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研究生:鍾綉貞
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Chen Chung
論文名稱:半導體產業晶圓搬運能力影響因素之評估研究
論文名稱(外文):Evaluating Factors Affecting MAWL of Wafer Handling in Semiconductor Industry
指導教授:王茂駿王茂駿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mao-Jiun Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:晶圓搬運作業踩踏階梯數晶圓盒形式搬運距離搬運頻率搬運高度心理物理法生理量測
外文關鍵詞:Wafer handling tasksClimbing stairsPod typeCarrying distanceHandling frequencyHandling heightPsychophysical responsesPhysiological responses
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二十世紀末人類正式邁入數位資訊網路時代,舉凡資訊的產生、傳遞以及存取,莫不透過數位化網路方式進行。資訊的數位化,促使數位化產品,例如電腦、網路,以及提供數位服務的相關產業蓬勃發展,進一步地帶動國內半導體產業快速發展。隨著半導體產業的快速發展,操作人員罹患肌肉骨骼傷害的風險也隨之增高,因而,了解現有工作情境是否導致操作人員,面臨高肌肉骨骼傷害風險的重要因素,儼然已成為第一要務。因此,利用心理物理法評估不同的晶圓搬運情境下,操作人員最大搬運能力,是本研究的主要目的。為達成研究目標,本研究以三個個別實驗探討不同效應的方式進行,在每個實驗過程中,除收集受試者最大可接受搬運重量外,也收集受試者的心跳、耗氧量、手腕姿勢以及施力知覺衡量。
第一個與第二個實驗針對八吋晶圓廠的晶圓搬運作業進行評估,第一個實驗主要著重於評估三種晶圓盒形式與兩種搬運距離,對操作人員的最大可搬運重量的影響,並檢視晶圓廠內實際搬運的最大重量的安全性,同時評估現場所用之晶圓盒的把手設計。
第二個實驗則以階梯及晶圓盒形式以及操作人員性別等因素,其各種不同組合下,探討操作人員的最大可搬運重量,檢視晶圓廠內實際搬運的最大重量的安全性,同時評估階梯級數對晶圓搬運能力的影響。
第三個實驗則就十二吋晶圓廠,探討不同搬運高度與搬運頻率下, 操作人員的最大可搬運重量為主要評估重點,並對推車高度設計提出建議。
第一個實驗結果顯示,晶圓盒形式顯著影響,受試者最大可接受搬運重量與手腕姿勢,對心搏率與施力知覺衡量影響則不明顯。 使用新型晶圓盒,受試者能接受的最大搬運重量最重,搬運時手腕尺偏情形最輕,相較於其他晶圓盒形式,橈偏情形較嚴重。
由第二個實驗結果得知,最大可接受搬運重量與耗氧量,明顯受受試者踩踏的階梯影響,階梯數愈多,受試者的最大可接受搬運重量愈輕。相反地,耗氧量愈大。此外,實驗結果也發現,男女受試者的最大可接受搬運重量、耗氧量與手腕姿勢顯著不同;不同晶圓盒形式,導致手腕姿勢顯著不同。
如同過去其他學者的研究結果一樣,搬運頻率與搬運高度顯著影響最大可接受搬運重量與心搏率。當搬運高度在90-125,受試者最大可接受搬運重量與心搏率最低. 就手腕姿勢而言,搬運高度效應是顯著的,相反地,搬運頻率效應並不顯著。
Although the semiconductor industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, especially in Taiwan this industry has entered 12-inch wafer era, the risk of muscloskeletal injuries has increased as well. For 8-inch wafer, this study was designed to evaluate the MAWL for 12 hours dynamically wafer-handling task in different combinations of climbing stairs, pod (8-inch wafer container) type, carrying distance and gender, to evaluate the safety of the maximal handling weight in the fab, and to evaluate the two pods’ handle design. For 12-inch wafer, this study focused on evaluating the MAWL for 12 hours dynamically wafer-handling task in the combinations of handling frequency and handling height, and setting the cart height for carrying FOUP, 12-inch wafer container. A psychophysical approach was employed. The operator''s heart rate, oxygen consumption, wrist posture, and ratings of perceived exertion were measured in each experiment session. Three experiments were designed and executed for this study. Pod type and carrying distance were investigated in the first experiment (Experiment I) and the second experiment (Experiment II) focused on climbing stairs and pod type. For evaluating the effect of handling frequency and handling height on the ability of 12-inch dynamically wafer-handling task, two factors were assigned to third experiment (Experiment III).
