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研究生:楊凱超
研究生(外文):Kai Chao Yang
論文名稱:串流視訊之多功能GOP結構設計
論文名稱(外文):Restructuring GOP for Streaming Video
指導教授:王家祥
指導教授(外文):Jia Shung Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:51
中文關鍵詞:GOP傳流視訊視訊隨選系統VCR功能錯誤回復
外文關鍵詞:GOPstreaming videoVOD systemsVCR functionalityerror resilience
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本篇論文藉由改變GOP(Group of Pictures)中不同畫面間的編碼相依性來重建出數種新型的GOP結構。在傳統GOP結構中,除了單獨壓縮的第一張畫面外,每張畫面(frame)與前一張均有編碼上的相依性,因此不論使用者要求存取一個GOP中的任何一張畫面,在此之前的所有畫面也必須被傳送並解碼。當觀眾進行快轉(Fast Forward Scan)或跳躍(Jump)等VCR動作時,雖然只有少數的畫面被顯示,卻仍需傳送整個GOP的畫面並解碼,且為了能讓每張被要求的畫面及時播放,傳送速度必須符合使用者所觀看的倍率。在視訊串流的環境下,如存在大量使用者同時向伺服器要求VCR動作,將造成伺服器及網路過量的負擔,而其中大部分被傳送的資訊卻是多餘的。在本篇論文中,我們重新架構整個GOP,將GOP中不同畫面間的編碼相依性重新組合,使其在進行VCR動作時,不需傳送多餘的畫面,因此使用者可以一般傳送速度來觀看各種不同倍率的播放,以達到平衡伺服器負擔及節省網路頻寬的功能。
此外,本文所提的結構亦支援錯誤回復(Error Resilience)功能,在普通播放速度的情形下,因網路狀況不佳所造成的封包遺失或損毀,我們可以在不需有任何回傳資訊(Feedback Information)的條件下,重建相似的移動(motion)及像素資訊,並防止因畫面間的相依性所造成的錯誤增值(Error Propagation)。

In this thesis, we present several novel GOP (Group of Pictures) structures by reorganizing the coding dependencies among frames in a GOP. In the conventional GOP structure, each frame except I-frame is predicted by the previous one. Once any of these frames is requested, we need to transmit not only the requested frame, but also all frames before the target frame. Therefore, when a client performs VCR operations such as Fast Forward Scan (FFS) or Jump, there may be only few frames for display, but all frames in a GOP have to be sent and decoded. Besides, the transmission rate of these frames needs corresponding to the playback rate so that every required frame can be shown on the screen in time. Consider the video streaming systems, if numerous users request for VCR operations at the same time, it may cause heavy server load. However, most of these transmitted data are redundant but inevitable. In our GOP structures, no redundant frame will be transmitted in most of cases when a VCR operation is performed. Thus even for the VCR operations with a high-speed factor, the server still sends data at normal transmission rate. The video server load and network bandwidth can significantly reduce as well.
In addition, the proposed structures also provide error resilient mechanism. Similar motion or pixel information can be reconstructed without feedback information if packet loss or packet damage occurs during transmission. And error propagation phenomenon caused by coding dependencies among frames will reduce as well.

Chapter 1. Introduction...1
Chapter 2. VCR Functionality and Video Error Resilience...3
2.1 VCR Functionality on Streaming Video...3
2.1.1 GOP-Skipping-Based Dynamic Transmission Scheme...5
2.1.2 Dual Bitstreams with Least-Cost Frame Selection...6
2.1.3 VCR Functionality in Staggered Broadcasting...7
2.1.4 The Split and Merge (SAM) Protocol...9
2.1.5 Single-Rate Multicast Double-Rate Unicast (SRMDRU) Scheme...11
2.2 Video Error Resilience...11
2.2.1 Interleaved Packetization...12
2.2.2 Independent Segment Prediction...12
2.2.3 Reference Picture Selection Based on Feedback Information (RPS)...13
Chapter 3. GOP Model of VCR Functionality...15
3.1 Playback Sequences...15
3.2 Optimal Coding Dependencies for an Allocated Playback Sequence...15
3.3 Feasibility Model of Optimality for VCR Functionality...16
3.4 Restriction of the Reference Distance...18
3.5 Proximity Approximation...19
Chapter 4. Restructuring GOP Algorithms with No Redundant Referring Information...21
4.1 A Simple Example...21
4.2 Restructuring Algorithms with Minimum Cost...22
4.2.1 Greedy Tree Structure...22
4.2.2 Double-Binary Tree Structure...25
Chapter 5. Redundant Referring Information on Conventional GOP Structure ...28
5.1 Restructuring Algorithm of Extended GOP...28
5.2 Transmit All Motion Information in Extended GOP...30
5.3 Transmit Only Conventional Motion Information in Extended GOP...32
Chapter 6. Experimental Results...33
Chapter 7. Conclusions and Future Works...39
References...41

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[3]The NTHU streaming platform, http://vod.cs.nthu.edu.tw.
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