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研究生:呂艾穎
研究生(外文):Ai-ying Lu
論文名稱:教師信念與教室評量:兩位大學英文教師之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):Teachers'' Beliefs and Classroom Assessments: A Case Study of Two University Instructors of English
指導教授:張武昌張武昌引用關係葉錫南葉錫南引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu-chang ChangHsi-nan Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:教師信念教室評量大學英文教師
外文關鍵詞:Teachers'' beliefsClassroom AssessmentUniversityInstructors of English
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摘要
本研究旨在探究兩位大學英文教師之評量信念與教室評量實務,採用質性研究法,包括與兩位教師訪談、進行教室觀察、及收集相關資料。研究結果顯示兩位教師的評量信念影響及引導其對於教室評量的設計、實行、及評估。此外,教師的評量信念受到一些限制,並不能完全反映到實務中,這些限制包括課堂時間、學校政策、和來自同事們的負面建議等。為了克服這些限制,本研究中的兩位教師使用一些共同策略,包括取消、延後、和合併評量活動。其中一位教師還使用簡化評量活動的策略來克服評量實務上的限制。實施上述策略時,兩位教師還遵循了兩項原則,包括遵循教學進度及教學目標。
大致來說,教師的評量信念與實務兩者之間有高度的一致性。此外,在教師的評分實務方面,兩位教師皆使用許多不同的主觀和客觀的評量工具來評量學生。評分時,兩位教師均考量學生的學術及非學術表現(例如努力、進步幅度、課堂參與度等)。此外,兩位教師的評分標準和評分實務間不甚一致,他們會評量學生在一些沒有列在評分標準項目的表現,亦會省略一些已列在評分標準的項目,不加以評分。評量之後,兩位教師會進行一些後續教學活動,包括分享、重教、給予回饋、和實行補救性評量活動等。再者,兩位教師之間的評量信念及實務有所不同,這種差異反映在他們給予不同評量活動的評分比重、和其後續教學活動的本質上。
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the beliefs and practice of assessment by two university instructors of English. This study employed qualitative research methods, and data were collected through interviews, classroom observations, and other related documents from the instructors and the students of the observed classes. The results showed that there were sets of beliefs underlying the instructors’ assessments, and these beliefs guided their planning, implementation, and evaluation of assessment. However, these beliefs could not be successfully realized in the classroom due to some constraints, including lack of time, institutional requirements, negative suggestions from the colleagues, and so on. In order to cope with these constraints, the instructors used some common strategies such as canceling, postponing, and integrating. One of the instructors also used the strategy of simplifying. In the selection of coping strategies in the face of constraints, both instructors followed two general principles: the observance of the instructional schedule and the observance of course objectives.
Generally speaking, high consistency and very mild inconsistency existed between the instructors’ beliefs and practices in assessment. This study also explored the instructors’ grading practices. It showed that the two instructors used many objective and subjective instruments to assess students in the classrooms. In addition to students’ academic performance, they took into account students’ nonacademic performance such as efforts, improvements, and participation in class when grading. There were gaps between their grading policies and grading practices. They both graded students’ performance in certain unlisted criteria, and they also omitted certain listed criteria in their grading practices. After assessment, both instructors implemented some follow-ups, including sharing, re-teaching, offering feedback, and providing remedial assessment activities. Furthermore, the study explored the difference between the two instructors, and the difference was reflected in the percentage of their grading components and the nature of their designing of follow-ups.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………...i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT.……………………………..………………...iii
CHINESE ABSTRACT….………………………………………………….v
LIST OF TABLES...………………………………………………………x
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION…..……………………………... 1
Background of the Research……………………………….. 1
Definition of Key Terms………………………………… 3
  Purpose of the Study………………............. 4
Research Questions…… ……………………………… 4
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW……………… ………… 7
Teachers’ Beliefs…… ………………………………… 7
  Definitions of Teachers Beliefs………………….7
  Factors that Inform Teachers Beliefs…………9
  Teachers’ Beliefs and Practice………… 11
Research on Teachers’ Beliefs in Taiwan…… … 14
Methodology for Exploring Teachers’ Beliefs… 16
ClassroomAssessment………………………………… …………….17
  Definitions of Classroom Assessment………… …… ..17
Research on Classroom Assessment….……………… ..20
The Relationship between Classroom Assessment, Teaching,
and Learning ……….24
Research on Classroom Assessment in Taiwan……… … ..27
Research on Teachers’ Beliefs about Assessment……… ..28
Conclusion………………..…………………………………… 29
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.……………………… .31
Participants…….…………………………….…. 31  
Data Collection ……… ………..…..…………………34
Classroom Observations………………………………….. ..34 
