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研究生:吳中如
研究生(外文):Chung-Ju Wu
論文名稱:可變組態數位訊號處理器之編譯器設計
論文名稱(外文):Compilers for Configurable DSP Processors
指導教授:李政崑石維寬石維寬引用關係黃元欣黃元欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenq-Kuen LeeWei-Kuan ShihYuan-Shin Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:編譯器系統目的機器描述機制編譯器移植暫存器轉換與傳輸語言數位訊號處理器架構
外文關鍵詞:Compiler SystemMachine DescriptionCompiler PortingRegister Transfer LanguageDSP Processors Architecture
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在現今的時代中,數位訊號處理器扮演著很重要的角色。許多的業界公司都以某些
熟知的數位訊號處理器為基礎來發展他們自己的數位訊號處理器架構。然而,這些
架構的設計可能會影響編譯器的設計。在這篇論文中,我們介紹移植編譯器的模型
還有硬體架構與編譯器的關係。我們也提出一些方案來設法解決可能發生的問題。
在分析數位訊號處理器的架構時,我們發現某些延伸架構會為編譯器帶來極大的衝
擊。它會造成嚴重的問題以至於我們無法簡單地為新的架構來移植編譯器。對於這
些問題的解決方案可以分成硬體和軟體兩方面。硬體方面就是要去修改架構的設計
以配合程式設計的概念。而軟體方面是要從編譯器的前端和後端去處理。前端控制
了RTL產生方式的規則,唯一修改的方式就是修改原始程式碼。此外,Machine Description
是屬於後端的部份,它控制了RTL轉換方式的規則。我們必須要修改在Machine Description
的內容,還有新增額外的巨集來支援指令集的展開。
在實驗中,我們假設一個新的硬體架構,而此架構是延伸自ADSP 2181這顆數位訊
號處理器。我們嘗試為此架構來移植編譯器。在移植的過程中,我們遭遇了我們之
前提到的狀況。我們應用我們的解決方案來重新編譯一份新的數位訊號處理器編譯
器。而最後我們將以這份新的編譯器來測試許多GCC的測試樣本,並取得相關的統
計數據。

DSP processors play an important role in present days. With different purpose, many
IC-design houses could extend DSP architectures based on existing DSP processors.
However, those architecture extensions may influence a lot on compiler design. In this
thesis, we introduce the compiler model for portability and the interaction between
architecture and compiler. We also propose the solution to solve the possible issues.
Analyzing several DSP architectures, we found that some extensions would carry much
impact on compiler. It causes serious problems so that we cannot do the porting easily.
We use GNU GCC code generation as an example scenario. The solution to the problem is to
focus on both hardware and software design. On hardware aspect, we have to change the
design of the architectures in order to coordinate with programming model. On software
aspect, it should deal with both front-end and back-end of the compiler. Front-end
controls the RTL-generation rule and the only way to change it is to modify source codes.
Besides, Machine Description is the back-end which controls the RTL-transformation rule.
We have to change the components inside the Machine Description and add extra macros to
support instruction expansion when needed.
With the experiment, we assume that there is a new architecture derived from ADSP 2181.
Then we try to migrate compilers for the derived architecture. In the process of
migration, we experience the situation we mentioned above. We apply our solution to build
a particular DSP compiler. Finally, we gather experiments and several statistics from GCC
test patterns and benchmarks by using this new DSP compiler. This study will allow
architecture designers to realize the impact they will make on compilers for the
extension to their architectures.

Acknowlegements
Abstract
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
1.Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Thesis Overview
2.GNU C Compiler and Porting Mechanism
2.1 The Compiler System
2.2 The GNU C Compiler
2.2.1 The Compiler Parts
2.3 GCC Porting Mechanism
2.3.1 Instruction Patterns - target.md
2.3.2 Target Macros - target.h, target.c
3.Port to DSP Architecture
3.1 ADSP-21xx-like DSP architecture
3.1.1 ADSP 21xx architecture overview
3.1.2 ADSP 21xx core architecture
3.1.3 ADSP 21xx registers
3.1.4 ADSP 21xx memory
3.1.5 ADSP 21xx instruction set
3.2 Reconfigurable VLIW DSP architecture
3.2.1 Reconfigurable VLIW architecture overview
3.2.2 VLIW part
3.2.3 Reconfigurable Part
3.3 Issues on architecture extension
3.3.1 Registers
3.3.2 Endian convention
3.3.3 Storage and Data width
3.3.4 Memory Addressing Space
4.Experimental Result
4.1 Benchmarking of DSP Hardware and Software
4.2 ADSP-oriented benchmarking methodology
4.3 Experiment
5.Conclusion
5.1 Summary
5.2 Future Work

[Stal 92]{stal92} Richard M Stallman
"Using and Porting GNU C Compiler"
[Nilsson 00]{nilsson00} Hans-Peter Nilsson
"Porting GCC for Dunces"
(get from ftp://ftp.axis.se/pub/users/hp/pgccfd/)
[Mike 97]{mike97} Mike Loukides, Andy Oram
"Programming with GNU Software" O'REILLY, 1997.
[K\&R C]{krc} Kernighan, Richie
"The C Programming Language", second edition. Prentice-Hall 1988.
[Norman]{norman} Norman Ramsey, Jack W. Davidson, Mary F. Fernandez
"Design Principles for Machine-Description Languages"
[make]{make} Various. Do "man make" to find out. Should be on your Unix-like system. The "info" pages %%@
of GNU make are available on the WWW at various sites.
[ADSP 92]{adsp92} Analog Devices Inc.
"Digital Signal Processing Applications Using the ADSP-2100 Family", Vol. I, 1992
[ADSP 95]{adsp95} Analog Devices Inc.
"ADSP-2100 Family User's Manual", 1995
[Hsu 03]{hsu03} Hung-Ming Hsu
"Practi-Tecture: A platform for Evaluating Processor Designs", 2003
[DSPstone]{dspstone} Vojin Zivojnovic, Juan Martinez Velarde, Christian Schlager and Heinrich Meyr
Integrated Systems for Signal Processing,
Aachen University of Technology,
Templergraben 55, 52056-Aachen, Germany,
"DSPSTONE: A DSP-oriented benchmarking methodology"

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