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研究生:蔡明富
研究生(外文):Ming-Fu Tsai
論文名稱:教師與同儕對注意力缺陷過動症之知覺研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Teachers'' and Peers'' Perceptions on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
指導教授:洪儷瑜洪儷瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Yu Hung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:260
中文關鍵詞:教師同儕注意力缺陷過動症標記知覺
外文關鍵詞:teacherpeerADHDlabelperception
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中文摘要
現今特殊教育實施分類方式使特殊教育的標記因而產生,但他人對特殊教育標記之知覺是如何,仍未有定論,唯國內鮮有實徵研究探討與釐清特殊教育標記之議題。基於此,本研究以ADHD標記為例,探討教師與同儕對ADHD之知覺,除了收集教師與同儕對ADHD之知覺內容與感受,並進一步釐清不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕之知覺影響。為達成此目的,本研究設計兩個研究進行,茲將研究結果分述如下:
壹、研究一:教師與同儕對ADHD學童之知覺
研究一旨在探討教師與同儕對ADHD學童在學校適應之預測與社會距離之知覺,以台北縣市173名國小普通班教師與176名五年級普通班學生為對象,分別由「ADHD標記知覺問卷」收集語句資料,以內容分析法分析,結果發現如下:
一、教師與同儕預測ADHD學童之學校適應
教師與同儕預測ADHD學童在學校適應各類別內容均可歸納成學習適應、行為適應、人際適應與未特定適應。教師易覺察行為、學習適應,而同儕易覺察學習適應,但兩群受試均對人際適應之預測不多。依預測學校適應各類別細項之內容與感受,主要發現有:(一)教師與同儕對ADHD學童之覺察,除出現ADHD不專注、衝動與過動症狀外,也出現學習、行為與人際等其它問題。(二)教師與同儕對ADHD三個主要症狀之知覺,以不專注與過動較易覺察,但易忽視衝動。(三)教師與同儕預測ADHD學童在動態教學活動的學習表現會較好。(四)教師與同儕易覺察ADHD學童之過動、衝動與常規等外向性行為問題,但易忽略ADHD學童內向性行為問題。
二、教師與同儕對ADHD學童在社會距離之知覺
研究一發現教師與同儕在接納情境類別內容均可分成八大類,其中有六個情境類別相同,分別為進入班級、參與教學活動性質、學校適應表現、協助指導、了解個案、未特定等是一致的,但有兩個類別內容有差異,教師提出尋求資源協助與教學安排兩種情境,同儕提出同儕互動與課後活動兩種情境。教師對ADHD學童之接納以協助指導情境提出最多,但同儕則多數提出考量ADHD學童在學校適應的表現。如依接納各類別細項之內容與感受,主要發現有:(一)教師與同儕均願意幫助ADHD學童改善學習適應困難。(二)教師與同儕對ADHD學童參與動態教學活動接納度較高。(三)教師與同儕均不願意接納ADHD學童出現違反常規行為。(四)教師對ADHD學童的接納需要外在資源協助,同儕在下課一起玩情境對ADHD學童接納度較高。
三、從符號互動理論探討研究一結果
師生在接觸ADHD標記的確會受到不同背景與其扮演角色影響,進而形成自我對ADHD標記在學校適應之預測與接納度之不同詮釋,此發現支持符號互動理論。
貳、研究二:不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕之知覺影響
研究二在釐清不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕在學校適應之預測與社會距離之知覺影響。以台北縣各270名國小普通班教師與五年級普通班學生為對象,採取實驗研究法,在標記自變項設計ADHD、精力充沛與正常學生標記,在行為自變項設計ADHD行為、適當行為、未描述行為訊息,採2×3×3三因子受試者間實驗設計,共18組,每組30人,以「標記與行為知覺問卷」收集受試的學校適應之預測與社會距離知覺,主要發現如下:
一、不同行為訊息對教師與同儕在學校適應之預測與社會距離之知覺影響
ADHD行為是影響教師與同儕在學校適應之預測與社會距離產生負向知覺主因;另當學童出現適當行為或未描述行為時,同儕預測學校適應表現均優於教師;此外,無論學童出現何種行為,教師的接納度均高於同儕。
二、不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕在學校適應之預測與社會距離之
知覺影響
當學童出現適當行為或未描述行為時,ADHD標記影響教師與同儕在學校適應產生負向預測;但不同標記與行為對教師與同儕在接納之知覺均沒有任何差異;此外,學童出現ADHD行為時,精力充沛標記並不會對教師與同儕在學校適應之預測與接納度變得更正向。
三、從社會認知與標記理論探討研究二結果
師生在社會認知運作時,ADHD標記並不一定會使師生產生負向知覺,如提供與ADHD標記有關其它重要訊息,如ADHD行為時,則師生對ADHD標記的知覺不易被簡化,而受到ADHD行為影響產生負向知覺,此發現支持社會認知理論,但駁斥標記理論。
基於研究結果與發現,本研究分別就教育實務與未來研究方面提出相關建議,以供教學工作者應用,以及特殊教育標記後續研究之參考。
The main purposes of the study were: (1) to explore the teachers’ and peers’ perception on ADHD; (2) to investigate the effects of label and behavior on teachers’ and peers’ perceptions. Two studies were conducted as the following:
1. Teachers’ and peers’ perception on ADHD
The subjects of the first study were composed of 173 regular education teachers and 176 fifth-graded students from elementary schools in Taipei city and county. ‘The Perception of ADHD Label Inventory’ was conducted to collect data. All of the data were analyzed by content analysis. The major results of predication of school adjustment and perception of social distance were concluded as follows:
(1) Teachers’ and peers’ predication of ADHD students’ school adjustment:
(a) Four categories were found from the teachers’ and peers’ prediction of ADHD students’ school adjustment: learning adjustment, behavior adjustment, interpersonal adjustment and unspecific adjustment. (b) Teachers were prone to predict behavior and learning adjustment, while peers were prone to predict learning adjustment. (c) Under each category, more details were found. Teachers’ and peers’ perceptions on ADHD included inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive symptoms and other related problems (such as learning, behavior and interpersonal problems). Teachers and peers predicted more inattention and hyperactivity than impulsivity on ADHD. They all thought that ADHD students performed well in unstructured activity. They also predicted that ADHD students could have more external behavior problems, but ignored the internal behavior problems.