Interviews with the Instructors………………… ………….35
Interview Questions…………………………………… …..37
  Other Related Documents… …...………………………..39
Procedures of Data Collection.………………………… .39
Data Analysis…………… .………………………………….40
CHAPTER 4: TEACHERS’ ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BELIEFS ABOUT LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE LEARNING, AND ASSESSMENT………..43
Instructor A’s Beliefs about Language, Language
Learning, and Assessment in General……..............43
Beliefs about Language and Language Learning……43
Beliefs about Assessment in General…………………… 45
Beliefs about Planning and Evaluating Assessment … 46
Beliefs about Planning Assessment......... 46
Beliefs underlying the Requirements of Course
A “Freshman English”………………46
Beliefs underlying the Grading Policies of
Course A “Freshman English”………………… 51
Beliefs underlying the Requirements of Course
B “Guided Writing”………………… ……55
Beliefs underlying the Grading Policies of
Course B “Guided Writing”…………………60
Beliefs about Evaluating Assessment…………….62
Beliefs about Implementing Assessment…………….…63
 Major Assessment Activities Employed by Instructor A….64
Course A “Freshman English”........... .64
Course B “Guided Writing”…………………… .67
Instructor B’s Beliefs about Language, Language
Learning, and Assessment in General……..............43
Beliefs about Language and Language Learning……43
Beliefs about Assessment in General…………………… 45
Beliefs about Planning and Evaluating Assessment … 46
Beliefs about Planning Assessment......... 46
Beliefs underlying the Requirements of Course
A “Freshman English”………………46
Beliefs underlying the Grading Policies of
Course A “Freshman English”………………… 51
Beliefs underlying the Requirements of Course
B “Guided Writing”………………… ……55
Beliefs underlying the Grading Policies of
Course B “Guided Writing”…………………60
Beliefs about Evaluating Assessment…………….62
Beliefs about Implementing Assessment…………….…63
 Major Assessment Activities Employed by Instructor B….64
Course A “Freshman English”........... .64
Course B “Guided Writing”…………………… .67
Summary..……………………………………………………91
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION…………………………………… …..93
The Instructors’ Beliefs and Practices in Assessment… 93 
Effects of Beliefs on Assessment ...…………… .96
Incongruency between Teacher’s Beliefs and Practices
of Assessment..................................…105
Other Factors Influencing the Two Instructors’
Assessment Practices.….106
Constraints on the Implementation of Assessment and the
Coping Strategies..110
The Instructors’ Coping Strategies and Prioritizing
Principles to Solve the
Constraints on the Implementation of Assessment…………110
Instruments of Assessment and Grading Practices………..115
Instruments of Assessment………………………………..115
Grading Practices…………………………………………..117
The Gap between Grading Policies and Grading Practice…118
The Two Instructors’ Follow-ups after Assessment………120
Sharing………………………………………………………121
Re-teaching…………………………………………………121
Taking Remedial Measures…..………………………….121
Offering Feedback...…………………………………….122
The Difference between the Instructors’ Beliefs about Assessment....125
Summary..……………….....………………………………….127
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS…………………………..129
Conclusion……….……………………………………………..129
Implications...………….………….…………………………131
Limitations of the Study………………………………………….132
REFERENCES…...………………………………………………………135
APPENDICES..………………………………………………………….141
APPENDIX A Pre-designed Interview Questions……………..141
APPENDIX B…Interview Questions Concerning Freshman English and Guided Writing Following the Pre-designed Interviews with the instructors.......................................143
APPENDIX C…Documents from the Instructors...………………………………..147
APPENDIX D…Documents from the Students…………………………….………151
 
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
3-1 The schedule for classroom observations………………………………35
3-2 Focuses of the formal interviews……………………………………….36
3-3 Focuses of the informal interviews………………………………….….37
4-1 The interconnection between beliefs about language and language
learning and beliefs about assessment within the two
instructors........................................................……….......................…..92
5-1 Congruence between Instructor A’s beliefs and practices………………94
5-2 Congruence between Instructor B’s beliefs and practices…………..… 95
5-3 Incongruency between Instructor A’s belief and practice......................95
5-4 Incongruency between Instructor B’s belief and practice..........……….. 96
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