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研究生:施俊豪
研究生(外文):Chun-Hao Shih
論文名稱:添加劑對銀基複合電氣接點材料電氣損耗特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Additive on Electric Erosion Performance of Silver-base Composite Electrical Contacts Materials
指導教授:邱源成
指導教授(外文):Chiou Yuang-Cherng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:添加劑損耗量氧化物電氣接點
外文關鍵詞:erosionMatal oxideElectrical contactsAdditive
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中 文 摘 要
電氣接點為電力設備中不可或缺的元件,以往使用銀-氧化鎘為電氣接點材料,因其使用過程中會產生有毒鎘氣,有致癌的危險,銀-氧化鎘將在兩年後禁用。現在常用銀-氧化錫當接點材料,為使得純錫更容易氧化成氧化錫,常在製作過程中需加入氧化銦當助氧劑。但氧化銦材料成本高,因此本研究將探討添加其他金屬氧化物(MeO)對銀-氧化錫接點電氣損耗特性(如:損耗量、接觸電阻、電弧能量…等)之影響。
本研究以粉末冶金方式製作電氣接點,接點材料為粒徑2-3μm之純銀粉末,添加金屬氧化物為4-5μm氧化錫粉末,並以3-4μm氧化鎢粉末及3-5μm氧化鉬為掺質劑。將粉末依適當比例混合製作成電氣接點,使用開閉接點試驗機,探討在不同電氣條件下添加金屬氧化物對接點電氣損耗特性之影響。
實驗結果發現在純銀中添加氧化錫粉末,可有效防止材料飛濺,降低接點損耗量。銀基氧化錫接點材料中,以添加氧化錫5wt﹪時接點有最低損耗量。為減少成本需增加氧化錫之含量至10wt﹪時,微量添加氧化鎢 0.3wt%的接點具有最低損耗量。自製接點與市售接點比較,結果其損耗量為最低。
此外,建立自製銀-氧化錫接點損耗量分別小於市售銀接點與銀-氧化鎘情況下,自製接點之最佳電流使用區域,可作為選擇與應用銀-氧化錫開閉接點之依據。
Abstract
Electric contacts are the essential components of electric equipment. In the past, the silver-cadmium oxide is used as the materials contacts. However, because it generates the poison cadmium gas during the service, which causes the cancer, the silver-cadmium oxide will be prohibited in the near future. Now the silver-tin oxide is often used as the materials of the electrical contacts. To oxidize pure tin more easily,,In2O3 is usually added as the auxiliary oxide agent. However, In2O3 is expensive. Hence, in this study, the other metal oxide agents are added to the silver-tin oxide to investigate the agent effect on the erosion characteristics (such as the erosion amount, the contact resistance, the arc energy, etc).
This study uses the powder metallurgy to produce the electrical contacts, where the sizes of pure silver powder and tin oxide powder are 2~3μm and 4~5μm, respectively. The doping agents are made of 3~4μm tungsten oxide and 3~5μm molybdenum oxide, respectively. The powder are mixed in a suitable proportion to produce electrical contacts. The effect of metal oxide on the erosion of electrical contacts is investigated under different electric conditions.
Results show that when the tin oxide powder is added to the pure sil-ver, the splashing of material can be prevented efficiently, and the erosion of electrical contacts can be reduced. Among the materials of silver-tin oxide, the contacts have the minimum erosion at the concen-tration of 5wt%. In order to reduce the cost of electrical con-tacts, the concentration of tin oxide is increased to 10wt% to investigate the influence of the doping agent. Results show that the addition of 0.3wt%WO3 has the minimum erosion. This electrical contact has lower erosion than the commercial ones.
Furthermore, the regions, where the electrical contact has lower erosion than the commercial pure silver contacts and the silver-cadmium oxide, respectively, are established. These re-gions will be the best usable regions of silver tin oxide, and it will be the basis for the choice and the application of silver-tin oxide electrical contacts.
目 錄
授 權 書 I
論文口試審定書 II
謝 誌 III
目 錄 ..…………………………………………………………..IV
圖 目 錄 VII
表 目 錄 XIII
中 文 摘 要 XIV
英 文 摘 要 XV
第一章 緒 論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 參考文獻 4
1-3 本文重點 8
第二章 基 本 原 理 9
2-1 電弧放電 9
2-1-1 電弧放電過程 9
2-1-2 架橋(bridge)的形成 11
2-1-3 開離電弧的形成 12
2-1-4 閉合電弧的形成 12
2-1-4 金屬相與氣相蒸氣電弧的形成 14
2-2 粉末混合 16
2-2-1 粉末混合機制 16
2-2-2 影響粉末渾合因素 19
2-3 金屬氧化物(MeO)的添加 21
第三章 實驗設備與實驗方法 23
3-1 實驗設備 23
3-1-1 電氣接點試片製作 25
3-1-2 動態接點耐久試驗(Endurance test) 29
3-2 實驗方法 37
3-2-1 接點材料準備 37
3-2-2 接點試片的製作 40
3-2-3 接點試片後處理 44
3-2-4 接點試片性質檢測 46
第四章 結果與討論 48
4-1 純銀添加氧化錫(SnO2) 48
4-2 銀-氧化錫添加掺質劑(Doping agent) 56
4-2-1 88Ag-12SnO2添加Doping agent (WO3) 56
4-2-2 90Ag-10SnO2添加Doping agent (WO3) 61
4-2-3 90Ag-10SnO2添加Doping agent (MoO3) 68
4-2-4 Ag-SnO2添加兩種Doping agent
(0.5%MoO3 +0.5%WO3) 73
4-3 自製電氣接點和市售電氣接點比較 77
4-4 純銀添加MeO於不同開閉次數下之電氣損耗
特性比較……………………………………………. …84
4-4-1 純銀添加SnO2在不同開閉次數之電氣損耗
特性比較 84
4-4-2 10Ag-90SnO2添加不同比例的WO3在不
同開閉次數之電氣損耗特性比較 92
4-5 不同電流對自製電氣接點電氣損耗特性之影響 97
4-6 建立銀-氧化錫接點最佳電流條件之使用範圍 105
第五章 結 論 113
參考文獻 114

