(3.235.25.169) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/18 04:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:徐明
研究生(外文):Hsu Ming
論文名稱:關懷倫理作為現代公民道德基礎之研究--深入多元領域民間團體志工的服務人生
論文名稱(外文):A study on building a sound basis of civic morality with an ethic of care - profiling the diverse lifetime volunteering by private volunteering groups
指導教授:賈馥茗賈馥茗引用關係何英奇何英奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fu-Ming ChiaYing-ChyiHo
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:公民教育與活動領導學系
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:223
中文關鍵詞:關懷倫理公民道德公民道德教育志工民間團體
外文關鍵詞:ethics of carecivic moralitymoral education of citizensvolunteer workersprivate organizations
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:24
  • 點閱點閱:359
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
本研究的宗旨在了解志工服務經驗與他們道德思考、行為發展的歷程,藉由對志工的服務生活經驗的了解,探討分析志工參與公領域服務所經歷的道德衝突與抉擇。除了重視志工個人在服務歷程中的認知、情意、責任、行為等的獨特經驗,也重視現代志工參與關懷社會工作的組織影響力。同時,本研究亦嘗試探索男女志工在服務工作中應用與表現「關懷倫理」的內涵,藉以論證「關懷倫理」作為公民道德基礎的合理性。並將女志工公領域參與經驗及公私兼顧的道德衝突放在一個更大的文化脈絡中檢視,增加對現代女志工公民參與及公民道德體現的了解。
本研究性質涉及志工長期、動態、變化的成長歷程,也涉及對志工主觀的內在知覺及外顯現象背後意義的詮釋,因此適合採用質性研究方法。由於希望經由志工親口敘述他們的觀察、體驗與感受,包括他們的成長與改變,決定以「深入訪談」作為收集資料的主要方法。訪談採非結構式的開放方式,著重創造一個自然、真誠、信任的交談氣氛。對女志工更以一種姊妹情誼的女性訪談方式,平等且親密的的進行「同理」了解。訪談過程中研究者與受訪者都可以自由的表達個人感覺,使訪談具有誠實、道德、可信任且實在的特性。
本研究在受訪志工的選取方面,採用「立意取樣」模式,也就是以個案對本研究問題可以提供豐富資料的程度為原則。本研究共訪問了9位男女志工,由於女性參與社會服務的比率遠高於男性,因此男志工不易尋訪,不過參加本研究的男志工人數雖少(2位),提供的資料卻很豐富。依據選取標準,本研究受訪志工都至少擔任志工7年,超過10年的佔大多數(7位)。受訪志工服務領域包括消費者保護、環保、醫療、租屋、燒燙傷者、孤獨老人、及宗教慈善團體等,其中少數志工所參與的宗教團體服務工作項目呈多元化。此外,受訪志工的教育程度、籍貫、婚姻狀況等含有相當的異質性。
本研究在資料收集方面有5個方向(1)深度訪談,約3小時左右,訪談予以錄音,訪談後將錄音帶加以謄錄為逐字稿。(2)書面文獻資料的收集,即有關志工個人及服務組織之出版資料。(3)非正式談話紀錄為正式訪談外的非正式接觸或談話紀錄。(4)實地觀察筆記是關於訪談場域的環境及偶發事件的紀錄。(5)分析筆記是對訪談資料主題或故事線的架構藍圖。在資料的分析方面,本研究採詮釋循環的方法,先由對文本的開放與融合開始,接著進入對文本的深度理解,此階段包括9步驟,再進入辯證的理解及詮釋經驗的反思階段,最後以深度描寫方式呈現。
本研究在重要結果發現方面分三部份,第一部份是關於影響志工獻身服務的生活與環境條件。在重要人物影響方面,早期有關懷民主、熱心助人的父母影響很大,其次是老師及服務夥伴影響。在特殊環境方面,開放熱誠的家庭有助於培養兒童較大認同感。最一致的環境影響來自志工的服務組織,它提供志工學習、歸屬感、反思三種功能。在服務的轉捩點方面,男志工多基於生涯計劃,女志工多受特殊生命事件的影響。
第二部份為關懷倫理的道德思考與行為發展。本研究發現所有志工都具有「關懷思考」,卻不是所有志工都具有「正義思考」。多數志工呈現兩種思考並用的現象,研究結果顯示兩種思考都有助於服務工作,也都是志工服務的必要經驗。在道德衝突方面,本研究發現女志工道德衝突核心有兩類:自私與對他人的責任、和諧關係的維持與自我犧牲。女志工的成熟道德表現在於道德考慮能同時包含自己與他人的需要。男志工在解決道德衝突方面,宜加入關懷的思考,避免忽略特定對象的需求。