(2) Teachers’ and peers’ perception of social distance on ADHD:
(a)Eight categories were derived from the Teachers’ and peers’ perception of social distance on ADHD. Six of them were correspondent: enrolling into class, participating various instructional activity, adjustment in school, help and guidance, understanding the student and unspecific situation. The other two were different. Seeking resource and the arranging instruction were found in the teachers’ perceptions, while the peers’ interaction and extracurricular activity were found in peer’s. (b) Teachers were prone to perceive the situation of instruction and guidance, while peers were prone to perceive the situation of adjustment in school. (c) Under each category, more details were found. Teachers and peers were all willing to help ADHD improve the academic adjustment difficulties and accept ADHD participate in unstructured activity, however, they were all unwilling to accept ADHD behavior. Teachers needed seek resources to accept ADHD, while peers needed play together in extracurricular activities.
(3) Teachers’ and peers’ perceptions on ADHD label were different, which indicated the perception affected by their own background and different roles. The symbolic interactionism theory was verified by this result.
2. The effects of label and behavior information on Teachers’ and peers’ perception:
The second study aimed to investigate the effect of the label and behavior by the design of 2 x 3x3 experiment. Three different labels encompassed ADHD, energetic and normal, and three different messages of behaviors were described as ADHD-type behavior, normal behavior, and non-description. 270 regular teachers and 270 fifth-graded students from elementary schools in Taipei county were randomly assigned to read one of the nine vignettes, which described a boy with one of the tree labels and his typical daily behavior. All the sample were asked to complete The Scale of Perception of Label and Behavior, which was semantic differential scale. Three major findings were concluded as follows :
(1) The results indicated that the ADHD behavior had a significant negative impact on teachers’ and peers’ predication of school adjustment and perception of social distance. When child presented normal or non-descriptive behavior, peers made more positive prediction of school adjustment than teachers’ did. However, teachers perceived more positive on social distance than peers did, no matter what behavior messages.
(2) When normal behavior was described or no behavior description, ADHD label had negative impact on teachers’ and peers’ predication of school adjustment. However, no effects were found on the perception of social distance. When ADHD behavior described, positive label (i.e. energetic) had no positive impact on their predication of school adjustment and the perception of social distance.
(3) The results indicated that teachers and peers relied predominantly on the individuating information (ADHD behavior) when they perceive both ADHD label and individuating information (ADHD behavior). However, they depend on ADHD label, when the information was irrelevant or ambiguous (normal or non-descriptive behavior).
Implications for the practice and the further research were recommended on the basis of the findings of this study.
第一章 緒 論
第一節 研究動機………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與問題………………………………………………… 4
第三節 名詞詮釋與界定…………………………………………….... 5
第二章 文 獻 探 討
第一節 注意力缺陷過動症的探討……………………………………… 8
第二節 標記的相關理論與內涵……………………………………..…19
第三節 特殊教育標記之探討與相關研究……………………………...31
第四節 本論文之研究架構……………………………………………...48
第三章 研究一:教師與同儕對ADHD學童之知覺研究
第一節 研究方法………………………………………………………..50
第二節 教師與同儕預測ADHD學童之學校適應結果…….………….65
第三節 教師與同儕對ADHD學童在社會距離之知覺結果……..…….91
第四章 研究二:不同標記與行為對教師與同儕之知覺影響
第一節 研究假設………………….……………………………………118
第二節 研究方法………………….……………………………………118
第三節 不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕預測學校適應之影響
結果…………………………………………………………….134
第四節 不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕在社會距離知覺之
影響結果…………………………………………………….…140
第五章 綜合討論
第一節 教師與同儕對ADHD學童之知覺……………….…………..144
第二節 不同標記與行為訊息對教師與同儕之知覺影響………....154
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………………………….160
第二節 研究限制………………………………………………….……164
第三節 研究建議……………………………………………………….165
參考文獻
一、中文部份……………………………………………………….……170
二、西文部份……………………………………………………….……173
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二、英文部分
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