(3.238.250.105) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/20 04:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳皇宇
研究生(外文):Kevin Huang-yu Chen
論文名稱:「焦慮的愉悅與愉悅的焦慮」:法蘭克奧哈拉給文生華倫的情詩
論文名稱(外文):"Anxious Pleasures and Pleasurable Anxiety": Frank O''Hara''s Love Poems to Vincent Warren
指導教授:蕭笛雷史文生史文生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raphael SchulteFrank Stevenson
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:1950年代至1960年代同性戀情詩圈內人敢曝稍縱即逝及時行樂情色
外文關鍵詞:1950s - 1960sHomosexualitylove poetrythe esotericcampthe ephemeralcarpe diemthe erotic
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:682
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:53
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
美國詩人法蘭克奧哈拉於1959年至1961年寫了一系列的情詩給文生華倫。當奧哈拉仍深愛著華倫時,他的詩充滿了焦慮:對於當時同性戀壓迫的焦慮、對於時間稍縱即逝的焦慮,以及對於這段感情的焦慮。本論文以圈內人、稍縱即逝,以及情色三個互相呼應的主題為中心,詳細解讀奧哈拉寫給文生華倫的情詩,試圖一窺在二十世紀中葉的美國,奧哈拉的同性戀生活。當時男同性戀者不但被邊緣化,而且被恐同的社會視為性變態,在這樣歷史框架下,本文探討詩人奧哈拉為何以及如何用一個圈內人才懂的語言來表達他對文生華倫的愛;如何於詩中重塑稍縱即逝的愛情、幸福及性愛,如何將傳統及時行樂詩中「抓住今天!」的主題改寫成「正在抓住生命中的時時刻刻」;本文並且著重於詩中情慾歡愉的瞬間,分析奧哈拉如何讓性愛引領他至一個另外的世界。
導論主要介紹奧哈拉給文生華倫情詩的背景,特別回顧1950年代至1960年代同性戀所受到的壓迫。活在一個焦慮的年代,奧哈拉深感人們對於同性戀的敵意,並在他的作品〈同性戀〉一詩中,描寫身為同性戀者帶著面具的痛苦。他於1954年的這個愛情宣言:「在這世上,我只想要被愛。」不但說明了奧哈拉身為同性戀者尋求愛情的痛苦,同時也提前宣告了他和華倫在1959年至1961年的關係。
第一章探討奧哈拉為何以及如何秘密地曝露他對華倫的愛。身處於一個恐同的社會與文化,奧哈拉並不和社會大眾直接衝突;反而,他只想存活在這個社會。為了生存,奧哈拉知道他必須謹慎小心地隱藏他對華倫的愛。因此,幾乎在所有的文生華倫詩中,奧哈拉都使用了一種圈內人才會懂的語言Camp來傳達他對文生華倫強烈的情感。
第二章闡釋奧哈拉如何處理稍縱即逝的愛情及幸福,看奧哈拉於詩中如何改寫「及時行樂」的主題。在真實生活中,奧哈拉面對各式各樣的壓迫。本章藉由傳統及時行樂詩為反證,說明在他的詩中,奧哈拉是如何正在掌握生命中的時時刻刻。與其說「讓我們來及時行樂吧!」,奧哈拉早已實現及時行樂的精神,正在慶祝生命中的每一個當下。
第三章強調詩中情慾歡愉的瞬間。藉由惠特曼〈自我之歌〉第十一詩節為反證,說明惠特曼於該詩中將男性身體用來滿足自己的情色幻想。反觀奧哈拉於文生華倫詩中則捕捉情色歡愉的瞬間,將身體視為跳板,企圖跳至一個遙不可及的世界。
結論概述先前的討論,而後檢視這一系列情詩中的最後一首,發現當愛已成往事,詩中意境不再只限於圈內人所能理解,也不再有稍縱即逝的感覺,而情色歡愉亦一同消失。當這段感情結束,雖然奧哈拉可以免除部分焦慮的侵襲,取而代之的是無限的失落。奧哈拉再也無法感受到「焦慮的愉悅與愉悅的焦慮」。
Between 1959 and 1961, Frank O''Hara wrote a sequence of love poems to Vincent Warren. When O''Hara was in love with Warren, his love poems were hemmed around by anxieties: anxiety about the oppression of homosexuality, anxiety about the lapse of the fleeting moments, and anxiety about the end of the relationship. Revolving around three interconnecting topics─the esoteric, ephemeral and erotic─in O''Hara''s love poems, this thesis investigates these three detailed elements as a way of re-creating and re-conceptualizing a model of O''Hara''s gay life in mid-twentieth-century America. This thesis discusses, at a time when gay men were marginalized and treated as sexual perverts by the homophobic society, how and why O''Hara reveals his love to Vincent Warren in an esoteric way, how O''Hara re-creates the fleeting moments of love, happiness and sex and transforms the motif of "Seize the day!" into "seizing the day" in his gay carpe diem poetry, and finally focuses on the erotic moment and sees how O''Hara uses sexuality to transcend to another world.