在人生觀價值觀方面,志工都能滿足於基本物質生活,多餘的時間用來服務助人,追求精神的價值,顯示較一般人能體認「群我」關係及人類互愛、互賴的重要性。基於服務的相互性,志工都從服務中獲得豐富回報,在個人方面獲得成長、能力增進、自我價值的提昇等。在生活方面,體驗助人的快樂與感動,且提供子女有利的楷模環境。同時也肯定自己的付出有助於社會正向發展與「正義社會」的實現。志工在服務挫折中的堅持力量來自(一)要成為「自己認為應該有的美好形象」,如做一個關懷者、助人者、愛人者。(二)自己所抱持的「道德理想」如正義社會、裡運大同、歡喜社區等,這些都是志工責任感、義務感的來源。
第三部分為志工公民自發的結合與組織力量。研究發現志工加入民間組織各有不同的動機、興趣與需求,但都出自「自主性」的抉擇。現代民間團體重視與平行團體合作,富有集合多元資源與分工的時代服務趨勢,合作方式亦具機動性及多元化。吸引女志工的組織因素有:人性化領導、成員間平等互賴、民主支持氣氛、提供多元化接觸、不計利害及重視團隊合作的組織文化。女志工的公領域參與面對家庭與服務雙重工作負擔或取捨兩難,「私領域」的兩性平權問題有待政府、社會正視。女志工認為女性社會服務表現出優質公民道德,即具有「關懷倫理」的公民道德實踐精神與效能,對社會的貢獻不可忽視。
本研究重要結論扼要分為4方面(一)培養承諾於服務的關懷公民最主要的有利條件為:周遭關懷成人的影響,及一個團體能滿足學習、歸屬感與反思三種需求。成人在這其中的責任及創造有利學習的特殊環境是重要的啟示。(二)男女志工都具有關懷思考,女志工的道德衝突與抉擇具有「感性」、「情意」的關懷倫理特性,服務行為表現植根於關懷倫理基礎上的「愛」與「責任」,說明「關懷倫理」作為主流道德之外一個重要公民道德標準的等同價值。(三)女性「關懷思考」模式影響她們參與公領域事務會尋求下列的組織特性:具有支持鼓勵的學習氣氛、採用和平方式的改善社會行動、偏愛合作而非競爭的組織效能、尋求夥伴間情感互賴與親密的互動、組織有家的感覺、不計利害重視團隊精神等。這些吸引女志工的組織特性,反映了現代民主社會所需的公民道德特質。(四)建議公民道德教育透過社區(社會)服務、實際生活中的關懷活動加以落實,設計符合合作、多元、反思、相互特性的專業服務課程與活動,使「關懷倫理」透過經驗教育紮根於生活,以期待21世紀所需要的關懷公民長成。
The purpose of study aims to gain insight into the volunteers’ volunteering experience, their moral disciplinary perspectives, and the process leading to their behavioral development in a move to examine some of the morality conflicts and choice that the volunteers undergo in partaking public endowment related volunteering services. More than focusing on the volunteers’ cognitive perception, devotion, sense of responsibility and behaviors manifested, the thesis also intends to weigh the organizational influence that draws the modern day volunteers to partake worthy social endowment work. In conjunction to which, the study also attempts to profile the implementation of volunteering work by male and female volunteers and the very essence how such an ethic of care is put to work, with which to validate the rationale of incorporating an ethic of care for developing a sound basis in civic morality. A further exploration has been to examine the experience of volunteering by female volunteer workers to certain morality conflicts arisen from their volunteer work and their private lives to a greater context of cultural implications with which to bring to light the willingness to participate in volunteering work by modern day female volunteers and a manifestation of building a sound civic morality.
