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研究生:鍾仁健
研究生(外文):Jen-Chien Chung
論文名稱:蔬果中硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽含量之高效液相層析法定量分析、含量調查及每日攝取量評估之探討
論文名稱(外文):A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Determining and Investigating Nitrate and Nitrite Levels in Vegetables and Fruits and Estimation of Daily Intake
指導教授:黃登福黃登福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Deng-Fwu Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士在職專班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:硝酸鹽亞硝酸鹽蔬菜高效液相層析法每日攝取量
外文關鍵詞:nitratenitritevegetablesHPLCdaily intake
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本研究係探討蔬菜中硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽之定量分析,發展出一種簡單、快速、精確及敏感度佳的高效液相層析方法 (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)。分析之較適條件為以30% (v/v) 的甲醇水溶液添加0.01 M 辛胺 (octylammonium),並以正磷酸調整pH值至7.0,作為移動相溶液,流速為0.8 mL/min;每一樣品在數分鐘內即可分析完成。硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽之回收率介於96.6% 至105.7%間;硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽於0.1~100.0 μg/mL濃度範圍內之標準曲線線性迴歸係數均大於0.9990,線性關係非常佳;重複性分析試驗所得結果之變異係數值均小於1.5﹪,顯示本分析系統高程度之再現性。
本研究即利用所建立之高效液相層析法,檢測市販蔬果121件之硝酸塩及亞硝酸塩含量,結果範圍分別為 <5∼5,371 mg/kg及<5∼887.3 mg/kg;以平均硝酸塩含量而言,結果指出,以豆菜類含量為最高,其次分別為,小葉菜類,包葉菜類,根葉類,果菜類,瓜菜類及水果類 (<5 mg/kg);至於平均亞硝酸塩含量方面,小葉菜類含量最高,其次為豆菜類,其他種類之蔬菜含量極低。
估算每人每日蔬菜硝酸塩及亞硝酸鹽攝取量約為283.8 mg/day及1.8 mg/day;而一日總膳食硝酸塩及亞硝酸塩攝取量,分別估算為333.9 mg/day及9.0 mg/day,二者雖超過FAO/WHO建議之ADI值;但蔬菜內含有許多抗氧化的成分和多量纖維素,可阻斷亞硝酸鹽之毒性代謝效應,並預防一些癌症的形成,因此,國人可安心地攝食蔬果。
In this study, a simple, rapid, precise and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an UV detector was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite amounts in vegetables. The optimal conditions were found and applied using 0.01 M octylammonium orthophosphate of aqueous 30% (v/v) methanol of pH 7.0 for mobile phase at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The total time for one sample analysis was within several minutes. Recoveries of nitrate and nitrite were between 96.6% to 105.7%. The calibration curves of nitrate and nitrite were extremely linear, where both correlation coefficients are greater than 0.9990 in the range of 0.1~100.0 μg/mL. Repeated trails all obtained CV values less than 1.5%, pointing out high degrees of reproducibility.
For application, nitrate and nitrite amounts in 121 marketed vegetables and fruits were determined by this HPLC method. The results showed nitrate and nitrite contents varied in the range of <5~5,371 mg/kg and <5~887.3 mg/kg, respectively. For nitrate contents, it was found that bean vegetables contained the highest mean nitrate content, followed by small leafy vegetables, head cabbages, root vegetables, fruiting vegetables and cucurbits, whereas fruits had the least nitrate contents of being ignored (<5 mg/kg). For nitrite levels, small leafy vegetables had the highest mean nitrite content, followed by the bean vegetables, whilst other categories of vegetables had extremely low levels.
The actual daily intake from vegetables was estimated to be approximately 283.8 mg/day for nitrate and 1.8 mg/day for nitrite. For the total intake of nitrate and nitrite in diet, both amounts estimated to be 333.9 and 9.0 mg/day respectively were higher than the acceptable daily intake values suggested by the FAO/WHO. However, vegetables contain specific antioxidants and dietary fiber, which can block the toxic metabolism of nitrite and prevent some specific cancers. Therefore, it may be safe for the consumption of nutritious vegetables without fuss.
中文摘要……..………………...……....…….………...….…1
英文摘要………..………………..………………..…..……...…2
壹、前言…………………………………...…………...……...…3
貳、文獻整理………………….……….......……………….……5
一、硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽對人體健康危害影響及生理代謝.………..5
二、變性血紅素血症之形成與代謝成因………………….……....12
三、硝酸鹽之運輸、同化代謝及調控作用.….………...……….18
四、食品/蔬菜中硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽類之檢測方法…...………….22
五、環境及膳食之硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽暴露量與最大限量標準…….27
六、各國膳食硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽暴露量調查……………………….34
七、食品/蔬菜中硝酸鹽限量政策之探討及展望………..…………38
參、材料與方法…………………….………….………..…..……42
一、檢體來源……………………………………....………………42
二、實驗材料…………………………………...…..……………42
三、實驗方法………………………………….……………..…….45
四、鑑別試驗與定量分析…….……………….…..………..….45
五、添加回收試驗…………….…….………………….………….47
六、最低檢出限量………….....………….…....….…….….48
七、再現性試驗……..……………………...….….….………..48
八、市販蔬果之硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽含量分析調查…..………..…48
九、膳食硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽攝取量評估…………………………….48
肆、結果與討論……………….…….……..…..….……….....51
一、硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽檢測方法之建立與探討.……...……..…51
二、蔬果中硝酸塩及亞硝酸塩含量調查之探討.….55
三、膳食硝酸塩及亞硝酸塩攝取量評估………….59
伍、結論……………………..……………..………….…….....62
陸、參考文獻………………..………….……………….……...63
柒、圖表………………..……....….………...……………...80
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