圖 目 錄
圖1-1 電氣接點使用分類 3
圖1-2 一般電氣接點選用材料 3
圖2-1 接點開離放電過程 11
圖2-2 金屬相與氣相蒸氣電弧轉移PSD圖 15
圖2-3 旋轉圓筒型混合機內粉粒體的流動與混合之
機制 18
圖2-4 槳葉型混合機內粉粒體的流動與混合之機制 18
圖2-5 水平螺旋槳葉混合機內粉粒體的流動與混合之
機制 18
圖2-6 粉體顆粒由大顆粒分散成小顆粒,小顆粒結合成
大顆粒之機制 20
圖2-7 添加金屬氧化物對電氣接點耐損耗的影響 22
圖3-1 動態接點試驗機系統實體圖 23
圖3-2 動態接點試驗機系統示意圖 24
圖3-3 超微細粉末混拌機示意圖 26
圖3-4 混合罐混合時之運動模式 26
圖3-5 超微細粉末混拌機實體照片 27
圖3-6 應變規型負荷計( Load cell )校正圖 30
圖3-7 開閉接點試驗機實體照片 32
圖3-8 開閉接點試驗機機構示意圖 32
圖3-9 開閉接點試驗機接點運動圖 33
圖3-10 凸輪的角度-行程圖 33
圖3-11 放電迴路示意圖 35
圖3-12 純銀、氧化錫(SnO2) X-Ray繞射圖 38
圖3-13 氧化鉬(MoO3)、氧化鎢(WO3) X-Ray繞射圖 39
圖3-14 使用濕式混合粉末流程圖 42
圖3-15 粉末燒結歷程圖 43
圖3-16 接點試片陰陽極幾何尺寸 44
圖3-17 試片處理流程示意圖 45
圖3-18 自製接點與市售接點試片硬度 47
圖4-1 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V,7A,開閉
次數10000次後電氣接點損耗量 50
圖4-2 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V,7A下電氣
接點電弧持續時間與電弧能量 51
圖4-3 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V,7A下電氣
接點的接觸電阻 52
圖4-4 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V,7A下電氣
接點的外觀損耗圖 54
圖4-5 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V,7A下電氣
接點的外觀損耗圖 55
圖4-6 88Ag-12SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,開閉次數10000次後電氣接點損耗量 58
圖4-7 88Ag-12SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的電弧持續時間與電弧能量 59
圖4-8 88Ag-12SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的接觸電阻 60
圖4-9 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,開閉次數10000次後電氣接點損耗量 62
圖4-10 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的電弧持續時間與電弧能量 63
圖4-11 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的接觸電阻 64
圖4-12 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,開閉次數10000次後電氣接點外觀及內
部損傷圖 66
圖4-13 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,開閉次數10000次後電氣接點外觀及內部
損傷圖 67
圖4-14 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的MoO3,在70V,
7A,開閉次數10000次後電氣接點損耗量 69
圖4-15 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的MoO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的電弧持續時間 70
圖4-16 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的MoO3,在70V,
7A下電氣接點的接觸電阻 71
圖4-17 90Ag-10SnO2添加不同比例的Doping agent,在70V,7A,開閉次數10000次下電氣接點損耗