The nature of the study, inferring the volunteers’ long-term, interactive and intermittent changes in their growth process, but also how the volunteers view their work through their inward cognition and how they interpret the significance of their work, has had the qualitative research method being chosen. And in support of the intended design for polling the volunteers’ observation, experience and perception through their oral narration, including their perception of growth and intermittent changes, an in-depth interview approach has been chosen as the primary means for collecting data. The interview takes the form of non-structured open mode that aims to achieve an unpretentious, integral and trusting conversational atmosphere. Particularly with female volunteers, a sorority-like interview means has been sought in search of a shared intimacy and assimilation. In the interview process, both the interviewer and the interviewee are free to express their own feelings, essential for instilling the interview with an honest, integral, trustworthy and dependable characteristic.
The study’s volunteer interviewee screening has taken to a representative sampling mode, meaning that individuals with the most level of hands-on experience to offer are chosen as a general principle. With this, the study has chosen a total of nine volunteers of a mix of male and female, yet in light that male volunteer workers are harder to come by since females are traditionally more involved in volunteer work, leaving only a small male volunteer representation of two has been recruited but not without their sharing of insightful experience. Based on the screening criteria, the volunteers chosen for interview by the study would have been in the volunteer work for at least seven years, with a majority, seven of them, exceeding a total of ten years. The domains where the selected volunteers come from consist of the realms of consumer protection, environmental protection, medical care, housing rental, burnt victim aids, solitary senior care, religious charitable groups and such, and among them, a small number of the volunteers whose religious charity organizations are found to offer a diverse range of volunteering services. Besides this, a significant disparity has also been observed in the selected volunteers’ education, ancestral origin, marital status and such.
In data collecting, the study stakes to five directions: (1) In-depth interviews with each lasting around three hours, where the interview is tape recorded and the interview tape transcribed into written text; (2) Gathering of written archival data pertaining to the volunteer workers’ individual data and data published by their respective volunteering organizations; (3) non-formal conversation records, which pertain to notes documenting informal contact and conversation notes beyond the formal interview; (4) Field observation notes that pertain to notes on the setting in which the interview takes place among other incidentals; (5) Analytical notes, which serve to map out a structural blueprint on the central theme of the interview data and the storyline. In data analysis, the study takes to an interpretive repetition method by broaching from the study’s opening and integration, followed by a nine-step process for in-depth interpretation before a reverse validation process is applied to interpret the established argument and interpret the experiences provided, and then a final in-depth summation is then concluded.
Some of the significant findings as concluded by the study can be divided into three aspects: The foremost concerns the lifestyle and economics that afford a volunteer to devote himself/herself to the volunteer work. Under which, when rated by influence of key figures, most omnipresent has been the early stage’s parental influence of care, democracy and enthusiasm, followed by that of mentors and volunteer associates. And when rated by specifics in family setting, growing up in an open and enthusiastic family has been regarded as instrumental in culminating the children to share the value perspectives. A most consistent environmental determinant has been the volunteering organization in which the volunteer works for how it provides a volunteer with three crucial functions — learning, a sense of belongingness and reflection. When rated by the turning point of their volunteer work, the male volunteers tend to attribute it to career planning, while the female volunteers tend to be influenced by specific exceptional events in their lives.
A second aspect pertains to the moral thinking and behavioral development behind the ethic of care. The study has found that all the volunteers possess a caring thinking but not necessary all volunteers profess a justice thinking. While a majority of the volunteers demonstrated the phenomenon of combining the two, the study findings do support that both types of the thinking perspectives are not only inducive of volunteer work but also an essential experience to volunteer’s volunteer work. In the area of moral conflict, the study found the core of moral conflicts in female volunteers comes in two: selfishness vs. the responsibility for others, and maintaining a harmonious relationship vs. self-sacrifice. A more mature moral manifestation among the female volunteers is seen as a plus in better addressing to the needs of their own and that of others in moral weighing. While it is recommendable that male volunteers be able to incorporate an ethic of care when assisting in conflict resolution and best avoid overlooking the needs of a specific individual.
In gauging their lifetime value perspectives, the volunteers are generally satisfied with the basic material desire with time to spare in helping out others, and have, in their pursuits of spirituality, demonstrated a higher level of awareness in group-individual relations, a greater human love and mutual trust than the general population. In their intend to volunteer, the volunteers unanimously responded with how they are rewarded in the course of volunteering for how they have benefited from personal growth, improved skills, improved self-value perspectives and so froth, and in practical living a chance to experience the joy, motion of helping others, and beneficial in setting up a good example to their offspring, taking comfort in knowing what they have contributed has in someway helped the society positively in building moral righteousness. In heeding to their perseverance to help, the strength that the volunteers derive from in sustaining their perseverance comes from, (1) the desire to attain what one regards as an ideal image of a caring, helping and loving individual; (2) a chance to realize one’s ideology for a justice society, world peace, community care and such, which all serve to fuel the volunteers with a sense of responsibility and obligation.