Introduction presents the background of O''Hara''s love poems to Vincent Warren, historicizing the homosexual oppression in the 1950s and 1960s. Living at a time of inescapable anxiety, O''Hara senses the hostility against homosexuality and depicts the pain of gay men''s wearing the masks in New York in "Homosexuality," in which his 1954 love manifesto that "I want to be wanted more than anything else in the world" not only voices his pain of being gay in search of a lover but also pre-dates his relationship with Warren between 1959 and 1961 (Collected Poems 182).
Chapter One discusses why and how O''Hara expresses his love to Vincent Warren in a secret way. When facing a homophobic society and culture, O''Hara does not choose to daringly confront the public; instead, he manages to survive in that homophobic society. In order to survive, O''Hara is aware that he needs to be careful and hide his love. Thus, in almost all of O''Hara''s love poems to Vincent Warren, the poet uses an esoteric language of camp to reveal his intense feelings to Vincent Warren and conceal the homosexual content from the heterosexual majority as we can see in "Having a Coke with You," "Poem V (F) W," and "St. Paul and All That."
Chapter Two demonstrates how O''Hara deals with the fleeting moments of love and happiness and transforms the traditional carpe diem motif in his love poems to Vincent Warren. Facing polymorphous oppression in real life, O''Hara writes gay carpe diem poetry to stand against the flow of time; in a way, O''Hara is enacting the carpe diem spirit in the love poems. I use traditional carpe diem poetry as examples of antithesis to O''Hara''s gay carpe diem poetry. Instead of saying, "Let’s seize the day," O''Hara is already celebrating the immediate present as we can see in "Personal Poem," "Steps," and "Sudden Snow."
Chapter Three extracts the erotic moment from the ephemeral moments of pleasures. I use Whitman''s Section 11 of "Song of Myself" as an example of antithesis to O''Hara''s erotic poems and demonstrate that while Whitman celebrates the male body and sexuality in part to fulfill his erotic imagination, O''Hara uses the body as a sexual diving board to jump to a spiritual world. I argue that O''Hara attempts to capture and re-create the erotic moment of his jumping to the spiritual world and the subsequent falling back to the earth in the erotic love poems to Vincent Warren as we can see in "Poem [Twin spheres full of fur and noise]," "Poem ''À la recherché d'' Gertrude Stein,''" "You Are Gorgeous and I''m Coming," and "To You."
Conclusion summarizes the previous discussion and examines the three elements again in the final break-up poem; indeed, "Poem [lost lost]," a poem written after the end of the relationship, is less esoteric, less ephemeral and less erotic. After the relationship ends, O''Hara, though free from certain anxieties, suffers from an immense sense of loss; his love poems lack the nourishment of love. O''Hara no longer feels the "anxious pleasures and pleasurable anxiety" when the relationship comes to an end (Collected Poems 406).
