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研究生:蔣慧姝
研究生(外文):Chiang Hui-Shu
論文名稱:台灣鯨鯊利用現況與管理之研究
論文名稱(外文):Utilization and Management of the Whale Shark Rhincodon typus in Taiwan
指導教授:劉光明劉光明引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:漁業科學系碩士在職專班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:鯨鯊漁獲量利用生物學保育管理海洋資源
外文關鍵詞:whale sharkutilizationbiologyconservationmarine resource management
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鯨鯊(Rhincodon typus)為現生體型最大的魚類,其利用長期受到國際保育團體的關注。從漁獲資料來看,台灣沿近海所捕獲的鯨鯊體型已有小形化的趨勢,且絕大部份的漁獲個體都是未成年的幼鯊,此現象非常不利鯨鯊之繁殖與生存。台灣目前對於鯨鯊的利用剛從全然食用進入永續利用及管理之過渡階段,而正確掌握其漁獲數量有必要性與急迫性,因此本論文首先從資源利用與開發的觀點,分析與探討鯨鯊資源永續利用與保育之重要性與經濟價值,並且蒐集與分析2001年與2002年台灣鯨鯊漁獲的產經現況,同時本文亦針對全球各國際組織及國家對鯨鯊的管理規範,以及我國政府現階段對鯨鯊資源保育所做的管理措施與標識放流研究,作一分析整理並提出建議,期能作為政府未來鯨鯊保育管理措施制定與執行成效之參考。
漁獲資料分析結果顯示,在台灣地區2001及2002年所捕獲的鯨鯊數量分別為89尾及97尾,主要係由定置網及鏢刺漁業兩種漁法所捕獲;就地區別而言,以台東地區的漁獲尾數最多,宜蘭及花蓮地區次之。2001年所漁獲記錄體長以4~5公尺的28尾最多(31.5 %),其次為5~6公尺的有19尾(21.3 %);2002年漁獲體長以5~6公尺的33尾最多(34 %),其次為4~5公尺的29尾(29.9 %)。近兩年所捕獲鯨鯊的體長有顯著增加的現象(p<0.05),由2001年平均體長為458.6公分,增加至2002年的507.0 公分。在體重部分,由2001年平均體重的1040公斤增加至2002年的1543公斤,但統計檢定之結果並無顯著差異(p>0.05)。2001年與2002年漁獲鯨鯊之雌雄性比,分別為1:1.15與1:1.24,經卡方檢定結果顯示,均與1:1無顯著差異。另外,2001年與2002年台灣鯨鯊的產值分別估計約為1852萬元與2993萬元(每公斤以200元計)。
The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is the world’s largest living fish and a number of international conservation organizations have concerned about the species for several years. The size at catch of this species in the coastal waters of Taiwan has become smaller and most of them are immature juveniles according to catch records. These facts indicate a disadvantage for the reproduction and subsistence of the entire species. The utilization of whale shark is in transition from an entirely unmanaged consumption stage to a reasonably sustainable stage of management in Taiwan. It is necessary and urgent to get the accurate information of annual catch of the whale shark in Taiwan. The present study preliminarily analyzes and discusses the ecological importance and economic value of sustainable utilization of the whale shark resource. The landings and sales records of whale shark in Taiwan from 2001 to 2002 were collected and analyzed to understand the current situations of the fish production and economy. In addition, international management regulations of the whale shark and the tagging program conducted in Taiwan were described. These information can be used as references for the establishment and implementation of regulations for the conservation and management of the fish by our government in the future.
Eighty-nine and ninety-seven whale sharks were landed in Taiwan in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The majority of them were caught by set net and spear. Taitung had the highest catch of whale shark, followed by I-lan and Hwa-lien. The size at catch of whale shark in 2001 peaked at the 4 — 5 m length interval (n = 28, 31.5 %), followed by 5 — 6 m (n = 19, 21.3 %), and in 2002 it peaked at the 5 — 6 m length interval (n = 33, 34 %), following by 4 — 5 m (n = 29, 29.9 %). The body length of the fish increased significantly from a mean of 458.6 cm in 2001 to a mean of 507.0 cm in 2002 (ANOVA: p < 0.05). The body weight of the fish also increased from a mean of 1040 kg in 2001 to a mean of 1543 kg in 2002, but the difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The sex ratio of the fish landed in 2001 and 2002 was 1:1.15 and 1:1.24, respectively, which were not significantly different from 1:1 (p > 0.05). The sales of whale sharks were estimated to be about NT$ 18.52 million and 29.93 million in 2001 and 2002, respectively based on the price of NT$ 200 per kilogram.