A third perspective pertains to the voluntary citizen solidarity and organizational strength of the volunteers. The study revealed that while there are different motives, draws and needs for volunteering in private organizations, the choice, nevertheless, has consistently been voluntary. The modern day’s private organizations are increasingly focusing on collaborating with their peer organizations and are often embellished with diverse resources by collective efforts and led by a timely volunteering trend of task sharing, with means of collaboration to be flexible and encompassing. Yet noticeably, what draws female volunteers in organizational determinants lie in humanized leadership, the mutual trust that bonds the members, a democratic support atmosphere, a chance for diverse exposure, and an organizational culture emphasizing on collective uncalculating teamwork efforts. While the female volunteers’ involvement in worthy public service faces the dilemma of having to shoulder to choose between their families and their volunteer work, while privately their having to tackle the issue sexual equality remains an issue to be confronted by the society and the government. Reaffirmed by the female volunteers is how female social volunteering showcases a preferred civic morality, except how female civic morality comes to play as a unique charter of the females or the product of a subservient cultural is something to be further scrutinized. In all, the drive and efficiency that female volunteers contribute in fulfilling their civic morality of an ethic of care is something that hardly can be ignored for its invaluable social contribution.
Some of the study’s crucial findings can be recapped into four, (1) culminating one’s commitment to become a caring citizen serves as a powerful environmental factor: In every stage of children’s development, having caring and public endowment prone adults who devote to public service can best address and a place can fulfill one’s desire to learn, reflect and realize a sense of belongingness; (2) with both the male and female volunteers all professing an ethic of care , the female volunteers’ moral conflicts and choice are dictated by the characteristics of an ethic of care in sensuality and emotions, and the manifestation of whose volunteering acts developed upon a caring premise of love and responsibility also helps to explain how the caring morality continues to dictate the criteria of civic morality with dynamic values; (3) The ethic of care mode prevailing among the female volunteers does dictate how they choose to partake communal affairs in the public domain as they tend to seek the following organizational traits — one that encourages a learning atmosphere, and has an agenda for influencing the society with peaceful means, where the organization favors cooperation rather