Chinese Abstract--------------------------------------i
English Abstract--------------------------------------ii
Acknowledgements--------------------------------------iv
Introduction------------------------------------------1
Chapter One: Esoteric---------------------------------22
Chapter Two: Ephemeral--------------------------------60
Chapter Three: Erotic---------------------------------100
Conclusion--------------------------------------------132
Works Cited-------------------------------------------146
Appendixes--------------------------------------------152
A. The Vincent Warren Poems (In Chronological Order)--153
B. Vincent Warren''s E-mails to the Author-------------160
C. Portraits of Vincent Warren------------------------166
(By permission of Vincent Warren)
Altieri, Charles. “Varieties of Immanentist Expression.”
Elledge, Frank O’Hara 189-208.
Babuscio, Jack. “Camp and the Gay Sensibility.” Bergman, Camp Grounds 19-38.
Bergman, David. Gaiety Transfigured: Gay Self-Representation in American Literature. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1991.
---, ed. Camp Grounds: Style and Homosexuality. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1993.
---. Introduction. Camp Grounds: Style and Homosexuality. By Bergman. Ed. David Bergman. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1993. 3-16.
Berke, Roberta. Bounds Out of Bounds: A Compass for Recent American and British Poetry. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
Bishop, Elizabeth. The Complete Poems, 1927-1979. New York: Noonday, 1983.
Boone, Bruce. “Gay Language as Political Praxis: The Poetry of Frank O’Hara.” Social Text 1 (1979): 59-92.
Breslin, James E. B. “Frank O’Hara.” Elledge, Frank O’Hara 253-98.
Cecchi, Alessandro, et al. Italian Painting: The Uffizi, Florence. Ed. Annamaria Petrioli Tofani. Köln: Taschen, 2000.
Crain, Caleb. “Frank O’Hara’s ‘Fired’ Self.” American Literary History 9 (1997): 287-308.
Davidson, Bernice, Edgar Munhall, and Nadia Tscherny. Paintings from the Frick Collection. New York: The Frick Collection, 1990.
D’Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States 1940-1970. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983.
Eberly, David. “A Serpent in the Grass: Reading Walt Whitman and Frank O’Hara.” The Continuing Presence of Walt Whitman: The Life after the Life. Ed. Robert K. Martin. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1992. 69-81.
Elledge, Jim, ed. Frank O’Hara: To Be True to a City. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1990.
---. “The Lack of Gender in Frank O’Hara’s Love Poems to Vincent Warren.” Fictions of Masculinity: Crossing Cultures, Crossing Sexualities. Ed. Peter F. Murphy. New York: New York UP, 1994. 226-37.
Feldman, Alan. Frank O’Hara. Boston: Twayne, 1979.
Ferguson, Russell. In Memory of My Feelings: Frank O’Hara and American Art. Los Angeles: The Museum of Contemporary Art, 1999.
Ferry, Anne. All in War with Time: Love Poetry of Shakespeare, Donne, Jonson, Marvell. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1975.
Fried, Albert, ed. McCarthyism: The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.
Friedlander, Benjamin. “Jetting I Commit the Immortal Spark.” Telling It Slant: Avant-Garde Poetics of the 1990s. Ed. Mark Wallace and Steven Marks. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. 301-19.
Friedman, Donald M. “Andrew Marvell.” The Cambridge Companion to English Poetry: Donne to Marvell. Ed. Thomas N. Corns. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. 275-303.
Gooch, Brad. City Poet: The Life and Times of Frank O’Hara. New York: Knopf, 1993.
Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Shakespeare, Based on the Oxford Edition. New York: Norton, 1997.
Halli, Jr., Robert W. “The Persuasion of the Coy Mistress.” Philological Quarterly 80.1 (2001): 57-70.
