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研究生:吳豐君
研究生(外文):Gina Feng-chun Wu
論文名稱:中文口語中「他」的言談語用功能與語法化研究
論文名稱(外文):Ta in Mandarin Sopken Discourse: Discourse-pragmatic Functions and Grammaticalization
指導教授:李櫻李櫻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cherry Ing Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:語法化人稱代詞言談語用功能非指稱用法
外文關鍵詞:tagrammaticalizationpersonal pronoundiscourse-pragmatic functionsnon-referential uses
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本研究探討中文第三人稱代名詞「他」的言談語用功能與語法化現象。文中指出,「他」在口語中具有典型正規的(canonical)功能和非典型(non-canonical)的功能。在正規的用法中,「他」的使用完全是由於指稱需要(referential needs),用來指代語境中非說話者,亦非受者話的第三者。然而,在非典型用法中,「他」的使用不全然是由於指稱需要,而是說話者基於句法上(syntactic)、言談篇章上(discourse)、及情態表達上(expressive)的考量結果。「他」可能是句法結構上的填補詞(a structural filler),或在篇章上扮演切割或強調的功能,或是具有擬人化、表達說話者對立態度、或客觀轉述的態度的情意功能。在這些非典型的用法中,「他」可能並未完全喪失原來的指稱功能,但此時所稱代的不一定是人,而可能是事或物,並且單、複數皆可。這些尚具有部分指稱功能的非典型的「他」的用法再更加虛化之後,即成為非指稱的用法(non-referential uses),純粹表達說話者客觀或超然的態度。另外,文中並指出,在不同的上下文中,「他」所呈現的多樣功能彼此之間並非毫無關連。非指稱的用法應是由「他」的基本語意,即指稱語境中的第三者,所延伸而來。這些功能的演變過程,揭示了「他」由命題(propositional)功能轉向表態(expressive)功能,由陳述外在客觀的環境(objective)轉向描寫內心主觀世界(subjective),及由實(concrete)轉虛(abstract)的虛化(grammaticalization)過程。
The present study examines the discourse-pragmatic functions and the grammaticalization of the Mandarin third person pronoun ta. It is found that the pronoun performs canonical and non-canonical functions in authentic spoken discourse. In its canonical uses, ta is motivated by referential needs, and is used to refer either anaphorically or deictically to a human referent that is neither the speaker nor the addressee. In non-canonical uses, however, ta is motivated not by referential needs, but by syntactic, discourse, or expressive considerations. It serves as a structural filler, performs the discourse functions of demarcation or highlighting, or the expressive functions of personification, showing an antagonistic attitude or reporting a quoted message in an objective way. Although in these non-canonical uses, ta may still retain a certain level of referentiality, it does not necessarily refer to a human referent, and the lack of number agreement between the pronoun and its referents is often observable. These referential yet non-canonical uses of ta paves the way for the evolvement of the metalinguistic uses of non-referential ta that are employed exclusively for expressive functions of marking the objectivity or the detached attitude of the speaker. Besides, all the functions performed by ta in different contexts are not unrelated. The non-referential ta is believed to be an extension from ta’s basic referential meaning of denoting a third person in a speech situation. And the development of all the various functions illustrates the grammaticalization from propositional to expressive, from objective to subjective, from concreteness to abstractness that the pronoun ta undergoes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
TRANSCRIPTION NOTATIONS vii
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Background, Motivation, and Purpose 1
1.2 Data and Methodology 3
1.3 Scope of the Study 4
Chapter Two Literature Review 5
2.1 Traditional Works on Personal Pronouns 5
2.2 Recent Studies on Personal Pronouns 11
2.3 Recent Studies on Ta 24
2.4 Summary 31
Chapter Three Different Functions of Ta 32
3.1 Referential Uses 33
3.1.1 Canonical Uses 33
3.1.2 Non-canonical Uses 40
3.1.2.1 Syntactic Factors 41
3.1.2.2 Discourse Functions 46
3.1.2.3 Expressive Functions 65
3.2 Metalinguistic Uses 80
3.2.1 Ta + Presentative Verb 81
3.2.2 Ta + NP 85
3.2.3 V + ta + ge + N/Adv 93
3.2.4 Gei ta Construction 94
3.3 Summary 97
Chapter Four Grammaticalization of Ta 99
4.1 Previous Researches on Grammaticalization 99
4.1.1 Metaphor and Metonymy 100
4.1.2 Speaker-hearer Interaction 101
4.1.3 Unidirectionality and Subjectification 104
4.1.4 Decategorialization 106
4.1.5 Pragmatic Strengthening 108
4.2 Grammaticalization of the Functions of Ta 109
4.2.1 Deictic Extension 109
4.2.2 Personification 114
4.2.3 Discourse Marker and Highlighting Function 116
4.3 Summary 119
Chapter Five Conclusion 121
References 123
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