than competition in attaining its organizational goals, identifies peer bond, confidence and offers a liberated, safe and warm feeling of a home in a greater teamwork spirit, all for a good cause; (4) civic morality education can be attained through community and social services in a series of real-life caring activities if a well-designed professional volunteering curriculum and activities offering collaboration, diversification, reflection and mutual benefits can be incorporated for deep-rooting a care morality into the daily lives through a hands-on experience education.
第一章 緒 論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
壹、 研究者個人的經驗與反思 1
貳、 研究者有興趣了解志工的服務經驗與道德發展 6
參、研究者重視與志工共同建構一個「關懷倫理」為本之公民道德觀 9
第二節 研究目的與問題 11
第三節 本研究之限制與突破 11
第四節 章節架構與名詞釋義 12
壹、本研究章節架構介紹 12
貳、重要名詞釋義 13
第二章 文獻探討 16
第一節 過去與目前相關實證研究概況及論文關切焦點 16
壹、 實證研究概況 16
貳、 目前國內外相關論文討論焦點 18
第二節 既有相關研究結果的「已知」基礎 21
壹、 共同之火(Common fire) 21
貳、 女性慈善公益團體-慈濟功德會個案研究 25
參、 關懷倫理與社區服務 26
肆、 民間公益團體的演變與發展 29
第三節 向「未知」探索的預定道德理論 32
壹、 論人性 33
貳、 論道德 35
參、 關懷倫理之理論對話 41
肆、 適合台灣社會的公民資質 49
伍、 「關懷倫理」為本的公民道德經驗教育 52
第三章 研究方法設計 57
第一節 研究方法的理論基礎 57
壹、 質性研究方法 57
貳、 建構主義典範 57
參、 女性主義道德認識論 59
肆、 本研究以「深入訪談」收集資料 62
伍、 訪談與資料分析的「互為主體性」與「詮釋循環」精神 .62
第二節 研究設計的三個關鍵要素位置 64
壹、 研究者與受訪者之角色為何? 64
貳、 研究者與受訪者之關係為何? 65
參、 研究者如何與受訪者「對話」? 66
第三節 研究過程 67
壹、 研究情境 67
貳、 共同研究者 68
參、 研究工具 71
肆、 資料收集 71
伍、 資料的詮釋分析 73
陸、 研究結果呈現 75
第四節 研究的信度、效度與研究程序 75
壹、 研究信度 75
貳、 研究效度 76
參、 研究程序 78
第四章 研究結果 81
第一部分 志工的服務經驗與道德生活 81
研究問題一:影響志工從事服務的先、後天重要因素為何? 81
第一節 人性之善 81
第二節 教化之功 83
研究問題二:影響志工投入服務生涯的「轉捩點」為何? 92
第三節 服務人生的轉捩點 92
第二部分 關懷倫理之道德思考與行為發展 97
研究問題三:志工在服務過程中所面對的道德衝突與抉擇為何? 97
第一節 道德衝突與抉擇 97
研究問題四:志工的人生價值觀為何? 106
第二節 人生的意義與價值 106
研究問題五:志工的服務成果與影響為何? 113
第三節 服務的成果與回報 113
研究問題六:志工服務經驗中的挫折與堅持力量為何? 120
第四節 服務的挫折與堅持 120
第三部份 公民社會-民間公民組織的社會力 128
研究問題七:組織對志工的服務行為影響如何? 128
第一節 現代志工的多元公民角色與社會參與性質 128
第二節 民間公益團體的現況與發展趨勢 133
第三節 民間公益團體的成敗因素 144
第四節 女志工的公領域參與與公民德行 148
第五節 志工的服務歷程史 153
研究問題八:志工的服務歷程史組型為何? 153
第五章 結果討論 158
第一部分 志工的服務經驗與道德生活 158
研究問題一:影響志工從事服務的先、後天重要因素為何? 158
第一節 人性之善 158
第二節 教化之功 158
壹、關愛成人的有利影響 158
貳、特殊環境影響 161
研究問題二:影響志工投入服務生涯的「轉捩點」為何? 164
第三節 服務人生的轉捩點 164
第二部分 關懷倫理之道德思考與行為發展 166
研究問題三:志工在服務過程中所面對的道德衝突與抉擇為何? 166
第一節 道德衝突與抉擇 166
壹、自我概念 166
貳、道德衝突與抉擇 167
研究問題四:志工的人生價值觀為何? 169
第二節 人生的意義與價值 169
研究問題五:志工的服務成果與影響為何? 170
第三節 服務的成果與回報 170
研究問題六:志工服務經驗中的挫折與堅持力量為何? 173
第四節 服務的挫折與堅持 173
第三部份 公民社會-民間公民組織的社會力 175
研究問題七:組織對志工的服務行為影響如何? 175
第一節 現代志工的多元公民角色與社會參與方式 175
壹、雙重貢獻的志工與多元服務 175
第二節 民間公益團體的成敗因素 178
第三節 女志工的公領域參與與公民德行 179
壹、女志工的公領域參與 179
貳、女志工的公民德行 180
第四部份 與既有文獻研究結果之對照 180
壹、對照帕克斯達勒茲等人的「共同之火」研究結果 181
貳、對照丁仁傑對「慈濟功德會」女性助人行為研究結果 181
參、對照羅德斯「社區服務與關懷倫理教育」的研究結果 182
第六章 結論與建議 184
第一節 重要研究發現 184
第二節 結論 189
第三節 建議 190
參考書目 194
附錄一 試探研究架構草圖 199
附錄二 訪談建構文 204
圖表目錄
圖一 訪談的詮釋循環概念圖 63
圖二 以訪談概念圖說明本研究主題 63
圖三 研究步驟的流程圖 79
圖四 志工服務人生歷程分析圖 157
表一 受訪對象的個人相關資料 70
中文參考書目:
丁仁傑(民80)。社會脈絡中的助人行為:台灣慈濟功德會個案研究.台灣研究
叢刊單行本. 頁1-515.