量比較圖 72
圖4-18 純銀-Sno2添加(0.5%WO3+0.5%MoO3),在70V
、7A、開閉次數10000次後電氣接點損耗量 74
圖4-19 純銀- Sno2添加(0.5%WO3+0.5%MoO3),在70V、7A
下電氣接點電弧持續時間(ta)與電弧能量(E) 75
圖4-20 純銀- Sno2添加(0.5%WO3+0.5%MoO3),在70V、7A
下電氣接點的接觸電阻 76
圖4-21 市售電氣接點與自製電氣接點,在70V、7A、
開閉次數10000次後損耗量比較圖 78
圖4-22 市售電氣接點與自製電氣接點,在70V、7A
下電弧持續時間比較圖 79
圖4-23 市售電氣接點與自製電氣接點,在70V、7A
下電弧能量比較圖 80
圖4-24 市售電氣接點與自製電氣接點,在70V、7A
下接觸電阻比較圖 81
圖4-25 市售電氣接點,在70V、7A、開閉次數10000
次後外觀損耗SEM圖 83
圖4-26 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、7A,不
同開閉次數下電氣接點損耗量比較圖 85
圖4-27 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、7A,不
同開閉次數下電氣接點的電弧持續時間
比較圖 86
圖4-28 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、7A,不
同開閉次數下電氣接點的電弧能量比較圖 87
圖4-29 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、7A,不
同開閉次數下電氣接點接觸電阻比較圖 88
圖4-30 純銀添加SnO2 5%及SnO2 12%在70V、7A不
同開閉次數下的陽極損耗外觀 90
圖4-31 純銀添加SnO2 5%及SnO2 12%在70V、7A不
同開閉次數下的陽極損耗外觀 91
圖4-32 10Ag-90SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,不同開閉次數下電氣接點損耗量比較圖 93
圖4-33 10Ag-90SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,不同開閉次數下電氣接點電弧持續時間
比較圖 94
圖4-34 10Ag-90SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,不同開閉次數下電氣接點電弧能量
比較圖 95
圖4-35 10Ag-90SnO2添加不同比例的WO3,在70V,
7A,不同開閉次數下電氣接點接觸電阻
比較圖 96
圖4-36 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、電流1A、
4A、7A、9A、開閉次數10000次下電氣接點
損耗量 98
圖4-37 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、電流1A、
4A、7A、9A,電氣接點的電弧持續時間 99
圖4-38 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、電流1A、
4A、7A、9A,電氣接點的電弧能量 100
圖4-39 純銀添加不同比例的SnO2,在70V、電流1A、
4A、7A、9A,電氣接點的接觸電阻 101
圖4-40 電流為1A時,Ag添加不同比例SnO2 材料
飛濺情況 103
圖4-41 電流為9A時,市售純銀與Ag - CdO 材料受
電弧作用後外觀SEM情況 103
圖4-42 電流為9A時,Ag添加不同比例SnO2 材料受
電弧作用後外觀SEM情況 104
圖4-43 市售88Ag-12CdO、純銀、自製電氣接點,在
70V、1A、開閉次數10000次後,電氣接點
損耗量比較圖 106
圖4-44 市售88Ag-12CdO、純銀、自製電氣接點,在
70V、4A、開閉次數10000次後,電氣接點
損耗量比較圖 107
圖4-45 市售88Ag-12CdO、純銀、自製電氣接點,在
70V、7A、開閉次數10000次後,電氣接點
損耗量比較圖 108
圖4-46 市售88Ag-12CdO、純銀、自製電氣接點,在
70V、9A、開閉次數10000次後,電氣接點
損耗量比較圖 109
圖4-47 以市售銀電氣接點損耗量為基準,銀-氧化錫
電氣接點耐電流損耗推薦使用圖 110
圖4-48 以市售銀-氧化鎘電氣接點損耗量為基準,
銀-氧化錫電氣接點耐電流損耗推薦使用圖 111

