). Sci. Rep. Great Barrier Reef Exp., 2, 205-234.

Seapy, R.R. 1980. Predation by the epipelagic heteropod mollusk Carinaria cristata forma japonica. Mar. Biol., 60, 137-146.

Shaw, P.T. 1992. The intrusion of water masses into the sea southwest of Taiwan. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 18213-18226.

Shiah, F.K., Chung, S.W., Kao, S.J., Gong, G.C. and Liu, K.K. 2000. Biological and hydrographical responses to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in the continental shelf of the Taiwan Strait. Cont. Shelf Res., 20, 2029 -2044.

Tokioka, T. 1960. Studies on the contribution of appendicularians and some thaliaceans of the North Pacific, with some morphpological notes. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 8, 352-443.

Tokioka, T. and Berner, L. 1958a. Two new doliolids from the eastern Pacific Oceaon. Pacific Sci., 12, 135-138.

Tokioka, T. and Berner, L. 1958b. On certain Thaliacea (Tunicata) from the Pacific Ocean, with descriptions of two new species of doliolids. Pacific Sci., 12, 317-326.
Tsuda, A. and Nemoto, T. 1992. Distribution and growth of salps in a Kuroshio warm-core ring during summer 1987. Deep-sea Res. 39 (suppl. 1), 219-229.

Uljanin, B. 1884. Die Arten der Gattung Doliolum im Golfe von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeresabschnitten. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel., 10, 1-140.

Van der Spoel, S., Heyman, R.P. 1983. A comparative atlas of zooplankton. Biological patterns in the oceans. Bunge, Utrecht; Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1-186.

Van Soest, R.W.M. 1981. A mongraph of the order Pyrosomatida (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 3, 603-631.
Wiebe, P.H., Madin, L.P., Haury, L.R., Harbison, G.R. and Philbin, L.M. 1979. Diel vertical migration by Salpa aspera and its potential for large-scale particulate organic matter transport to the deep-sea. Mar. Biol., 53, 249-255.
Yamaji, I. 1959. The plankton of Japanese coastal water. Hoikusha Publishing Co., Ltd. Osaka, 129-130.

Yoon, W.D., Kim, S.K. and Han, K.N. 2001. Morphology and sinking velocities of fecal pellets of copepod, molluscan, euphausiid, and salp taxa in the northeastern tropical Atlantic. Mar. Biol., 139, 923-928.

Yount, J.L. 1954. The taxonomy of the Salpidae (Tunicata) of the Central Pacific Oceason. Pacific Sci., 8, 276-330.

Zeldis, J.R., Davis, C.S., James, M.R., Ballara, S.L., Booth, W.E. and Chang, F.H. 1995. Salp grazing, effects on phytoplankton abundance, vertical distribution and taxonomic composition in a coastal habitat. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 126, 267-283.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top