For the first experiment, a total of six sessions (3 pod type ´ 2 carrying distance) were conducted by each of the 16 subjects. The results of the first experiment indicate that pod type had significant effect on MAWL and wrist posture, but not on heart rate, wrist RPE and whole body RPE. Applying the new pod induced the lowest ulnar deviation, the highest radial deviation and the greatest MAWL.
For the second experiment, a total of six sessions (3 climbing stairs ´ 2 pod types) were conducted by each of the 12 subjects (6 males and 6 females). The results of the second experiment indicate that climbing stairs had significant influence on MAWL and VO2. The MAWL declined with the increased number of climbing stairs. Conversely, the VO2 increased with the increased number of climbing stairs. The pod type effect on wrist posture was significant. The gender differences on MAWL, VO2 and wrist posture were also significant.
For third experiment, a total of six sessions (3 handling heights ´ 2 handling frequencies) were conducted by each of the 24 female subjects. The results of the third experiment indicate that handling frequency and handling height had significant influence on MAWL and HR. The smallest MAWL and HR appeared at 90/125. There is no significant difference in MAWL between 90/90 and 90/35. Handling height effect on wrist posture was significant, but no handling frequency effect on wrist posture. The findings of this study can provide useful information for the designs of handles of pod and wafer handling jobs and cart height.
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌 謝 V
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS VI
TABLE OF CONTENT VII
TABLE LIST XII
FIGURE LIST XIV
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING TASK 1
1.2 FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WAFER HANDLING TASK 4
1.2.1 Container 4
1.2.2 Carrying Distance 6
1.2.3 Climbing Stair 7
1.2.3.1 Climbing Stair Activity 8
1.2.3.2 Stair Design 8
1.2.3.3 Stairs in Fabs 10
1.3 RESPONSES FOR EVALUATING WAFER HANDLING TASK 11
1.3.1 Psychophysical Measures 11
1.3.1.1 Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lifting (MAWL) 11
1.3.1.2 Ratings of Perceive Exertion (RPE) 14
1.3.2 Physiological Measures 15
1.3.2.1 Heart Rate 16
1.3.2.2 Oxygen Consumption 17
1.4 THE PURPOSES AND FRAMEWORK OF THIS STUDY 18
1.4.1 The Purposes of This Study 18
1.4.2 The Framework of This Study 18
CHAPTER 2 METHOD 26
2.1 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 26
2.2 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 27
2.2.1 Acquainted Phase 28
2.2.2 Anthropometric Phase 28
2.2.3 Training Phase 28
2.2.4 Experimental Phase 29
2.2.5 Data Processing Phase 30
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENT I: EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF POD TYPE ON MAWL FOR DIFFERENT WAFER HANDLING TASK 34
3.1 SUBJECT 34
3.2 EXPERIMENT DESIGN 35
3.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38
3.3.1 Pod Type 38
3.3.2 Carrying Distance 40
3.4 CONCLUSIONS 41
CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENT II: EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF CLIMBING STAIRS, POD TYPE AND GENDER ON PSYCHOPHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS 49
4.1 SUBJECT 49
4.2 EXPERIMENT DESIGN 50
4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 53
4.3.1 Climbing Stairs 53
4.3.2 Pod Type 54
4.3.3 Gender 56
4.4 CONCLUSION 58
CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENT III: EVALUATING THE MANUAL HANDLING CAPABILITY FOR 300MM WAFERS 67
5.1 SUBJECT 67
5.2 EXPERIMENT DESIGN 68
5.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 71
5.3.1 Handling Height 71
5.3.2 Handling Frequency 72
5.4 CONCLUSIONS 74
CHAPTER 6 RESULTS, DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 81
6.1 RESULT COMPARISONS 81
6.1.1 Anthropometrical Data 81
6.1.2 Response Variables 82
6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 84
REFERENCE 88
APPENDIX 1 施力知覺評量(RPE) 95
APPENDIX 2 實驗同意書與個人資料 96
APPENDIX 3 心物法指導語 99
APPENDIX 4 THE ANOVA RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT I 100
APPENDIX 5 THE ANOVA RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT II 103
APPENDIX 6 THE ANOVA RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT III 108
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