表 目 錄
表2-1 電弧放電過程 9
表2-2 各種純金屬的最小電弧電壓(Vmin)和電弧電流
(Imin) 13
表2-3 一般常用金屬氧化物材料性質 22
表3-1 粉末冶金系統各設備之功能 25
表3-2 試片後處理所需設備 28
表3-3 開閉接點試驗機系統各部份 29
表3-4 量測及資料收集處理系統各部份功能 36
表3-5 粉末的物理性質 37
表3-6 純銀添加氧化錫含量表 40
表3-7 純銀添-氧化錫添加Doping agent含量表 41
表3-8 試片密度表 46
表4-1 實驗之電氣條件 48
表4-2 實驗材料含量表 48
表4-3 88Ag-12SnO2添加WO3的含量表 57
表4-4 90Ag-10SnO2添加WO3的含量表 61
參 考 文 獻

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18.Roland and Michal and karl E.Saeger﹐〝Metallurgical Aspects of Silver-Based Contact Materials for Air-Break Switching Devices for Power Engineering〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids. And Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.12﹐No.1.March 1989.

19.Piiilip C. Wingert and Chi-Hung Leung﹐〝The Development of Silver-Based Cadmium-Free Contact Materials〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.12﹐No.1﹐March 1989.

20.Werner Rieder﹐Senior Member﹐〝Make Erosion Mechanism of Ag/CdO and Ag/SnO2 Contacts〞IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.15﹐No.3﹐June 1992.

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24.Didier Jeannot﹐Jacques Pinard﹐Pinard﹐Pierre Ramoni﹐and Ernest M. Jost﹐Associate﹐〝Physical and Chemical Properties of Metal Oxide Additions to Ag-SnO2 Contact Materials and Predictions of Electrical Performance〞IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.1﹐March 1994.

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32.Ming Sun﹐Qiping Wang﹐Senior Member﹐〝The Model of Interaction Between Arc and Ag MeO Contact Materials 〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.3﹐September 1994.

33.Philip C. Wingert and Chi-Hung Leung﹐〝Comparison of the Inherent Arc Erosion Behaviors of Silver-Cadmium Oxide and Silver-Tin Oxide Contact Materials〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.Chmt-10﹐No.1﹐March 1987.

34.Kishio Arita﹐Koichi Fujiwara﹐Shigeyuki Tsurumi﹐and Goro Yamauchi﹐〝Eutectic Silver-Silicon Internally Oxidized Contacts〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.Chmt-4﹐No.1﹐March 1981.

35.Helmut Manhart and Werner Rieder﹐〝Erosion Behavior and Erodibilityof Ag/CdO and Ag/SnO2 Contacts Under AC 3 and AC 4 Test Conditions 〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.13﹐No.1﹐March 1990.

36.N.Ben Jemaa﹐Member﹐〝Anodic to Cathodic Arc Transition According to Break Arc Lengthening 〞﹐IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.21﹐No.4﹐December 1998.

37.Volker Behrens﹐Thomas Honig﹐Andreas Kraus﹐Roland Michal﹐Karl Saeger〝An Advanced Silver/Tin Oxide Contact Material〞﹐IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.1﹐March 1994.

38.Engelbert Hetzmannseder and Werner Rieder﹐Senior Member﹐〝The Influence of Bounce Parameters on the Make Erosion of Silver/Metal-Oxide Contact Materials〞﹐IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.1﹐March 1994.

39.Hugo Alberto Francisco and John L. Wallace﹐〝Effects of Cracks on Contacts Operating Under High Contact Force〞﹐IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.18﹐No.2﹐June 1995.

40.Kejian Wang and Qiping Wang﹐Senior Member﹐〝Erosion of Silver-Base Material Contacts by Breaking Arcs〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.14﹐No.2﹐June 1991.

41.Heloisa Cunha Furtado and Vera Lucia Antunes Da Silveira﹐〝Metallurgical Study of Ag-Cd and Ag-CdO Alloy Electrical Contacts〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.11﹐No.1﹐March 1988.

42.B.Gengenbach﹐Roland Michal﹐and Guenther Horn﹐〝Erosion Characteristics of Silver-Based Contact Materials In a DC Contactor〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.Chmt-8﹐No.1﹐March 1985.

43.Engelbert Hetzmannseder ﹐Member﹐〝Make-and-Break Erosion of Ag/MeO Contact Materials〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.19﹐No.3﹐September 1996.

44.Chi H. Leung﹐Member﹐〝Contact Erosion in Automotive DC Relays〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.14﹐No.1﹐March 1991.