謝 辭…………………………………………………………………i
摘  要(中文)………………………………………………………ii
摘  要(英文)………………………………………………………iv
目  錄.………………………………………………………………..vi
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………01
第一節生物學與分布……………………………….………..01
第二節 研究動機與目的…………………………………….06
第二章 研究方法與步驟….……………………………….………….08
第三章 鯨鯊資源的利用與開發……………………………………...10
第一節 利用………………………………………………...10
第二節 生態觀光旅遊..………………………………..…...11
第三節 永續利用與保育……………………………………13
第四節 矛盾與衝突…………………………………………15
第四章 台灣的鯨鯊漁業………………………………………………17
第一節 鯨鯊利用之歷史……………………………………17
第二節 漁具、漁法…………………………………………18
第三節 漁期………………………………………………...19
第四節 卸魚港口.……………………………………..……19
第五節 漁獲概況…………………………………………...20
1. 漁業別………………………………………………20
2. 地區別………………………………………………21
3. 漁獲體長及平均體重………………………………22
4. 月別變化……………………………………………24
5. 性比…………………………………………………24
第六節 產值與經濟利用..….………………………………25
1. 鯨鯊的拍賣…………………………………………25
2. 鯨鯊的銷售…………………………………………25
3. 產值…………………………………………………26
第五章 國際鯨鯊資源管理………..………………………………….28
第一節 國際規範…………………………………………...28
1. 聯合國遷徙性野生動物保育公約..………………...28
2. 國際自然保育聯盟………………..………………...28
3. 華盛頓公約………………………..………………...29
4. 聯合國高度洄游跨界魚種………..………………...31
5. 國際農糧組織鯊魚行動綱領……..………………...32
第二節 國家法令..………………………..………………...34
1. 印度………………………………..………………...34
2. 菲律賓……………………………..………………...35
3. 泰國………………………………..………………...36
4. 澳洲………………………………………………….37
5. 馬爾地夫…………………………………………….37
6. 美國………………………………………………….38
7. 南非、宏都拉斯、墨西哥、百里斯……………….38
第六章 台灣鯨鯊資源管理…………………………………………...40
第一節 資源管理措施之制定……………………………...40
第二節 標識放流…………………………………………...43
第三節 管理與研究之現況與問題………………………...45
第七章 討論與建議…………………………………………………...48
第一節 討論及結論.………………………………..……….48
第二節 建議.………………………………………..……….53
參考文獻.………………………………………………………..……..57
表.………………………………………………………..……………..66
圖.………………………………………………………..……………..73
附錄…………………………………………………………………….84
表 目 錄
表一 各國鯨鯊保育現況………………………………………66
表二 2001年鯨鯊漁獲量……………………………………..67
表三 2002年鯨鯊漁獲量……………………………………..69
表四 2001年鯨鯊漁獲量分析表……………………………..71
表五 2002年鯨鯊漁獲量分析表……………………………..72
圖 目 錄
圖一 2001及2002年依漁法別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….…….73
圖二 2001年漁法別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….…………………74
圖三 2002年漁法別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….…………………75
圖四 2001及2002年地區別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….……….76
圖五 2001年地區別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….…………………77
圖六 2002年地區別漁獲鯨鯊情形……….…………………78
圖七 2001及2002年台灣地區鯨鯊漁獲分布圖…………..79
圖八 2001年鯨鯊漁獲量體長頻度分佈情形……………….80
圖九 2002年鯨鯊漁獲量體長頻度分佈情形……………….81
圖十 2001及2002年鯨鯊漁獲月別變動走勢圖…………..82
圖十一 台灣鯨鯊資源管理制度制定流程圖………………...83
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