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研究生:黃允良
研究生(外文):Yun-Liang Huang
論文名稱:金屬化學機械平坦化之終點監測
論文名稱(外文):Endpoint Detection for Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization
指導教授:賀陳弘賀陳弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hong Hocheng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:化學機械平坦化終點監測研磨墊溫度聲射訊號
外文關鍵詞:Chemical Mechanical PlanarizationEndpoint DetectionPad TemperatureAcoustic Emission
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在深次微米半導體製程中,隨著晶圓尺寸和金屬層數目的增加,對於晶圓表面全面平坦化的需求更加殷切。化學機械平坦化(Chemical Mechanical Planarization)被認為是達到該目標的重要技術。其中準確的製程終點量測及監測方法可以降低產品的差異性,改進良率以及產能。在化學機械平坦化的製程中,由於晶圓面完全向下靠在研磨墊上,使得對晶圓拋光的監測非常困難。過去幾年中提出了包括光學、電學、聲學或振動、熱學、摩擦力、化學或電化學的監測方式以及其他的方式。絕大部分提出的方法需要對機台進行外型和管線上的修改,有些則只能安裝在特定形式的機台上,因此仍需要開發出一種準確而且容易使用的終點監測方法。
在金屬化學機械平坦化的製程中,所謂的製程終點是當介電層上的金屬薄膜被完全地移除,只留下填充在介層孔中的金屬。在本研究中,吾人根據晶圓和研磨墊之間的運動方式,推導出研磨墊溫度分析模型。該模型可用來預測研磨墊的溫度分佈,並可以更清楚地瞭解晶圓表面的研磨情況。同時也分析了製程中的聲射訊號。金屬化學機械平坦化的製程終點可以同時利用這兩種方法或單一方法準確地判斷出來。
As the number of metal levels and the wafer size increase, the need for global planarity across the wafer becomes more crucial. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is considered the key technique to achieve this goal. Accurate in-situ endpoint detection and monitoring method can reduce the product variance, improve the yield and throughput. During CMP process, the wafer is brought downward against the polishing pad completely. The monitoring of the wafer polishing in such a configuration becomes a difficult task. Many methods have been proposed in the past years, including optical, electrical, acoustical/ vibrational, thermal, frictional, chemical/electrochemical methods and others. Many of them require the rearrangement of the machine configuration and wiring. Some can only be implanted on certain types of machines. An accurate and easy in-situ monitoring and endpoint detection method is desired.
An endpoint in a metal CMP process is considered as the time when the metal film above the dielectric layer is fully removed, only the metal filled in the vias is remained. In this study, a pad thermal analysis model is derived according to the kinematic between the wafer and the pad. The model is capable of predicting the thermal distribution on the pad, and the polishing condition on wafer surface can be better understood. The acoustic emission signal during polishing process is also analyzed. One or two of these methods can detect the endpoint of the metal CMP process.
CONTENT I
FIGURE CAPTIONS IV
TABLE CAPTIONS XI
NOMENCLATURE XII
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Chemical Mechanical Planarization 1
1.2 Process Features 2
1.2.1 Dielectric Process 2
1.2.2 Metal ocess 3
1.3 In-situ Monitoring and Endpoint Detection During CMP 5
1.4 Problem Statement 5
Chapter Two Literature Review Of Monitoring In CMP 16
2.1 Monitoring Techniques In CMP Process 16
2.1.1 Optical Methods 16
2.1.2 Electrical Methods 18
2.1.3 Acoustic/Vibrational Methods 19
2.1.4 Thermal Methods 20
2.1.5 Frictional Methods 21
2.1.6 Chemical/Electrochemical Methods 21
2.1.7 Miscellaneous Methods 22
2.1.8 Analysis of Monitoring Techniques 22
2.2 Future Trend 23
Chapter Three Experimental Methods 37
3.1 CMP Equipment 37
3.2 Experimental Materials and Parameters 38
3.3 Thermal Image System 39
3.4 Acoustic Emission System 39
3.4.1 Experimental Setup for Acoustic Emission 39
3.4.2 Preliminary Test 41
Chapter Four Principle of Thermal Detection Method 49
4.1 Kinematics Analysis in CMP 49
4.2 Endpoint Monitoring 53
Chapter Five Experimental Results of Thermal Detection 60
5.1 Pad Temperature Measurement 60
5.2 Analysis of Pad Temperature Distribution 61
5.3 Thermal Endpoint Detection 62
Chapter Six Experimental Results of Acoustic Emission 87
6.1 Acoustic Emission Signals 88
6.2 Experimental Results 89
6.3 Acoustic Endpoint Detection 90
Chapter Seven Conclusions and Recommendation for Future Research 96
7.1 Conclusion 96
7.2 Recommendation for Future Research 98
Reference 99
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