45.Hideaki Sone﹐Member﹐Tasuku Takagi﹐〝Role of Metallic Phase Arc Erosion in Ag Contacts〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp.﹐Hybrids﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.13﹐No.1﹐March 1990.

46.J.W.McBride and S.M.A.Sharkh﹐〝The Effect of Contact Opening Velocity and the Moment of Contact Opening on the AC Erosion of Ag/CdO Contacts〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.1﹐March 1994.

47.N.Ben Jemaa﹐L. Doubiet﹐L. Morin﹐D. Jeannot﹐〝Break Arc Study for the New Electrical Level of 42 V in Automotive Applications〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 2001.

48.Jiang-Wen Wan & Ji-Gao Zhang Research Lab of Electric Contacts〝Adjustment State and Quasi Steady State of Structure and Composition of Ag-MeO Contacts by Breaking Arcs〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1998.

49.Laurent Morin﹐Nouredine Ben Jemaa﹐Dider Jeannot﹐Jacques Pinard﹐and Luc Nedelec﹐〝Contacts Materials Performances under Break Arc in Automotive Applications〞﹐IEEE Trans Comp.﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology﹐Vol.23﹐No.2﹐June 2000.

50.C. Lambert﹐D. Weber﹐S. Coupez﹐J.P. Guerlet Comptoir Lyon Alemand Louyot﹐〝A New Doped Silver Tin Oxide Material With Improved Electrical Behavior〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1989.

51.H.-H.Chung﹐R.-T.Lee and Y.–C.Chiou﹐〝Erosion mechanism of silver in a single arc discharge across a static gap〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 2002.

52.F.Hauner﹐Metalor Contacts Deutschland﹐Redwitz﹐Germany〝Advanced AgSnO2 Contact Materials for the Replacement of AgCdO in High Current Contactors〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 2000.

53.V.Behrens﹐Th.Honig﹐A.Kraus﹐R.Michal﹐N.Minkenberg﹐〝Performance of Different Types of Silver/Tin Oxide in Regard to Applications in Automotive Relays〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1996.

54.Rong Mingzhe ﹐Wang Qiping﹐〝Effects of Additives on The AgSnO2 Contacts Erosion Behavior〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1993.

55.Donald McDonnell﹐Jeffrey Gardencr﹐and Joseph Gondusky﹐〝Comparison of the Switching Behavior of Silver Metal Oxide Contact Materials〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1993.

56.V.Behrans﹐Th.Honig﹐A.Kraus﹐R.Michal﹐N.Minkenberg﹐K.E.Saeger﹐〝Application of a New Silver/Tin Oxide for Capacitive Loads〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1994.

57.V.Behrens﹐Th.Honig﹐A.Kraus﹐R.Michal﹐N.Minkenberg﹐〝Performance of Different Types of Silver/Tin Oxide in Regard to Applications in Automotive Relays〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 1996.

58.Zhuan-Ke Chen﹐〝Effect of Arc Behavior on Material Transfer A Review〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.21﹐No.2﹐June 1998.

59.Zhuan-Ke Chen﹐〝Contact Erosion Patterns of Pd Material in DC Breaking Arcs〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.17﹐No.1﹐March 1994.

60.N.Ben Jemaa﹐〝Anodic to Cathode Arc Transition According to Break Arc Lengthening 〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.21﹐No.4﹐December 1998.

61.Nouredine Ben Jemaa﹐〝Erosion and Contact Resistance Performance of Materials for Sliding Contacts Under Arcing〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐ Technologies﹐Vol.24﹐No.3﹐September 2001.

62.Jonathan Swingler and John W.McBride﹐〝The Erosion and Arc Characteristics of Ag/CdO and Ag/SnO2 Contact Materials Under DC Break Conditions 〞﹐ IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐and Manufacturing Technology-Part A﹐Vol.19﹐No.3﹐September 1996.

63.J.Swingler & J.W.McBride﹐〝A Comparison of the Erosion Arc Characteristics of Ag/SnO2 Contact Materials under DC Break Conditions〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 2002.

64.Chi Leung and Eric Streicher﹐〝Material Transfer in Dynamic Welding of Ag and Ag/SnO2 Contact Material〞﹐Conference on electric contact IEEE 2002.

65.N.Ben Jemaa﹐〝Transition form the Anode Arc Phase to the Cathode Metallic Arc Phase in Vacuum at Low DC Electrical Level〞﹐IEEE Trans. Comp﹒﹐Packaging﹐ Technologies﹐Vol.25﹐No.4﹐December 2002.

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