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研究生:徐士雲
研究生(外文):HSU, SHI YUN
論文名稱:國民小學校園危機管理之研究-以台北市為例
指導教授:陳木金陳木金引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立台北師範學院
系所名稱:國民教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:校園危機危機管理國民小學校園危機
外文關鍵詞:crisis managementcampus crisiselementary school crisis
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中文摘要
本研究主要目的在探討校園危機管理理論及運作方式,及目前國民小學在危機預防與準備的現況分析,並調查國小校園危機預防與準備及危機處理表現的關係。據此提出研究結果與建議,以供國民小學危機管理之參考。
本研究以文獻分析和問卷調查為主,以了解校園危機管理的理論基礎及相關研究、危機預防與準備的內容、目前學校的運用方式,及校園危機處理的相關理論、運作方式等。根據文獻分析和調查研究之結果,提出本研究之結論與建議。
本研究調查對象為台北市之公立國民小學現職教育人員,抽取72所學校為樣本,共發出720份問卷,實得有效樣本為554份,所得資料以SPSS for Windows 8.0統計套裝軟體進行分析,透過平均數、百分比、t考驗、單因子變異數分析、單因子多變項變異數分析、典型相關等統計方法,綜合歸納以下結論:
一、國民小學在危機預防與準備的現況上,以加強環境設備以從事危機預防與準備最受教育人員的認知與肯定。
二、國民小學在危機預防與準備的五個向度之表現上:在計畫組織方面,以設有危機處理小組或緊急事件處理小組的情形最多;而以訂定校園禁地管制辦法者最少。在環境設備方面,以在學校必要處所或通道上設有監視統或警報系統的情形最多;而以於校園禁地(死角)設有警告標示或上鎖的情形最少。在溝通網絡方面,以建立緊急電話聯絡網之情形最佳;而以學校與新聞媒體保持開放且密切的關係之知覺較低。在法律責任方面,對於涉有法律責任時,能勇於面對法律責任之知覺較高;而以設有危機處理方面的法律顧問或可以諮詢之專家的情形較為不足。在教育訓練方面,以能適時教導學生緊急事件處理常識之知覺與行動較多;而以定期或不定期針對不同危機情境舉辦教師在職訓練之情形最少。
三、國民小學在危機處理的現況上,以領導與支持在危機處理上最受教育人員的認知與肯定。
四、國民小學在危機處理的四個向度之表現上:在組織運作方面,以學校危機處理人員對受害者家屬給予妥善的慰問及協助之情形最多。在領導協調方面,以學校校長於發生危機事件時主動爭取家的諒解與支持情形最多。在公共關係方面,以讓受害人感受到學校對危機事件之處理具有誠意之情形最佳。在追蹤輔導方面,對於危機過後協助師生處理悲傷情緒的情況較佳。
五、不同背景變項之國民小學現職教育人員在危機預防與準備和危機處理之表現上:在危機預防與準備的表現上,以男性教師、學歷較高者、服務年資較長者、擔任學校校長或行政主管者,和中型規模的學校在危機預防與準備上的表現較佳。在危機處理的表現上,以男性教師、學歷較高者、校長或行政主管,及中型規模的學校,在危機處理的表現上較佳。
六、國民小學在危機預防與準備和危機處理的相關上,呈現顯著相關,顯示國民小學在危機預防與準備程度越高者,危機處理的表現越好。
七、國小現職教育人員在校園危機預防與準備得分高分組人員,其校園危機處理之表現優於中分組和低分組人員,而中分組又優於低分組,顯示加強校園危機預防與準備能增進危機處理的表現。
八、國民小學校園危機預防與準備對危機處理的影響上,透過典型相關分析,可知學校危機預防與準備越不講究計畫組織、環境設備、溝通網絡、法律責任、教育訓練,則危機處理在組織運作、領導協調、公共關係、追蹤輔導的表現愈低。
根據前述的研究結論,對教育行政機關、國民小學、教師及未來研究提出建議如下:
一、對教育行政機關之建議
(一)定期舉辦教育人員校園危機預防與準備的研習活動,以增進學校行政人員與教師有關危機預防與準備的必備知識與技能。
(二)逐步建立學校行政業務由專任行政人員擔任之制度。
二、對國民小學之建議
(一)建議國民小學考量學校教育人員背景與學校環境的特性,採行適當的危機預防與準備工作。
(二)適當調整學校教師輪流擔任學校行政工作,以增加教師在危機預防與準備之經驗,並能對學校整體表現有適當之體認。
(三)學校危機預防與準備之工作,能加強法律諮詢的設置,使學校在進行危機管理工作時,更為順暢。
(四)在危機預防與準備上,藉由環境設備的健全,加強校園安全的維護。
三、對教師的建議
(一)資淺教師與學歷較低教師能與有經驗教師互動交流,並多參加研習活動。
(二)教師應對危機管理有較多之體認,能給予學生危機預防與準備的觀念。
四、對未來研究之建議
(一)在研究方法上:以質性研究方式,深入觀察、訪談各校危機管理之實際情形,並分析其成因,與量化研究做一參照,則對此主題當能有更深入之了解。
(二)在研究架構上:未來若從事相關之研究,可在此架構上予以擴充整合。
(三)在研究對象方面:只以台北市之公立國民小學現職教育人員為對象,未來若能增加其他地區之研究對象,則研究結果當更有推論性。
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to discuss the theory and real practice of “Crisis Management”. We took elementary schools as our research samples and investigated the correlation between theory and real practice. Based on this research, we provided suggestions for elementary schools to further employ the “Crisis Management” theory.
This research in mainly based on documentary and questionnaire analyses. Based on the results of documentary analysis, we designed a questionnaire to investigate the performance and effectiveness of elementary schools when employing “Crisis Management” concept. Our following conclusions and recommendations reflected from these statistic result and documentary analysis.