Halperin, David M. “Why Is Diotima a Woman? Platonic Erōs and the Figuration of Gender.” Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient World. Ed. David M. Halperin, John J. Winkler, and Froma I. Zeitlin. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990. 257-308.
Heep, Hartmut. “May I Offer You a Drink? Sex and Sexual Subtexts in Frank O’Hara’s Poetry.” Journal of Homosexuality 30.1 (1995): 75-87.
Herrick, Robert. “Corinna’s Going a Maying.” Seventeenth-Century English Poetry. Ed. Miriam K. Starkman. New York: Knopf, 1967. 72-74.
Herring, Terrell Scott. “Frank O’Hara’s Open Closet.” PMLA 117.3 (2002): 414-27.
Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A.: A Documentary History. Rev. ed. New York: Meridian, 1992.
Kaye, Richard A. “Losing His Religion: Saint Sebastian as Contemporary Gay Martyr.” Outlooks: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities and Visual Cultures. Ed. Peter Horne and Reina Lewis. London: Routledge, 1996. 86-105.
Kitson, Michael. Rembrandt. Oxford: Phaidon, 1982.
Kleinhans, Chuck. “Taking Out the Trash: Camp and the Politics of Parody.” The Politics and Poetics of Camp. Ed. Moe Meyer. London: Routledge, 1994. 182-201.
Ku, Tim-hung. Ekphrastic Poetry and Four Other Lyrical Genres. Taipei: Bookman, 1995.
Lehman, David. The Last Avant-Garde: The Making of the New York School of Poets. New York: Anchor, 1999.
LeSueur, Joe. Digressions on Some Poems by Frank O’Hara: A Memoir. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.
Lowney, John. “‘Going to Sleep with Quandariness’: The ‘Post-Anti-Esthetic’ Poetics of Frank O’Hara.” The American Avant-Garde Tradition: William Carlos Williams, Postmodern Poetry, and the Politics of Cultural Memory. London: Associated UP, 1997. 101-24.
Martin, Robert K. The Homosexual Tradition in American Poetry. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1998.
Marvell, Andrew. “To His Coy Mistress.” Andrew Marvell: The Complete Poems. Ed. Elizabeth Story Donno. Middlesex: Penguin, 1986. 50-51.
Matusow, Allen J., ed. Joseph R. McCarthy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
Meyer, Moe. “Reclaiming the Discourse of Camp.” Introduction. The Politics and Poetics of Camp. By Meyer. Ed. Moe Meyer. London: Routledge, 1994. 1-22.
Newton, Esther. “Role Models.” Bergman, Camp Grounds 39-77.
O’Hara, Frank. The Collected Poems of Frank O’Hara. Ed. Donald Allen. Berkeley: U of California P, 1995.
---. Poems Retrieved. Ed. Donald Allen. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Grey Fox, 1996.
---. Standing Still and Walking in New York. Ed. Donald Allen. San Francisco: Grey Fox, 1983.
Paglia, Camille. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson. New York: Vintage, 1991.
Parker, Alice C. The Exploration of the Secret Smile: The Language of Art and of Homosexuality in Frank O’Hara’s Poetry. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.
Perloff, Marjorie. Frank O’Hara: Poet Among Painters. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998.
Ross, Andrew. “The Death of Lady Day.” Elledge, Frank O’Hara 380-91.
Russell, Charles. “The Poet as Seer: Rimbaud.” Poets, Prophets, and Revolutionaries: The Literary Avant-Garde from Rimbaud Through Postmodernism. New York: Oxford UP, 1958. 39-61.
Scott, George Walton. “Corinna.” Robert Herrick, 1591-1674. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1974. 127-36.
Shapiro, Karl, ed. Prose Keys to Modern Poetry. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.
Smith, Stan. W. B. Yeats: A Critical Introduction. London: MacMillan, 1990.
Sontag, Susan. “Notes on ‘Camp.’” A Susan Sontag Reader. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982. 105-19.