方志華(民89)。諾丁關懷倫理學之理論發展與教育實踐。國立台灣大學教育
研究所博士論文,未出版。
李瓊音(民90)。關懷倫理與公領域。國立中正大學社會福利研究所碩士論文,
未出版。
李伸一(民80)。社會重建:民間團體能為社會重建做出什麼貢獻。刊於祝萍主
編,社會重建,頁387-407。台北 : 台北時報文化。
何穎怡譯(民89)。女性研究自學讀本。台北:女書。
林火旺(民88)。倫理學.台北:五南.
林淑梨、王若蘭、黃慧珍譯(民80)。人格心理學。台北:心理。
俞智敏、陳光達、陳素梅、張君玫譯(民84)。女性主義觀點的社會學。台北:
巨流。
胡幼慧(民85)。質性研究。台北:巨流。
徐正光(民80)。社會重建:社會運動的理性運作。刊於祝萍主編,社會重建,
頁29-52。台北:時報文化。
徐 明(民90)。我國道德教育的新啟示-Gilligan的關懷聲音。21世紀公民與道
德教育學術研討會論文集,發表於90年12月,國立台灣師範大學公民
訓育學系主辦,未出版。
陳皎眉、王叢桂、孫蒨如編著(民91)。社會心理學。台北:空大。
陳金貴(民91)。志願服務工作的功能與推行。人事月刊,35(1):6-14。
黃光國(民87) 。兩種道德台灣社會中道德思維研究的在詮釋。刊於楊國樞主
編,中國人的人際心態,頁264-313。台北:桂冠。
賈馥茗(民86)。教育的本質。台北:五南。
賈馥茗(民88)。中庸釋銓。台北:五南。
賈馥茗(民81)。教育與成長之路。台北:師大書苑。
賈馥茗(民88)。人格教育學。台北:五南。
黃慧英(民84)。道德之關懷。台北:東大。
黃麗莉(民85)。人際和諧與衝突-本土化理論研究。台北: 桂冠。
張秀雄(民88)。建構適合台灣社會的公民資格觀。公民訓育學報,第8輯,
pp.99-122。
彭如婉(民87)。公民教育思想.出自張秀雄編,公民教育的理論與實施。頁
107-138。台北:師大書苑。
溫明麗(民90)。愛的知識:女性主義公民教育。收錄於2001年「公民資質師資
培育」國際學術研討會論文集,頁1-20。國立台灣師範大學公民訓育學
系編印。
葉紹國(民85)。道德推理中關懷導向與正義導向思考之區辨及其在中國社會實
踐的特徵。刊於楊國書主編,中國人的人際心態,264-313頁。台北:桂
冠。
宇沙˙葉棻譯(民82)。服務的呼喚:理想主義的實現。台北:遠流。
劉阿榮(民89)。公民教育與公民社會-以台灣之威權轉型為例。收錄於21世
紀公民與道德教育研討會論文集,頁145-164。國立台灣師範大學公民訓
育學系編印。
蔡美玲譯(民84)。對抗生命衝擊的女人。台北:遠流。
鄧志松(民89)。道德與道德的限制:涂爾幹道德社會學的再反省。刊於21世
紀公民與道德教育研討會,頁187-206。 台北:國立台灣師範大學公訓
系編印。
簡成熙(民89)。個人自主、社群意識與關懷德性:自由主義普遍性公民身分
觀的修正。收錄於21世紀公民與道德教育研討會論文集,頁145-164。
國立台灣師範大學公民訓育學系編印。
簡成熙(民91)。女性倫理學的政治實踐:以關懷倫理學的發展為例。出自謝
臥龍主編,性別平等教育:探索與實踐。台北:五南。
英文參考書目:
Altheid, D. L., & Jonson, J. M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in
qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of
qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Baumrind, D. (1986). Sex differences in moral reasoning: Response toWalker’s(1984)
conclusion that there are none. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and
women’s moral frames (370-382). New York: Garland Publishing.
Broughton, J. (1983). Women’s rationality and men’s virtues : A critique of gender
dualism in Gilligan’s theory of moral development. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring
voices and women’s moral frames (212-239). New York: Garland
Publishing.
Baier, A. C. (1993). What do women want in a moral theory? In M. J. Larrabee ( Ed.),
An ethic of care: feminist and interdisciplinary perspectives(19-22). New
York & London: Routledge.