To obtain statistic results, we took 72public elementary schools in the Taipei City as our main samples. We issued 720questionnaires and obtained 554 effective samples from school staffs, including teachers, principals, and administration staffs. Based on the above samples and the software of SPSS for windows 8.0 we ran a series of statistics analysis, including mean, percentage, T-test, ANOVA, MANOVA, canonical etc, to come out with the following conclusions:
1.Concerning crisis prevention and preparation status quo by primary schools, it receives the most acknowledgement and recognition by educational personnel to strengthen environmental equipments to engage in crisis prevention and preparation.
2.In the behavior of five aspects of crisis prevention and preparation by primary schools: in the aspect of planning and organizing, the most is to establish crisis handling team or emergency handling team; the least is to formulate campus forbidden area control method. In the aspect of environmental equipment, the most is to set up monitoring system or alarm system at necessary locations or passages of school, the least is to set up warning sign or locking in campus forbidden area (dead corner). In communication network, the best situation is to set up emergency phone contact network, and the lowest is to keep open and close relationship between the school and news media. In the aspect of legal responsibility, when legal responsibility is involved, it is relatively higher to face legal responsibility bravely, and relatively insufficient in legal consultants or consultation experts in crisis handling. In education and training, it is relatively more in consciousness and action to seek for community resources for providing assistance, and the least to hold teachers’ on-the-job training regularly or irregularly aiming at different crisis situation.
3.Concerning the status quo of crisis handling by primary school, leadership and support receive the most acknowledgement and recognition by educational personnel in crisis handling.
4.For behavior on the four aspects in crisis handling by primary school: in the aspect of organizational operation, the most is that school crisis handling personnel provides proper comfort and assistance to victim’s family. In the aspect of leading association, the most situation is that school principal strives for family forgiveness and support actively when crisis happens. In terms of public relationship, the best situation is that the victim feels sincerity of the school in handling crisis. And in the aspect of tracking counseling and guidance, it is relatively better to assist teachers and students to handle sadness after the crisis.