Spencer, Colin. Homosexuality: A History. London: Fourth Estate, 1995.
Stevens, James T. “Homoerotic Romanticism and the Poetry of Walt Whitman, Hart Crane and Allen Ginsberg.” Indiana U. 27 May 2001 <http://prometheus.cc.emory.edu/panels/1D/J.Stevens.html>.
Stoop, Norma McLain. “Spotlight on Vincent Warren.” Dance Magazine 47.8 (1973): 64-69.
Tursi, Mark. “Interrogating Culture: Critical Hermeneutics in the Poetry of Frank O’Hara.” The Nieve Roja Review 4 (1998-99). 30 April 2002. <http://www.colostate.edu/Orgs/NieveRoja/issue4/ohara.htm>.
Voragine, Jacobus de. The Golden Legend: Readings on Saints. Trans. William Granger Ryan. Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993.
Wallace, Robert. The World of Rembrandt, 1606-1669. New York: Time-Life, 1968.
Ward, Geoff. Statues of Liberty: The New York School of Poets. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.
Warren, Vincent. “Re: 78 love poems to Vincent Warren.” E-mail to the author. 31 May 2003.
---. “Re: Vincent Warren: ‘Dance is my life.’” E-mail to the author. 03 June 2003.
---. “Re: My chapter three is on the way.” E-mail to the author. 04 June 2003.
Watson, Steven. “Rebel Poets of the 1950s.” 27 May 2001. <http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/rebels/poets.htm>.
Wellington, James Ellis. An Analysis of the Carpe Diem Theme in Seventeenth-Century English Poetry (1590-1700). Diss. Florida State U, 1956. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1956.
White, Edmund. “The Political Vocabulary of Homosexuality.” The State of the Language. Ed. Leonard Michaels and Christopher Ricks. Berkeley: U of California P, 1980. 235-46.
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Ed. Harold W. Blodgett and Sculley Bradley. New York: New York UP, 1965.
Yeats, W. B. Collected Poems. Ed. Augustine Martin. London: Vintage, 1992.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
1. 許鶯珠(1996)。工專女生生涯抉擇問題及其諮商模式。輔導季刊,32卷,3期,頁26—33。
2. 袁志晃(2002)。生涯未定大學生生涯發展阻力因素之探討。彰化師大輔導學報,23期,頁109—130。
3. 彭慧玲(1999)。淺談大專學生的班級生涯輔導課程模式。學生輔導,64期,
4. 陳美如(2000)。從社會正義談多元文化課程的實踐。國民教育,41卷,2期,
5. 曾奉紅(2000)。從『傳道、授業、解惑到期末聚餐、請假簽章』─談大學生對導師功能的看法。學生輔導,67期,頁34—47。
6. 許維素(1995)。現象學研究的理論基礎與訪談分析歷程。諮商與輔導,120期,頁11—14。
7. 陳美如(2000)。差異多元的開展─多元文化課程的認識論基礎。教育資料與研究,45期。
8. 林清文(1994)。大學生生涯發展問卷編制及大學生生涯決定狀態調查研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導學報,17期,頁175—255。
9. 張添洲(1997)。青少年生涯發展探討。輔導通訊,49期,頁24—26。
10. 張振成(1997)。生涯規劃與生涯發展。諮商與輔導,144期,頁24—26。
11. 彭慧玲(2002)。生涯輔導教育對多元文化的相關議題之探討。輔導季刊,38卷,1期,頁23—32。
12. 陳金貴(2000)。我國大學院校推動服務學習方案的檢討。教師天地,104期,
13. 林清文(1991)。僑生教育績效問題之探討。教育資料文摘,166期,頁103 ~ 106。
14. 陳金貴(1999)。當前我國大學學生事務之發展趨勢。訓育研究,38卷,3期,
15. 周素琴(1999)。多元文化的學校輔導諮商計劃建構途徑。諮商與輔導,158期,頁20— 22。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