Brown, L. M., & Tappan, M. B. (1991). Commentary. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring
voices and women’s moral frames (441-448). New York: Garland
Publishing.
Creamer, D. G., & Associates. (1990). College student development : Theory and
practice for the 1990s. American College Personnel Association : Media
Publication.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. London:
Sage Publication.
Deive, C. I., Mints, S. D., & Strewast, G. M. (1990). Promoting values development
through community service: A design. In C. I. Deive, S. D. Mints &
G. M. Strewast (Ed.), Community service as values education(7-30). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in
college:Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco-Jossey : Bass
Publishers.
Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (1994). Interviewing: The art of science. In N. K. Denzin
& Y. S.Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research(361-376). London:
Sage Publication.
Gilligan, C. (1977). In a different voice: Women’s conceptions of self and of
morality. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and women’s moral frames
(1-38). New York: Garland Publishing.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s
development. Cambridge. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Gilligan, C., & Attanucci, J. (1994). Much ado about…knowing? noting? nothing? A
reply to Vasudev concerning sex differences and moral development. In
B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and women’s moral Frames (410-415).New
York: Garland Publishing.
Held, V. (1995). Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Colorado:
Westview press.
Jacoby, B. (1996). Service-Learning in Higher Education(1-26 ). San Francisco: The
Jossey-Bass.
Johnston, D.(1994).Adolescents’ solutions to dilemmas in fables: Two moral
orientations-two problem solving strategies. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring
voices and women’s moral frames(78-99). New York: Garland Publishing.
Kuhmerker, L., Gielen, U., & Hayes, R. (1991).The kohlberg legacy for the helping
professions. Birmingham, Alabama.: Doxa Books
Kohlberg, L. (1975). The cognitive-developmental approach to moral education. In
D. Purpel & K. Ryan (Eds.), Moral education…it comes with the
territory(177-195).Berkeley, California: A Phi Delta Kappa Publication.
Lyon, N. (1983). Two perspectives: On self, relationships, and morality. In B.Puka
(Ed.), Caring voices and women’s moral frames(62-77).New York: Garland
Publishing.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. London: Sage Publication.
Mayeroff, M.(1972/1990).On caring. New York: Harper Perennial, A Division of
Harper Collins Publishers.
Noddings, N. (1984).Caring: a feminine approach to ethics and moral education.
Berkerly: University of California Press.
Nunner-Winkler, G.(1994). Two moralities? A critical discussion of an ethic of care
and responsibility versus an ethic of rights and justice. In, B. Puka (Ed.),
Caring voices and women’s moral frames(241-260). New York: Garland
Publishing.
Puka, B.(1994). Caring voices and women’s moral frames. New York: Garland
Publishing.
Parks Daloz, L., Keen, C., Keen, J., & Daloz Parks, S.(1996). Common fire. Boston:
Beacon Press.
Rhoads, R. (1997). Community service and higher learning(p.1).New York: State
University of New York Press.
Rodgers, R. (1990). Recent theories and research underlying student development.
In , D. Creamer & Associate. (Eds.), College student development: Theory
and practice for the 1990s.
Schwandt, T., (1994). Contructivist, interpretivist approaches to human Inquiry. In
N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research
(125-129). London : Sage Publications.
Schwandt, T., (1997).Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms. London :
Sage Publications.
Spiecker,B.(1988).Education and the moral emotions. In ,B.Spiecker.&
,R. Straughan (Eds.),Philosophical issues in moral education and
development(6-16). Milton Keynes, Philadelphia: Open
University Press.
Tronto J. (1987) Beyon gender difference to a theory of care. In B. Puka (Ed.),
Caring voices and women’s moral frames(504-525). New York: Garland
Publishing.
Taylor, C.(1992).Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition. New Jersey:
Princeton University Press.
Vasudev, J.(1994). Sex differences in morality and moral orientation: A discussion of
the Gilligan and Attanucci study. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and
women’s moral frames(405-409).New York: Garland Publishing.
Walker, L., Vries B. de., & Trevethan, S. (1987). Moral stages and moral orientation
in real life and hypothetical dilemmas. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and
women’s moral frames(323-342). New York: Garland Publishing.
Walker, L. (1994). Sex differences in the development of moral reasoning: A
Rejoinder to Baumrind. In B. Puka (Ed.), Caring voices and women’s
moral frames(384-404).New York: Garland Publishing.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