5.Current primary school educational personnel’s behavior in crisis prevention and preparation, and also crisis handling: in the aspect of crisis prevention and preparation, male teachers, with relatively higher educational background, relatively long service term, as principal or administrational supervisor, and middle-scale schools have relatively better performance in terms of crisis prevention and preparation. In the aspect of crisis handling, male teachers, with relatively higher educational background, principal or administrational supervisor, and middle-scale schools have relatively better performance in crisis handling.
6.The relationship between crisis prevention, preparation and crisis handling by primary schools shows significant correlation, which indicates that the higher primary schools prepare for and prevent crisis, the better their performance in crisis handling.
7.These current primary school educational personnel who received high score in crisis prevention and preparation, their performance in campus crisis handling is better than middle-score and low-score groups, and middle-score group is better than low-score group, which indicates that it can improve crisis handling performance to strengthen campus crisis prevention and preparation.
8.For the influence of primary school campus crisis prevention and preparation on crisis handling, through typical correlated analysis, it can be known that the less particular the school crisis prevention and preparation is in terms of planning and organization, environmental equipment, communication network, legal responsibility, education and training, the lower crisis handling performance is in organizational operation, leadership and coordination, public relationship, tracking and guidance.
According to the above conclusion, we provide following recommendations:
1.Recommendation for educational administration
a.Regularly organize “Crisis Management” seminars for school staffs and help them to employ techniques regarding “Crisis Management”.
b.Establish the systems that fulltime administration staffs gradually run administration work.
2.Recommendation for elementary schools
a.Each school should take its own approach to crisis prevention and preparation on its unique teacher backgrounds and school environment.
b.Properly rotate teachers for administration work in order to enhance teachers’ experiences in crisis prevention and preparation and to have more knowledge on overall school’s performances.
c.Strengthen the establishment of legal consultation, so that it is easier for schools to carry out crisis management.
d.Strengthen maintenance of campus safety through improving environmental equipments.
3.Recommendation for schoolteachers
a.Junior teacher should participate in and interact with teams that have experienced teachers, and often take part in relate seminars and activities.
b.Teachers should have more knowledge on “crisis prevention and preparation” concept and are able to improve their students the correct concept on “crisis prevention and preparation”.
4.Recommendation for future studies
a.Regarding the methodology, use more qualitative analysis to enhance research results and to reprove previous quantitative analysis.
b.Regarding the research structure, find out more characteristics about the crisis concept in order to better understand how crisis management works.
c.Broaden the research subjects in order to have comprehensive understanding on how school works on crisis management.
目 次
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………1
第一節 研究動機與目的………………………………………………1
第二節 研究待答問題………………………………………………………3
第三節 名詞釋議……………………………………………………………4
第四節 研究方法與步驟……………………………………………………5
第五節 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………………7
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………9
第一節 危機管理論述與其涵義之探討……………………………………9
第二節 校園危機管理之內涵探討……………………………………..23
第三節 校園危機管理之運作探討……………………………………….34
第三章 研究設計與實施………………………………………………..57
第一節 研究架構………………………………………………………..57
第二節 研究對象……………………………………………………..59
第三節 研究工具………………………………………………….61
第四節 研究實施………………………………………………………79
第五節 資料處理………………………………………………………..82
第四章 研究結果分析與討論…………………………………………..85
第一節 國民小學校園危機預防與準備現況之分析……………….85
第二節 國民小學校園危機處理現況之分析………………………..92
第三節 不同背景變項之國民小學教師在校園危機預防與準備的差異情形之分析………………….98
第四節 不同背景變項之國民小學教師在校園危機處理的差異情形之分析…………………………109
第五節 國民小學在校園危機預防與準備、校園危機處理之相關分析…118
第六節 國民小學校園危機預防與準備得分低中高在危機處理之得分差異分析…………………120
第七節 國民小學校園危機預防與準備對危機處理之典型相關分析……123
第八節 綜合討論…………………………………………………127
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………139
第一節 結論………………………………………………………………139
第二節 建議………………………………………………………………141
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